Form of Government: Federal parliamentary republic
Area: 434 128 sq km
Population: 37 202 572 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 85.70 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 29° N; long. 39° - 49° E
Capital: Baghdād 6 516 400 inhab. (2015), urban agglomeration
Currency: Iraqi dinar (20 dirhams, 1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.649 (rank: 121)
President: Fūād Ma‘ṣūm (PUK), since 24 July 2014
Prime Minister: Ḥaidar al-’Ibādī (Victory Alliance), in office since 8 September 2014
Council of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 12 May 2018: Forward (coalition led by Shia linked to Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr and by the Communist Party), 54; Conquest Alliance (pro-Iranian Shia), 47; Victory Alliance (centrist), 42; PDK (Kurdistan Democratic Party), 25; State of Law Coalition (Shia), 25; National Coalition (secular nationalist), 21; National Wisdom Movement (Shia), 19; PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan), 18; others, 78
Internet: www.cosit.gov.iq/en (Central Statistical Organization)
Member of Arab League, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Iraq

‘Irāq, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Irāqīyah
Useful information

International license plate code IRQ
International dialling code 00964
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .iq

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Baghdād 22.7; Basra 24.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Baghdād 10/34; Basra 13/34.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Baghdād 12/6; Basra 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Baghdād 151; Basra 165
Days of rainfall (annual average) Baghdād 24; Basra 19

Politics and current affairs

The military’s counteroffensive, launched in March 2015 and backed by the US-led coalition, resulted in the final territories controlled by extremist militants being conquered in December 2017. Territories under Kurdish control were also reoccupied, in response to a referendum about Kurdistan’s independence on 25 September 2017. In the elections on 12 May 2018, the alliance led by Shia leader Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr prevailed, whose supporters have organized since 2015 numerous protests against corruption and the division of roles according to party and religious quotas. The centrist coalition of Prime Minister al-’Ibādī was penalized for its immobilism in government action, owing to his resistance to change the delicate political balance and the rivalry with his predecessor Nūrī al-Mālikī.

Geography.
Iraq is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the north-east and to the east by Iran, to the south-east by Kuwait, to the south-west by Saudi Arabia and to the west by Jordan and Syria. To the south-east it lies on the Arabian Gulf. The main part of the country corresponds to Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates, while the Zagros Mountains mark the border with Iran. The area on the Arabian Gulf is one of the hottest on earth.

