Form of Government: Federal parliamentary republic
Area: 434 128 sq km
Population: 38 274 618 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 88.16 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 29° N; long. 39° - 49° E
Capital: Baghdād 6 811 955 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Iraqi dinar (20 dirhams, 1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.685 (rank: 120)
President: Barham Aḥmad Ṣāliḥ (UPK), since 2 October 2018
Prime Minister: ‘Ādil ‘Abd al-Mahdī (independent), since 25 October 2018
Council of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 12 May 2018: Forward (coalition led by Shia linked to Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr and by the Communist Party), 54; Conquest Alliance (pro-Iranian Shia), 47; Victory Alliance (centrist), 42; PDK (Kurdistan Democratic Party), 25; State of Law Coalition (Shia), 25; National Coalition (secular nationalist), 21; National Wisdom Movement (Shia), 19; PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan), 18; others, 78
Internet: www.cosit.gov.iq/en (Central Statistical Organization)
Member of Arab League, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Iraq

‘Irāq, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Irāqīyah
Useful information

International license plate code IRQ
International dialling code 00964
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .iq

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Baghdād 22.7; Basra 24.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Baghdād 10/34; Basra 13/34.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Baghdād 12/6; Basra 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Baghdād 151; Basra 165
Days of rainfall (annual average) Baghdād 24; Basra 19

Politics and current affairs

The reoccupation of territories controlled by Sunni extremist militias in 2017 was followed by an arbitrary suppression of their alleged supporters, further inciting hate between the various communities.
The rivalries between the two main political groups that emerged from the elections on 12 May 2018 - the alliance led by Shia leader Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr and the pro-Iranian Fatah Alliance (also Conquest Alliance) - have made it difficult to form a government. On 25 October, the independent ‘Ādil ‘Abd al-Mahdī became prime minister.

Geography.
Iraq is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the north-east and to the east by Iran, to the south-east by Kuwait, to the south-west by Saudi Arabia and to the west by Jordan and Syria. To the south-east it lies on the Arabian Gulf. The main part of the country corresponds to Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates, while the Zagros Mountains mark the border with Iran. The area on the Arabian Gulf is one of the hottest on earth.

Government


Formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire, from 1920 Iraq was administered by the United Kingdom on a mandate from the League of Nations. It became an independent monarchy in 1932 and a Republic on 14 July 1958, following a coup d’état carried out by General Karim Kassem.
The Baath nationalist party (supported by the Sunnites) lost its power with a further coup d’état in 1968. Elected as President on 16 July 1979, General Saddam Hussein set up a dictatorship. In September 1980, Iraq declared war on Iran with the intention of conquering the western bank of the Shatt al-Arab; the war ended in 1988 without any territorial gains, but with an exceptionally high number of victims and material damage. On 2 August 1990, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, but were subsequently defeated (26 February 1991) by a large international coalition operating on a UN mandate, but led by the USA. After withdrawal from Kuwait, the country underwent a strong economic downturn on account of the embargo imposed by the UN.
The crisis worsened following the attack of 11 September 2001 which the US administration linked to Iraq.
On 20 March 2003, the USA and the United Kingdom, despite opinion to the contrary expressed by the other members of the UN Security Council (France, China and Russian Federation), embarked on the invasion of the country. War lasted less than a month since the advancement of troops met little resistance on the battlefield. However, almost immediately there was a multiplication of attacks and activity against the occupying troops with the situation turning into something of a civil war. Saddam Hussein, captured in 2003, was tried and then executed in 2006.
In 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was put into force, appointed by the US government. In 2004, the CPA was replaced by the institutions as laid down by the provisional Constitution, and Iraq formally returned to being an independent and sovereign State.
The 2005 elections gave rise to the National Assembly, which drafted a new Federal Constitution, then approved in the 15 October 2005 referendum. The President of the Republic is elected with a majority of two-thirds by the Council of Representatives (formed by 329 members elected by direct suffrage); the Constitution also includes an upper house, but it has never been established. A significant amount of autonomy has been awarded to the governorates and, to an even greater extent, to the Kurdish regions in the northern part of the country.
The US mission in Iraq officially ended on 15 December 2011, and the last group of US soldiers left the country on 18 December. Just a small number of soldiers is still on the ground to finish training the Iraqi army. Approximately 4500 US soldiers have died since the beginning of the war and 35 000 have been injured. The number of deaths among the civilian population and the Iraqi security forces is much higher (more than 100 000 deaths according to some recent estimates; more than 600 000 according to other sources).
Since the beginning of 2014, fundamentalist Sunni militias under the name of the “Islamic State” moved beyond Syria’s borders and conquered numerous cities in Sunni Iraq, including Al-Fallūjah and Ar-Ramādī in January and Kirkūk and Mosul in June, drawing on support from local tribal factions who were already in conflict with the Shiite government. Between 2015 and 2017, a counteroffensive backed by the US-led coalition gradually regained the occupied territories.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.9%2015
Army84.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.9per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baghdād6 811 955inhab.2018
Basra=Al-Baṣrah1 330 400inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baghdād6 811 955inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.82017
Death rate52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab75%2015
Kurd20%2015


