Form of Government: Islamic republic
Area: 1 628 792 sq km
Population: 82 084 000 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 50.4 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 40° - 25° N; long. 44° - 63° E
Capital: Tehrān (capital) 8 895 947 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Iranian rial (100 dinars)
Human development index: 0.783 (rank: 70)
President and head of government: Ebrahim Raisi, elected on 18 June 2021, in office since 3 August 2021
Supreme Leader (Rahbar): Mohamad Ali Khamenei, since 3 June 1989
Islamic Consultative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 21 February 2020: Conservatives, 221; Reformists, 20; independents, 33; religious minorities, 5; undecided seats, 11
Internet: www.amar.org.ir (Statistical Centre of Iran)
Member of OIC, OPEC, SCO observer, UN, WTO observer

Iran

Īrān, Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
Useful information

International license plate code IR
International dialling code 0098
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ir

GMT  +3.30
DST  +4.30
DST duration (start-end) early Spring-early Autumn

Annual average temperature (°C) Teheran 17.1; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 26.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Teheran 3/30.5; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 17.5/34
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Teheran 11.5/5.5; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 10/7.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Teheran 227; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 176
Days of rainfall (annual average) Teheran 40; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 12

Politics and current affairs

Former head of judicial power and conservative candidate Ebrahim Raisi won the presidential elections held on 18 June 2021. The Guardian Council excluded the main reformist candidates from the vote. Abstention was high due to general discontent and the difficult economic predicament. The Natanz nuclear plant was damaged on 11 April 2021 as part of a long series of Israeli attacks both on Iran and on Iranian interests abroad. After the US presidential change, talks began in Vienna in April 2021 to revitalize the 2015 agreement on restricting the Iranian nuclear programme.

Geography.
Iran is bordered to the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the west by Iraq and Turkey. It lies on the Caspian Sea to the north and on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south. There is a considerable contrast between the outlying mountain chains (the Elburz and the Zagros) and the inland areas that are made up of a large rocky depression with no outlet to the sea, alternating with large salty expanses, saline steppes and sandy desert areas (such as the Dasht-e Kavīr).
The climate is continental on the upper plains; on the coasts the winters are warm and the summers are hot.

Government


The monarchy, particularly under Shah Pahlavi who ruled from 1941 and was supported by the USA, encouraged the country’s modernisation. In January 1979, however, the Shah was forced into exile by a popular revolt led by the Ayatollah Khomeini; in the referendum of 30 March 1979 Iran was transformed into an Islamic Republic, proclaiming itself defender of the destitute masses of Islam fighting against the “Great Satan” (the USA) and its ally (Israel). In the period 1980-88, Iran was involved in a long war against Iraq which ended with neither side having won or been defeated, but with an exceptionally high number of victims (more than a million dead) as well as material damage. The presidential elections in 1997 and the parliamentary elections 2000 paved the way to the government of the moderate Mohammad Khatami. The “reformist spring” ended in 2005 with the ultra-conservative Mahmoud Ahmadinejad winning the presidential elections. He was re-elected in 2009, but defeated in 2013 by Hassan Rouhani, a reformist backed by former presidents Rafsanjani and Khatami. The development of the Iranian civil nuclear programme, opposed by Israel and the USA, slowed down considerably following the agreement signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015, which in exchange provided for the economic sanctions to be slackened, but this was rejected in 2018 by the USA’s new administration.
The 2 December 1979 Constitution ratified the subordination of the State to Shia religious authority. As a result, the supreme head of the state is the Rahbar, the religious leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts (86 theologians elected by the people for a term of eight years); he presides over the Guardian Council of the Constitution (6 members appointed by him and 6 elected by the Islamic Assembly), who controls the laws and the organs of the State, including the President of the Republic. The latter, also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of four years and may be re-elected only once. The legislative organ is the Islamic Assembly, made up of 290 members elected for a term of four years; the candidates must have the approval of the Guardian Council.


