Form of Government: Republic
Area: 103 022 sq km
Population: 368 792 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 3.58 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 67° - 63° N; long. 25° - 13° W
Capital: Reykjavík (capital) 132 252 inhab. (2021); Greater Reykjavík 232 280 inhab. (2021), urban agglomeration
Currency: Icelandic króna (100 aurar, no longer used)
Human development index: 0.949 (rank: 4)
President: Guðni Thorlacius Jóhannesson (independent), in office since 1 August 2016, re-elected 27 June 2020
Prime Minister: Katrín Jakobsdóttir (VG), since 30 November 2017
Parliament: seats (July 2021 update): SSF (Independence Party, conservative), 16; VG (Left-Green Movement, ecologist), 9; Centre Party (populist), 9; FSF (Progressive Party, liberal conservative), 8; SF (Social Democratic Alliance), 8; Pirate Party, 7; Reform Party (liberal), 4; People’s Party (populist), 2
Internet: www.statice.is (Statistics Iceland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EFTA, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Iceland

Ísland, Lýðveldið Ísland
Useful information

International license plate code IS
International dialling code 00354
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .is

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Reykjavík 5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Reykjavík 0/11.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Reykjavík 6/0.3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Reykjavík 775
Days of rainfall (annual average) Reykjavík 148

Politics and current affairs

A wave of infections in summer 2021, caused by the Delta variant, led the government to introduce mandatory swab tests for vaccinated or recovered persons on entering the country.

Geography.
An island in the north Atlantic Ocean, about 800 km from Scotland and 300 km from Greenland, Iceland is characterized by being extremely volcanic (with more than 200 volcanoes, many of which active). The landscape also has vast glaciers (the main is Vatnajökull) and lakes.
The climate is rainy along the coasts, extremely cold inland.

Government


Officially an autonomous state since 1918, it remained linked to Denmark through the King until the referendum of 17 June 1944, when it became a parliamentary republic. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for four years, at the same time as the 63 members of the Parliament (Althing). There is no national army; its defence is guaranteed by NATO. The country annulled its EU membership application in March 2015. The legal system is based on Danish law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.3% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 675.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.6per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Reykjavík132 252inhab.2021
Kópavogur36 940inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Reykjavík232 280inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Traditionally very unmixed, in recent years the population of Iceland has seen a significant influx of foreigners, mostly coming from Western Europe.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.42020
Death rate6.32020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total49 391units2020
Poles16 987units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Icelander89.1%2018
Polish4.9%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant67.8%2021
other20$%2021


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Icelandic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years20.3%2020
15-29 years19.9%2020


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Economy


In 2020, the pandemic caused the GDP to fall by 6.6%. The economy, which is expected to recover in 2021 (+3.7%), is still suffering from the uncertainty caused by the pandemic, especially in terms of tourism. The climate is not suited to agriculture. Livestock farming is mainly concerned with sheep farming and animals bred for fur. Fishing (principally of cod and herring) leads the export market and is still one of the main sectors of the economy, contributing, together with the processing industry, to more than 25% of the GDP. The country’s hot springs are extremely important and are used for heating and to generate hydroelectric power which supplies aluminium production plants (at Grundartangi, Straumsvík and Fjardaàl), using imported raw materials. There is also some production of fertilizers and processing ferrosilicon. Diatomite was mined in the thermal region of Lake Mývatn. There are important plants producing fish oil and meal at Seydisfjörður, Akureyri and Siglufjörður. After a rapid growth in the past few years, the tourism sector is experiencing a downsizing, accentuated in 2020-21. The Reykjavík stock-exchange is part of the multinational Nasdaq, Inc.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)125.88index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)106.98index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population205 800units2020
Active population, Females45.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.5%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 091 084.4M LCU2020
Revenues890 418M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.062%2020
industry17.841%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.88%2020
industry22.002%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation81.462BN LCU2020
International reserves6 419.314M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.2%2018
forests0.496%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7.91000 t2019
cereals, total7.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes8.21000 t2019
roots and tubers, total8.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.2761000 t2019
carrots and turnips0.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total0.0231000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.561000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0221000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.0051000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber2 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle80.8721000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes80.8721000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs28$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep415.9491000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1.4711000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total67$1000 heads2019
horses67$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2271000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.4661000 t2018
cheese13.8691000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 099t2019
marine fishes895 640.8t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferrosilicon87$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt4.51000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite25$1000 t2011
pumice1001000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro13 324.41M kWh2019
- other renew.5 937.42M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 0991000 kW2019
- other renew.757.61000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 264.65M kWh2019
total installed capacity2 972.61000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium8401000 t2020
ferroalloys116.91000 t2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley23.91000 t2018
fish, frozen256.51000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1.51000 t2015
paper1.51000 t2015
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1401000 t2013
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production24.814M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production989.713M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products46.758% of goods exports2019
ores and metals35.094% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands925M US$2020
Spain786M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany509M US$2020
Norway498M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 586M US$ -
20195 223M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 698M US$ -
20196 567M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 618M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 013 000units2019
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Communications


Iceland has a good road network, while there are no railways. Air transport plays an important role in maintaining contact with foreign countries.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown29 200 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 6561000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers410.703per 1000 pop.2019
Computers526.7per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.176years2018
Gradautes, percentage45.039%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level32 421units2018
Students, secondary level35 171units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending25.482% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending17.406% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.83per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3.93per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.08%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums138units2018
Museums, visitors2 436 506units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.35% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.5%2020
education1.1%2020
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