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)64%2015
Muslim (Sunni)31%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Kurdish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39%2018
15-29 years27%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)74.91index2016
Balance of trade41 505.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population10 001 993units2018
Active population, Females14.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females22.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses80 873 189M LCU2018
Revenues106 569 834M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.9%2018
industry23.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.3%2017
industry50.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation44 264.5BN LCU2018
International reserves64 561.9M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The most important crops are maize and wheat in the northern regions (Mosul, Arbīl and Kirkūk) and rice in the area of Al-Qādisīyah, Bābil, Maysān and Dhī Qār. The production of dates is important in Lower Mesopotamia. There are forests in the northern regions of Arbīl, Nīnawá, At-Ta’mim and Diyālá.
Livestock and fishing.
Sheep farming is traditionally practiced in the semi-arid areas, though it contributes to the process of desertification.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land12.13%2015
forests1.9%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley303.1141000 t2017
cereals, total3 734.7671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes266.7941000 t2017
roots and tubers, total266.7941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages7.1961000 t2017
carrots and turnips1.641000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.2691000 t2017
beans, green2.0391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes99.4441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives10.2031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4.5881000 t2017
sesame seed3.4211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet41.421000 t2017
sugar cane71000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples47.6261000 t2017
apricots15.0021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4791000 t2017
walnuts1.5651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits82.2971000 t2017
grapefruits0.3461000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates618.8181000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley197.6251000 ha2017
maize52.0121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.8981000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.2921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.1061000 ha2017
beans, green0.391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape5.4741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive2.4171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.3971000 ha2017
sesame seed3.6621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet8.4391000 ha2017
sugar cane0.351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.2611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples50.6091000 ha2017
apricots3.131000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3561000 ha2017
walnuts1.2721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits40.3161000 ha2017
grapefruits0.0471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates365.9081000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber177 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 899.371000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 108.5331000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes209.1631000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6 633.9041000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 282.8561000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses379.3131000 heads2017
asses and mules389.8761000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels78.1961000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds50 0731000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.1021000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.61000 t2014
cheese12.3271000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 319t2017
freshwater fishes59 484t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
The country is among the first in the world for oil reserves. The oil from the area of Kirkūk is transported by oil pipelines to the Mediterranean (to Bāniyās in Syria and to Ceyhan in Turkey).
Other reserves are situated in the area of Baghdād, on the lower section of the River Tigris (at ‘Ayn Zālah and Buṭmah) and in the southern regions (in Majnoon, Zubair and Rumaila). Investments in the oil sector have favoured the development of export infrastructure, in particular to connect the Basra offshore terminals (Mīnā’ al Bakr and Khawr al ‘Amīyah) to inland installations by way of the strategic port of Al Fāw. Further minerals are salt at Al Fāw, phosphates at Akashat and sulfur at Al Mishraq.
Industry.
Most refineries are in Mosul-Al Qayyārah, Kirkūk, Alwand-Khānaqīn, Hadīthah, Baghdād-Daurah and Basra. There are fertilizer production plants at Basra, Al Qayyārah, Al Hindīyah and Al Qā’im.
There is a steel-making plant at Khor al-Zubair (Basra). Further industries include textiles, sugar, paper and cement. Craftwork is widespread (weaving, tanning, silver, copper and iron work).
Foreign trade.
Iraq exports oil, almost exclusively, and imports foods and food-stuffs. China, Turkey, India and the USA are its main trading partners.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas7 814M m³2017
oil, crude230 059.61000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite3.31000 t2010
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.2551000 t2014
clay34 0001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin31000 t2012
limestone7 7601000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal72 059.46M kWh2016
- hydro3 337M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal24 3001000 kW2016
- hydro2 5131000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation75 453.46M kWh2016
total installed capacity27 0901000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1 0001000 t2015
sulfur, total401000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes945no.2016
mopeds183no.2008
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 660no.2009
computers3 515no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen881000 t2016
petrol3 045.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1651000 t2016
caustic soda0.0211000 t2004
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets35.91000 m²2014
cotton fabrics9.87M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear215 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley381000 t2008
coconut oil0.031000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes68M units2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper131000 t2017
paper131000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement10 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production262.7M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production1 321.4M US$2013
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels99.986% of goods exports2016
agricultural raw materials0.009% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201889 355M US$ -
201763 314M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201847 850M US$ -
201751 325M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 027M US$2016
Number of arrivals892 000units2013
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 170.51000 units2017
Merchant fleet80units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.100per 1000 pop.2010
Computers7.6per 1000 pop.2002
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.8years2004
Graduates87 849units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level286 890units2007
Teachers, secondary level148 363units2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.4per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.85per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis42per 100 000 pop.2017
Tuberculosis (prevalence)67per 100 000 pop.2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.04% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.63%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.7%2007
education0.8%2007
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