Government


Formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire, from 1920 Iraq was administered by the United Kingdom on a mandate from the League of Nations. It became an independent monarchy in 1932 and a Republic on 14 July 1958, following a coup d’état carried out by General Karim Kassem.
The Baath nationalist party (supported by the Sunnites) lost its power with a further coup d’état in 1968. Elected as President on 16 July 1979, General Saddam Hussein set up a dictatorship. In September 1980, Iraq declared war on Iran with the intention of conquering the western bank of the Shatt al-Arab; the war ended in 1988 without any territorial gains, but with an exceptionally high number of victims and material damage. On 2 August 1990, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, but were subsequently defeated (26 February 1991) by a large international coalition operating on a UN mandate, but led by the USA. After withdrawal from Kuwait, the country underwent a strong economic downturn on account of the embargo imposed by the UN.
The crisis worsened following the attack of 11 September 2001 which the US administration linked to Iraq.
On 20 March 2003, the USA and the United Kingdom, despite opinion to the contrary expressed by the other members of the UN Security Council (France, China and Russian Federation), embarked on the invasion of the country. War lasted less than a month since the advancement of troops met little resistance on the battlefield. However, almost immediately there was a multiplication of attacks and activity against the occupying troops with the situation turning into something of a civil war. Saddam Hussein, captured in 2003, was tried and then executed in 2006.
In 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was put into force, appointed by the US government. In 2004, the CPA was replaced by the institutions as laid down by the provisional Constitution, and Iraq formally returned to being an independent and sovereign State.
The 2005 elections gave rise to the National Assembly, which drafted a new Federal Constitution, then approved in the 15 October 2005 referendum. The President of the Republic is elected with a majority of two-thirds by the Council of Representatives (formed by 329 members elected by direct suffrage); the Constitution also includes an upper house, but it has never been established. A significant amount of autonomy has been awarded to the governorates and, to an even greater extent, to the Kurdish regions in the northern part of the country.
The US mission in Iraq officially ended on 15 December 2011, and the last group of US soldiers left the country on 18 December. Just a small number of soldiers is still on the ground to finish training the Iraqi army. Approximately 4500 US soldiers have died since the beginning of the war and 35 000 have been injured. The number of deaths among the civilian population and the Iraqi security forces is much higher (more than 100 000 deaths according to some recent estimates; more than 600 000 according to other sources). Since the beginning of 2014, fundamentalist Sunni militias under the name of the “Islamic State” moved beyond Syria’s borders and conquered numerous cities in Sunni Iraq, including Al-Fallūjah and Ar-Ramādī in January and Kirkūk and Mosul in June, drawing on support from local tribal factions who were already in conflict with the Shiite government. The country is now split with Sunnis to the west, Shiites under the control of the government in the southeast, and Kurds to the northeast. Between 2015 and 2017, a counteroffensive backed by the US-led coalition gradually regained the occupied territories.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.9%2015
Army84.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.9per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baghdād6 516 400inhab.2015
Basra=Al-Baṣrah1 330 400inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baghdād6 516 400inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate33.22016
Death rate52016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab65%2000
Kurd23%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)62.5%2010
Muslim (Sunni)34.5%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Kurdish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.5%2017
15-29 years26.9%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)74.91index2016
Balance of trade4 303M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population10 600 965units2017
Active population, Females20.1%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.2%2017
Unemployment rate, Females32.8%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses83 556 226M LCU2014
Revenues105 386 623M LCU2014
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.7%2017
industry19.7%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.1%2016
industry39.8%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation44 236.6BN LCU2017
International reserves48 875.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The most important crops are maize and wheat in the northern regions (Mosul, Arbīl and Kirkūk) and rice in the area of Al-Qādisīyah, Bābil, Maysān and Dhī Qār. The production of dates is important in Lower Mesopotamia. There are forests in the northern regions of Arbīl, Nīnawá, At-Ta’mim and Diyālá.
Livestock and fishing.
Sheep farming is traditionally practiced in the semi-arid areas, though it contributes to the process of desertification.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land12.13%2015
forests1.9%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley499.2221000 t2016
cereals, total4 048.4691000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes190.7021000 t2016
roots and tubers, total190.7021000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages16.1641000 t2016
carrots and turnips2.8641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry41000 t2016
beans, green4.611000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes94.1031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives9.3321000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.7911000 t2016
sesame seed2.3441000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet38.6191000 t2016
sugar cane11.671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton31.1681000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1221000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples44.4951000 t2016
apricots13.8711000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4721000 t2016
walnuts1.6191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits80.9411000 t2016
grapefruits0.2931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates615.2111000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley259.8591000 ha2016
maize66.7381000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes7.7781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.4051000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.4591000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11000 ha2016
beans, green0.7221000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.5161000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive2.2941000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.1251000 ha2016
sesame seed2.6781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet7.5231000 ha2016
sugar cane0.5841000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton11.8631000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.2731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples47.8341000 ha2016
apricots2.9731000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3571000 ha2016
walnuts1.3291000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits37.2961000 ha2016
grapefruits0.0391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates310.2431000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber177 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 120.6671000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes3 322.3091000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes201.6421000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6 604.1851000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 260.4811000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses379.4431000 heads2016
asses and mules390.011000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels72.4081000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds44 7531000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.1021000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.61000 t2014
cheese12.3271000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs430t2016
freshwater fishes50 135t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
The country is rich in oil (holding over a tenth of world reserves, according to estimates). The oil from the area of Kirkūk is transported by oil pipelines to the Mediterranean (to Bāniyās in Syria and to Ceyhan in Turkey).
Other reserves are situated in the area of Baghdād, on the lower section of the River Tigris (at ‘Ayn Zālah and Buṭmah) and in the southern regions (in Majnoon, Zubair and Rumaila). The increase in investments in the oil sector favoured the development of export infrastructure, in particular to connect the Basra offshore terminals (Mīnā’ al Bakr and Khawr al ‘Amīyah) to inland installations by way of the strategic port of Al Fāw. Further minerals are salt at Al Fāw, phosphates at Akashat and sulfur at Al Mishraq.
Industry.
Most refineries are in Mosul-Al Qayyārah, Kirkūk, Alwand-Khānaqīn, Hadīthah, Baghdād-Daurah and Basra. There are fertilizer production plants at Basra, Al Qayyārah, Al Hindīyah and Al Qā’im.
There is a steel-making plant at Khor al-Zubair (Basra). Further industries include textiles, sugar, paper and cement. Craftwork is widespread (weaving, tanning, silver, copper and iron work).
Foreign trade.
Iraq exports oil, almost exclusively, and imports foods and food-stuffs. China, India, Turkey and the USA are its main trading partners.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas7 814M m³2017
oil, crude222 790.11000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite3.31000 t2010
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.2551000 t2014
clay34 0001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin201000 t2011
limestone7 7601000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal62 369M kWh2015
- hydro2 546M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal28 5981000 kW2015
- hydro2 5131000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation64 915M kWh2015
total installed capacity31 3681000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1 0001000 t2015
sulfur, rec.101000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes952no.2015
mopeds183no.2008
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners2 660no.2009
computers3 512no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2761000 t2015
petrol3 045.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1651000 t2016
caustic soda0.0211000 t2004
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets35.91000 m²2014
cotton fabrics9.89M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear220 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley381000 t2008
coconut oil0.031000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes68M units2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper131000 t2016
paper131000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement13 0001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production202.4M US$2011
food, beverages and tobacco production798.1M US$2011
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels99.986% of goods exports2016
agricultural raw materials0.009% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201745 525M US$ -
201643 890M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201741 221.954M US$ -
201638 713M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 027M US$2016
Number of arrivals892 000units2013
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 170.51000 units2017
Merchant fleet80units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.100per 1000 pop.2010
Computers7.6per 1000 pop.2002
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.8years2004
Graduates87 849units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level286 890units2007
Teachers, secondary level148 363units2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.85per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis43per 100 000 pop.2016
Tuberculosis (prevalence)67per 100 000 pop.2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.04% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.63%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.7%2007
education0.8%2007
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