Form of Government: Republic
Area: 103 022 sq km
Population: 356 991 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 3.47 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 67° - 63° N; long. 25° - 13° W
Capital: Reykjavík (capital) 127 333 inhab. (2019); Greater Reykjavík 222 776 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: Icelandic króna (100 aurar, no longer used)
Human development index: 0.935 (rank: 6)
President: Guðni Thorlacius Jóhannesson (independent), in office since 1 August 2016
Prime Minister: Katrín Jakobsdóttir (VG), since 30 November 2017
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 28 October 2017: SSF (Independence Party, conservative), 16; VG (Left-Green Movement, ecologist), 11; FSF (Progressive Party, liberal conservative), 8; Centre Party (populist), 7; SF (Social Democratic Alliance), 7; Pirate Party, 6; People’s Party (populist), 4; Reform Party (liberal), 4
Internet: www.statice.is (Statistics Iceland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EFTA, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Iceland

Ísland, Lýðveldið Ísland
Useful information

International license plate code IS
International dialling code 00354
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .is

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Reykjavík 5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Reykjavík 0/11.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Reykjavík 6/0.3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Reykjavík 775
Days of rainfall (annual average) Reykjavík 148

Politics and current affairs

Katrín Jakobsdóttir’s government (Left-Green Movement), in coalition with the Independence Party and Progressive Party, must tackle the growing strategic importance of the Artic.

Geography.
An island in the north Atlantic Ocean, about 800 km from Scotland and 300 km from Greenland, Iceland is characterized by being extremely volcanic (with more than 200 volcanoes, many of which active). The landscape also has vast glaciers (the main is Vatnajökull) and lakes.
The climate is rainy along the coasts, extremely cold inland.

Government


Officially an autonomous state since 1918, it remained linked to Denmark through the King until the referendum of 17 June 1944, when it became a parliamentary republic. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for four years, at the same time as the 63 members of the Parliament (Althing). There is no national army; its defence is guaranteed by NATO. The country annulled its EU membership application in March 2015. The legal system is based on Danish law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.2% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes3 675.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.3per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Reykjavík127 333inhab.2019
Kópavogur36 940inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Reykjavík222 776inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Traditionally very unmixed, in recent years the population of Iceland has seen a significant influx of foreigners, mostly coming from Western Europe.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate122017
Death rate6.52017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total37 830units2018
Poles16 987units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Icelander89.1%2018
Polish4.9%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant70.6%2019
other17.9%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Icelandic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years20.4%2018
15-29 years20.5%2018


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Economy


Economic growth is expected to drop to 1.8% in 2019 due to the decline in tourists and the collapse of WOW Air in February 2019.
The climate is not suited to agriculture. Livestock farming is mainly concerned with sheep farming and animals bred for fur. Fishing (principally of cod and herring) leads the export market and is still one of the main sectors of the economy, contributing, together with the processing industry, to more than 25% of the GDP.
The country’s hot springs are extremely important and are used for heating and to generate hydroelectric power which supplies aluminium production plants (at Grundartangi, Straumsvík and Fjardaàl), using imported raw materials. There is also some production of fertilizers and processing ferrosilicon.
Diatomite was mined in the thermal region of Lake Mývatn. There are important plants producing fish oil and meal at Seydisfjörður, Akureyri and Siglufjörður.
After a rapid growth in the past few years, in 2019 the tourism sector has registered a downsizing. The Reykjavík stock-exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX Group.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)125.88index2016
Balance of trade-2 093.3M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population203 900units2018
Active population, Females46.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females33.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses846 048.8M LCU2018
Revenues882 652.3M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4%2018
industry16.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.7%2017
industry22.4%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation72.77BN LCU2018
International reserves6 321.2M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.21%2015
forests0.49%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley7.41000 t2017
cereals, total7.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes91000 t2017
roots and tubers, total91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.291000 t2017
carrots and turnips0.751000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total0.0241000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.581000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.021000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.0051000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle80.8951000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes80.8951000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs28.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep458.6341000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1.31000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total64.6791000 heads2017
horses64.6791000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2301000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.11000 t2014
cheese12.061000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6 085.7t2017
freshwater fishes0t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferrosilicon761000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt4.51000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite251000 t2011
pumice1001000 t2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro13 092M kWh2016
- other renew.5 077M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 9871000 kW2016
- other renew.6681000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation18 171.82M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 7721000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium8701000 t2018
ferroalloys1281000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley20.21000 t2014
fish, frozen256.51000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper1.51000 t2015
paper1.51000 t2015
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1401000 t2013
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production52.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production934.2M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products44.270% of goods exports2018
ores and metals40.998% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Netherlands1 728M US$2018
United Kingdom565M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Norway903M US$2018
China696M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20185 562M US$ -
20174 882M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 655M US$ -
20176 970M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 664M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 225 000units2017
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Communications


Iceland has a good road network, while there are no railways. Air transport plays an important role in maintaining contact with foreign countries.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown29 200 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried7 242.61000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers398.698per 1000 pop.2017
Computers526.7per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.2years2016
Gradautes, percentage42.4%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level2 999units2015
Teachers, secondary level3 299units2007
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending20.1% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending16% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.1per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3.9per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2011
HIV, total0.08%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums125units2014
Museums, visitors1 927 468units2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.1% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.2%2018
education1.1%2018
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