Form of Government: Republic
Area: 103 022 sq km
Population: 348 450 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 3.38 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 67° - 63° N; long. 25° - 13° W
Capital: Reykjavík (capital) 124 847 inhab. (2018); Greater Reykjavík 217 711 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Icelandic króna (100 aurar, no longer used)
Human development index: 0.921 (rank: 9)
President: Guðni Thorlacius Jóhannesson (independent), in office since 1 August 2016
Prime Minister: Katrín Jakobsdóttir (VG), since 30 November 2017
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 28 October 2017: SSF (Independence Party, conservative), 16; VG (Left-Green Movement, ecologist), 11; FSF (Progressive Party, liberal conservative), 8; Centre Party (populist), 7; SF (Social Democratic Alliance), 7; Pirate Party, 6; People’s Party (populist), 4; Reform Party (liberal), 4
Internet: www.statice.is (Statistics Iceland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EFTA, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Iceland

Ísland, Lýðveldið Ísland
Useful information

International license plate code IS
International dialling code 00354
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .is

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Reykjavík 5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Reykjavík 0/11.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Reykjavík 6/0.3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Reykjavík 775
Days of rainfall (annual average) Reykjavík 148

Politics and current affairs

New elections took place on 28 October 2017 after the fall of Benediktsson’s government, which was at the centre of a political scandal about the prime minister’s father. The Independence Party (SSF) lost approval, but it remained the top force in the country with 25% of the votes. The real winner was the Green Movement, led by Katrín Jakobsdóttir, the second party with 16%. After the breakdown of negotiations with the other centre-right powers, Jakobsdóttir formed a coalition with SSF and the progressives..

Geography.
An island in the north Atlantic Ocean, about 800 km from Scotland and 300 km from Greenland, Iceland is characterized by being extremely volcanic (with more than 200 volcanoes, many of which active). The landscape also has vast glaciers (the main is Vatnajökull) and lakes.
The climate is rainy along the coasts, extremely cold inland.

Government


Officially an autonomous state since 1918, it remained linked to Denmark through the King until the referendum of 17 June 1944, when it became a parliamentary republic. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for four years, at the same time as the 63 members of the Parliament (Althing). There is no national army; its defence is guaranteed by NATO. The country annulled its EU membership application in March 2015. The legal system is based on Danish law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.2% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 675.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Reykjavík124 847inhab.2018
Kópavogur35 966inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Reykjavík217 711inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Traditionally very unmixed, in recent years the population of Iceland has seen a significant influx of foreigners, mostly coming from Western Europe.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.12016
Death rate6.92016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total30 275units2017
Poles13 795units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Icelander91.1%2017
Polish4.1%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant72.8%2018
other16%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Icelandic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years20.4%2017
15-29 years20.7%2017


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Economy


Economic growth is expected to decline (up to 2.6% in 2019). The climate is not suited to agriculture. Livestock farming is mainly concerned with sheep farming and animals bred for fur. Fishing (principally of cod and herring) leads the export market and is still one of the main sectors of the economy, contributing, together with the processing industry, to more than 25% of the GDP. The country’s hot springs are extremely important and are used for heating and to generate hydroelectric power which supplies aluminium refining plants (at Straumsvík), using imported raw materials. There is also some production of fertilizers and processing ferrosilicon.
Diatomite is mined in the thermal region of Lake Mývatn. There are important plants producing fish oil and meal at Seydisfjörður, Akureyri and Siglufjörður.
The tourism sector is growing rapidly. The Reykjavík stock-exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX Group.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)125.88index2016
Balance of trade-2 105M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population199 300units2017
Active population, Females46.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.8%2017
Unemployment rate, Females50%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses784 014.2M LCU2017
Revenues815 452.7M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.8%2017
industry17.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.8%2016
industry22.4%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation68BN LCU2017
International reserves6 566.2M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.21%2015
forests0.49%2015
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.931000 t2016
roots and tubers, total9.931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.271000 t2016
carrots and turnips0.7781000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total0.0241000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.5851000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.61000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0161000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.0051000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber3 6402016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle79.9231000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes79.9231000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs28.51000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep473.1441000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1.1231000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total721000 heads2016
horses721000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2261000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.11000 t2014
cheese12.061000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs8 337t2016
freshwater fishes0t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferrosilicon791000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt4.51000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite251000 t2011
pumice1001000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro13 541M kWh2015
- other renew.5 013M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 9871000 kW2015
- other renew.6681000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation18 557.76M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 7721000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium8701000 t2017
ferroalloys1151000 t2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley20.21000 t2014
fish, frozen272.21000 t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1.51000 t2015
paper1.51000 t2015
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1401000 t2013
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production57.4M US$2005
food, beverages and tobacco production429M US$2005
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products47.221% of goods exports2016
ores and metals36.366% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands1 234.8M US$2017
Spain653.6M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany735.6M US$2017
Norway632.3M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20174 864.220M US$ -
20164 456.710M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20176 969.493M US$ -
20165 697.635M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 268M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 792 000units2016
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Communications


Iceland has a good road network, while there are no railways. Air transport plays an important role in maintaining contact with foreign countries.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown29 200 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7 242.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers398.698per 1000 pop.2017
Computers526.7per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.3years2015
Gradautes, percentage40.5%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level2 999units2015
Teachers, secondary level3 299units2007
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.1% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending22.8% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.1per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.9per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2011
HIV, total0.08%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums125units2014
Museums, visitors1 927 468units2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.08% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.1%2017
education1.1%2017
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