Form of Government: Federal parliamentary republic
Area: 434 128 sq km
Population: 39 309 783 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 90.55 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 29° N; long. 39° - 49° E
Capital: Baghdād 6 811 955 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Iraqi dinar (20 dirhams, 1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.674 (rank: 123)
President: Barham Aḥmad Ṣāliḥ (UPK), since 2 October 2018
Prime Minister: Muṣṭafā al-Kāẓimī (independent), since 9 April 2020
Council of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 12 May 2018: Forward (coalition led by Shia linked to Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr and by the Communist Party), 54; Fatah Alliance (pro-Iranian Shia), 47; Victory Alliance (centrist), 42; PDK (Kurdistan Democratic Party), 25; State of Law Coalition (Shia), 25; National Coalition (secular nationalist), 21; National Wisdom Movement (Shia), 19; PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan), 18; others, 78
Internet: www.cosit.gov.iq/en (Central Statistical Organization)
Member of Arab League, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer
International license plate code IRQ
International dialling code 00964
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .iq
DST not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Baghdād 22.7; Basra 24.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Baghdād 10/34; Basra 13/34.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Baghdād 12/6; Basra 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Baghdād 151; Basra 165
Days of rainfall (annual average) Baghdād 24; Basra 19
Politics and current affairs
The government of Prime Minister al-Kāẓimī was unable to appease the protests, which were exacerbated by the economic crisis, against the political system and the powerful pro-Iranian militia, grouped into the Popular Mobilization Forces. The clashes affected many activists, adding to the climate of political violence.
Iraq is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the north-east and to the east by Iran, to the south-east by Kuwait, to the south-west by Saudi Arabia and to the west by Jordan and Syria.
To the south-east it lies on the Arabian Gulf. The main part of the country corresponds to Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates, while the Zagros Mountains mark the border with Iran. The area on the Arabian Gulf is one of the hottest on earth.
Formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire, from 1920 Iraq was administered by the United Kingdom on a mandate from the League of Nations. It became an independent monarchy in 1932 and a Republic on 14 July 1958, following a coup d’état carried out by General Karim Kassem.
The Baath nationalist party (supported by the Sunnites) lost its power with a further coup d’état in 1968. Elected as President on 16 July 1979, General Saddam Hussein set up a dictatorship. In September 1980, Iraq declared war on Iran with the intention of conquering the western bank of the Shatt al-Arab; the war ended in 1988 without any territorial gains, but with an exceptionally high number of victims and material damage.
On 2 August 1990, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, but were subsequently defeated (26 February 1991) by a large international coalition operating on a UN mandate, but led by the USA. After withdrawal from Kuwait, the country underwent a strong economic downturn on account of the embargo imposed by the UN.
The crisis worsened following the attack of 11 September 2001 which the US administration linked to Iraq.
On 20 March 2003, the USA and the United Kingdom, despite opinion to the contrary expressed by the other members of the UN Security Council (France, China and Russian Federation), embarked on the invasion of the country. War lasted less than a month since the advancement of troops met little resistance on the battlefield. However, almost immediately there was a multiplication of attacks and activity against the occupying troops with the situation turning into something of a civil war. Saddam Hussein, captured in 2003, was tried and then executed in 2006.
In 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was put into force, appointed by the US government. In 2004, the CPA was replaced by the institutions as laid down by the provisional Constitution, and Iraq formally returned to being an independent and sovereign State.
The 2005 elections gave rise to the National Assembly, which drafted a new Federal Constitution, then approved in the 15 October 2005 referendum. The President of the Republic is elected with a majority of two-thirds by the Council of Representatives (formed by 329 members elected by direct suffrage); the Constitution also includes an upper house, but it has never been established. A significant amount of autonomy has been awarded to the governorates and, to an even greater extent, to the Kurdish regions in the northern part of the country.
The US mission in Iraq officially ended on 15 December 2011, and the last group of US soldiers left the country on 18 December. In 2014, new troops were sent to oppose the “Islamic State” militias; in 2020, talks were opened to proceed with the complete withdrawal. Approximately 4500 US soldiers have died since the beginning of the war and 35 000 have been injured. The number of deaths among the civilian population and the Iraqi security forces is much higher (more than 100 000 deaths according to some recent estimates; more than 600 000 according to other sources).
Since the beginning of 2014, fundamentalist Sunni militias under the name of the “Islamic State” moved beyond Syria’s borders and conquered numerous cities in Sunni Iraq, including Al-Fallūjah and Ar-Ramādī in January and Kirkūk and Mosul in June, drawing on support from local tribal factions who were already in conflict with the Shiite government. Between 2015 and 2017, a counteroffensive backed by the US-led coalition gradually regained the occupied territories.
|Homicides||9.9||per 100 000 pop.||2013|
|Baghdād||6 811 955||inhab.||2018|
|Basra=Al-Baṣrah||1 330 400||inhab.||2015|
|Baghdād||6 811 955||inhab.||2018|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||74.91||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||120.11||index||2019|
|Active population||10 356 910||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||13.5||%||2019|
|Unemployment rate, Females||32$||%||2019|
|Expenses||111 723 523||M LCU||2019|
|Revenues||107 566 995||M LCU||2019|
|Currency in circulation||51 834.7||BN LCU||2019|
|International reserves||54 424.473||M US$||2020|
Agriculture and forests.
