Form of Government: Federal parliamentary republic
Area: 434 128 sq km
Population: 39 309 783 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 90.55 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 37° - 29° N; long. 39° - 49° E
Capital: Baghdād 6 811 955 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Iraqi dinar (20 dirhams, 1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.674 (rank: 123)
President: Barham Aḥmad Ṣāliḥ (UPK), since 2 October 2018
Prime Minister: Muṣṭafā al-Kāẓimī (independent), since 9 April 2020
Council of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 12 May 2018: Forward (coalition led by Shia linked to Muqtadā aṣ-Ṣadr and by the Communist Party), 54; Fatah Alliance (pro-Iranian Shia), 47; Victory Alliance (centrist), 42; PDK (Kurdistan Democratic Party), 25; State of Law Coalition (Shia), 25; National Coalition (secular nationalist), 21; National Wisdom Movement (Shia), 19; PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan), 18; others, 78
Internet: www.cosit.gov.iq/en (Central Statistical Organization)
Member of Arab League, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO observer

Iraq

‘Irāq, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Irāqīyah
Useful information

International license plate code IRQ
International dialling code 00964
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .iq

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Baghdād 22.7; Basra 24.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Baghdād 10/34; Basra 13/34.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Baghdād 12/6; Basra 11/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Baghdād 151; Basra 165
Days of rainfall (annual average) Baghdād 24; Basra 19

Politics and current affairs

The government of Prime Minister al-Kāẓimī was unable to appease the protests, which were exacerbated by the economic crisis, against the political system and the powerful pro-Iranian militia, grouped into the Popular Mobilization Forces. The clashes affected many activists, adding to the climate of political violence.

Geography.
Iraq is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the north-east and to the east by Iran, to the south-east by Kuwait, to the south-west by Saudi Arabia and to the west by Jordan and Syria.
To the south-east it lies on the Arabian Gulf. The main part of the country corresponds to Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates, while the Zagros Mountains mark the border with Iran. The area on the Arabian Gulf is one of the hottest on earth.

Government


Formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire, from 1920 Iraq was administered by the United Kingdom on a mandate from the League of Nations. It became an independent monarchy in 1932 and a Republic on 14 July 1958, following a coup d’état carried out by General Karim Kassem.
The Baath nationalist party (supported by the Sunnites) lost its power with a further coup d’état in 1968. Elected as President on 16 July 1979, General Saddam Hussein set up a dictatorship. In September 1980, Iraq declared war on Iran with the intention of conquering the western bank of the Shatt al-Arab; the war ended in 1988 without any territorial gains, but with an exceptionally high number of victims and material damage.
On 2 August 1990, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, but were subsequently defeated (26 February 1991) by a large international coalition operating on a UN mandate, but led by the USA. After withdrawal from Kuwait, the country underwent a strong economic downturn on account of the embargo imposed by the UN.
The crisis worsened following the attack of 11 September 2001 which the US administration linked to Iraq.
On 20 March 2003, the USA and the United Kingdom, despite opinion to the contrary expressed by the other members of the UN Security Council (France, China and Russian Federation), embarked on the invasion of the country. War lasted less than a month since the advancement of troops met little resistance on the battlefield. However, almost immediately there was a multiplication of attacks and activity against the occupying troops with the situation turning into something of a civil war. Saddam Hussein, captured in 2003, was tried and then executed in 2006.
In 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was put into force, appointed by the US government. In 2004, the CPA was replaced by the institutions as laid down by the provisional Constitution, and Iraq formally returned to being an independent and sovereign State.
The 2005 elections gave rise to the National Assembly, which drafted a new Federal Constitution, then approved in the 15 October 2005 referendum. The President of the Republic is elected with a majority of two-thirds by the Council of Representatives (formed by 329 members elected by direct suffrage); the Constitution also includes an upper house, but it has never been established. A significant amount of autonomy has been awarded to the governorates and, to an even greater extent, to the Kurdish regions in the northern part of the country.
The US mission in Iraq officially ended on 15 December 2011, and the last group of US soldiers left the country on 18 December. In 2014, new troops were sent to oppose the “Islamic State” militias; in 2020, talks were opened to proceed with the complete withdrawal. Approximately 4500 US soldiers have died since the beginning of the war and 35 000 have been injured. The number of deaths among the civilian population and the Iraqi security forces is much higher (more than 100 000 deaths according to some recent estimates; more than 600 000 according to other sources).
Since the beginning of 2014, fundamentalist Sunni militias under the name of the “Islamic State” moved beyond Syria’s borders and conquered numerous cities in Sunni Iraq, including Al-Fallūjah and Ar-Ramādī in January and Kirkūk and Mosul in June, drawing on support from local tribal factions who were already in conflict with the Shiite government. Between 2015 and 2017, a counteroffensive backed by the US-led coalition gradually regained the occupied territories.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force10.9%2015
Army84.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9.9per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baghdād6 811 955inhab.2018
Basra=Al-Baṣrah1 330 400inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Baghdād6 811 955inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate28.5562019
Death rate4.7362019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab75$%2015
Kurd20$%2015


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Shia)64$%2015
Muslim (Sunni)31$%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Kurdish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years37$%2020
15-29 years27.6%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)74.91index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)120.11index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population10 356 910units2020
Active population, Females13.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate13.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females32$%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses111 723 523M LCU2019
Revenues107 566 995M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.1%2019
industry22.3%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.293%2019
industry51.868%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation51 834.7BN LCU2019
International reserves54 424.473M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The most important crops are wheat in the eastern regions, barley in the northern ones and rice in the area of Al-Qādisīyah, An-Najaf and Diyālā. The production of dates is important in lower Mesopotamia. There are forests in the northern regions of Arbīl, Nīnawá, At-Ta’mim and Diyālā.
Livestock and fishing.
Sheep farming is traditionally practiced in the semi-arid areas, though it contributes to the process of desertification.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land12.093%2018
forests1.9%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 518.4711000 t2019
cereals, total6 913.551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes392.3481000 t2019
roots and tubers, total392.3481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages5.7691000 t2019
carrots and turnips3.6641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.1021000 t2019
beans, green4.6921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes420.4661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives34.5011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4.6261000 t2019
sesame seed2.9231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet38.0411000 t2019
sugar cane10.281000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples75.8311000 t2019
apricots34.7281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4541000 t2019
walnuts1.5391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits139.7441000 t2019
grapefruits0.0631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates639.3151000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley897.2161000 ha2019
maize100.5941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes14.0331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.8181000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.4931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.7551000 ha2019
beans, green0.7921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape27.4411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive9.7211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.3311000 ha2019
sesame seed3.7141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet19.4271000 ha2019
sugar cane0.5211000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.3341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples24$1000 ha2019
apricots6.9921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3091000 ha2019
walnuts1.1211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits101.581000 ha2019
grapefruits0.0121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates438.1911000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber177 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 978.741000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2 203.7981000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes225.0581000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6 693.7441000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 328.8021000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses379.2421000 heads2019
asses and mules389.6451000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels91.1981000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds50 0681000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.1031000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter6.9991000 t2018
cheese17.8041000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 625t2019
freshwater fishes48 232t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector
Minerals.
The country is among the first in the world for oil reserves. The oil from the area of Kirkūk is transported by oil pipelines to the Mediterranean (to Bāniyās in Syria and to Ceyhan in Turkey). Other reserves are situated in the area of Baghdād, on the lower section of the River Tigris (at ‘Ayn Zālah and Buṭmah) and in the southern regions (in Majnoon, Zubair and Rumaila). Investments in the oil sector have favoured the development of export infrastructure, in particular to connect the Basra offshore terminals (Mīnā’ al Bakr and Khawr al ‘Amīyah) to inland installations by way of the strategic port of Al Fāw. Further minerals are salt at Al Fāw, phosphates at Akashat and sulfur at Al Mishraq.
Industry.
Most refineries are in Mosul-Al Qayyārah, Kirkūk, Alwand-Khānaqīn, Hadīthah, Baghdād-Daurah and Basra. There are fertilizer production plants at Basra, Al Qayyārah, Al Hindīyah and Al Qā’im. There is a steel-making plant at Khor al-Zubair (Basra). Further industries include textiles, sugar, paper and cement. Craftwork is widespread (weaving, tanning, silver, copper and iron work).
Foreign trade.
Iraq exports oil, almost exclusively, and imports foods and food-stuffs. China, the United Arab Emirates and Turkey are its main trading partners.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas10 492.5M m³2020
oil, crude204 597.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite3.31000 t2010
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite0.2551000 t2014
clay34 0001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin3$1000 t2012
limestone6 5001000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal75 793.14M kWh2018
- hydro2 453M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal30 5001000 kW2018
- hydro2 5131000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation77 649.96M kWh2018
total installed capacity33 4691000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1 0001000 t2015
sulfur, total40$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes945no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers3 515no.2016
fridges1 642no.2014
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1431000 t2018
petrol3 045.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia95$1000 t2019
nitrogen fertilizers114.21000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets35.91000 m²2014
cotton fabrics9.87M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear215 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley38$1000 t2008
coconut oil0.031000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes68$M units2006
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper13$1000 t2019
paper13$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement10 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production299.298M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production946.264M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels99.986% of goods exports2016
agricultural raw materials0.01% of goods exports2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202039 345M US$ -
201982 309M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202043 297M US$ -
201946 262M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures10 925M US$2019
Number of arrivals892 000units2013
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 717.11000 units2019
Merchant fleet68$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers115.978per 1000 pop.2019
Computers7.6per 1000 pop.2002
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.8years2004
Graduates87 849units2004
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 864 350units2007
Students, secondary level2 037 509units2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.32per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.71per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tuberculosis41$per 100 000 pop.2019
Tuberculosis (prevalence)67$per 100 000 pop.2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.043% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99$%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.7%2007
education0.8%2007
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