The most important crops are wheat in the eastern regions, barley in the northern ones and rice in the area of Al-Qādisīyah, An-Najaf and Diyālā. The production of dates is important in lower Mesopotamia. There are forests in the northern regions of Arbīl, Nīnawá, At-Ta’mim and Diyālā.
Livestock and fishing.
Sheep farming is traditionally practiced in the semi-arid areas, though it contributes to the process of desertification.
|barley||1 518.471||1000 t||2019|
|cereals, total||6 913.55||1000 t||2019|
|roots and tubers, total||392.348||1000 t||2019|
|carrots and turnips||3.664||1000 t||2019|
|beans, dry||5.102||1000 t||2019|
|beans, green||4.692||1000 t||2019|
|sesame seed||2.923||1000 t||2019|
|sugar beet||38.041||1000 t||2019|
|sugar cane||10.28||1000 t||2018|
|seed cotton||0.002||1000 t||2019|
|citrus fruits||139.744||1000 t||2019|
|carrots and turnips||0.493||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, dry||0.755||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, green||0.792||1000 ha||2019|
|sesame seed||3.714||1000 ha||2019|
|sugar beet||19.427||1000 ha||2019|
|sugar cane||0.521||1000 ha||2018|
|seed cotton||0.007||1000 ha||2019|
|citrus fruits||101.58||1000 ha||2019|
|cattle||1 978.74||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||2 203.798||1000 heads||2019|
|sheep||6 693.744||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||1 328.802||1000 heads||2019|
|asses and mules||389.645||1000 heads||2019|
|birds||50 068||1000 heads||2019|
|crustaceans and molluscs||1 625||t||2019|
|freshwater fishes||48 232||t||2019|
Secondary and tertiary sector
The country is among the first in the world for oil reserves. The oil from the area of Kirkūk is transported by oil pipelines to the Mediterranean (to Bāniyās in Syria and to Ceyhan in Turkey). Other reserves are situated in the area of Baghdād, on the lower section of the River Tigris (at ‘Ayn Zālah and Buṭmah) and in the southern regions (in Majnoon, Zubair and Rumaila). Investments in the oil sector have favoured the development of export infrastructure, in particular to connect the Basra offshore terminals (Mīnā’ al Bakr and Khawr al ‘Amīyah) to inland installations by way of the strategic port of Al Fāw. Further minerals are salt at Al Fāw, phosphates at Akashat and sulfur at Al Mishraq.
Most refineries are in Mosul-Al Qayyārah, Kirkūk, Alwand-Khānaqīn, Hadīthah, Baghdād-Daurah and Basra. There are fertilizer production plants at Basra, Al Qayyārah, Al Hindīyah and Al Qā’im. There is a steel-making plant at Khor al-Zubair (Basra). Further industries include textiles, sugar, paper and cement. Craftwork is widespread (weaving, tanning, silver, copper and iron work).
Iraq exports oil, almost exclusively, and imports foods and food-stuffs. China, the United Arab Emirates and Turkey are its main trading partners.
|natural gas||10 492.5||M m³||2020|
|oil, crude||204 597.3||1000 t||2020|
|clay||34 000||1000 t||2015|
|limestone||6 500||1000 t||2018|
|- thermal||75 793.14||M kWh||2018|
|- hydro||2 453||M kWh||2019|
|- thermal||30 500||1000 kW||2018|
|- hydro||2 513||1000 kW||2019|
|total net generation||77 649.96||M kWh||2018|
|total installed capacity||33 469||1000 kW||2018|
|steel, crude||1 000||1000 t||2015|
|sulfur, total||40$||1000 t||2018|
|petrol||3 045.5||1000 t||2014|
|nitrogen fertilizers||114.2||1000 t||2019|
|cotton fabrics||9.87||M m²||2016|
|beer of barley||38$||1000 t||2008|
|coconut oil||0.03||1000 t||2014|
|other paper||13$||1000 t||2019|
|cement||10 000||1000 t||2018|
|chemicals production||299.298||M US$||2018|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||946.264||M US$||2018|
|fuels||99.986||% of goods exports||2016|
|agricultural raw materials||0.01||% of goods exports||2016|
|Expenditures||10 925||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||892 000||units||2013|
Social and welfare
|Expected years of schooling||9.8||years||2004|
|Students, primary level||4 864 350||units||2007|
|Students, secondary level||2 037 509||units||2007|
|Hospital beds||1.32||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Physicians||0.71||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|Tuberculosis||41$||per 100 000 pop.||2019|
|Tuberculosis (prevalence)||67$||per 100 000 pop.||2014|
|Research and development spending||0.043||% of GDP||2018|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||99$||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2019|