Defence & justice.
Apart from the armed forces, there is the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran), that controls the Basij, a body of volunteers who may mobilise in cases of emergency. The judicial system is based on Islamic (sharia) law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.7%2015
Army66.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tehrān8 895 947inhab.2018
Mashhad3 001 184inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.422019
Death rate4.8422019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Persian34.9%2000
other16$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim99.6%2016
other0.2%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Farsi (Persian)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.1%2020
15-29 years22.3%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The 2021 recovery from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic was limited by the economic impact of sanctions imposed by the USA and the low revenues of the oil sector, with the rial depreciating and prices rising. Unemployment and company debt remain high.
H. Rouhani’s administration reviewed the inefficient system of subsidies, replaced by direct support for the poorer classes, allowing for public accounts to be improved, though this caused widespread anger. Most production activities are under the control of religious foundations (Bonyad), which keep the prices of consumer goods controlled, and by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)110.07index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)95.57index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population26 813 681units2020
Active population, Females19.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females31.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 429 400M LCU2017-18
Revenues1 675 700M LCU2017-18
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.9%2019
industry30.6%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.786%2019
industry34.637%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 852 300BN LCU2018-19
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agricultural production does not satisfy domestic needs due to the scarcity of water, the lack of technologies in the water sector and the excessive fragmentation of land ownership. Wheat and barley are grown mainly in the northern provinces; maize in Fārs, Khūzestān and Kermānshāh; rice in Gīlān and Māzandarān; sugar beet in Khūzestān, in the oasis of Eṣfahān and in the areas of Yazd, Tehrān and Kermān; vegetables and fruit, destined for export, on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Tea production is significant (the national drink) in Gīlān and Māzandarān. Iran is the largest producer of pistachios in the world (especially in Rafsanjān area). Cotton, the main industrial crop, is widespread in the provinces of Khorā-sān-e Raẕavī, Golestān and Fārs. Wooded areas are scarce (the Caspian slopes of the Elburz mountains, the mountain chains of Kordestān and Lorestān).
Spontaneous floral production includes tragacanth and Asafoetida.
Livestock and fishing.
Sheep are numerous and produce the finest of skins (Karakul, Persian). Oceanic fishing is important (tuna, oily fish), as is sturgeon fishing developed along the coasts of the Caspian Sea, from whose eggs caviar is produced (prepared in Bandar-e Anzalī); aquaculture is also relevant (carp, trout, crustaceans).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.116%2018
forests6.586%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 6001000 t2019
cereals, total23 812.4311000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3 483.3871000 t2019
roots and tubers, total3 483.3871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes19.4511000 t2019
asparagus25.6961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry122.7891000 t2019
beans, green67.6931000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 945.931000 t2019
raisins145.51000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives101.3551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.1111000 t2019
groundnuts16.3861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0051000 t2019
tea90.8321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet5 297.0631000 t2019
sugar cane9 284.9421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton105.6731000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0091000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.2051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2 241.1241000 t2019
apricots329.6381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds177.0151000 t2019
hazelnuts16.1211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 073.0671000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes619.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas138.6471000 t2019
dates1 307.9081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms101.3651000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 161.2191000 ha2019
maize204.3051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes104.1921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.9711000 ha2019
cabbages7.1681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry60.0271000 ha2019
beans, green7.7271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape155.2031000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive33.9221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0571000 ha2019
groundnuts3.0921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0071000 ha2019
tea16.2291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet78.9991000 ha2019
sugar cane113.151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton43.2981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0781000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.1971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples100.7591000 ha2019
apricots56.091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds79.5971000 ha2019
hazelnuts18.4721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits143.461000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes26.2941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas4.7951000 ha2019
dates160.1171000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber446 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 193.9191000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 266.3531000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes72.4341000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep41 303.6111000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats15 034.4871000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 533.731000 heads2019
asses and mules1 712.3971000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels137.2591000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 095 9901000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey75.4631000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.91000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter194.21000 t2018
cheese307.7861000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs71 615t2019
freshwater fishes289 500t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Iran is one of the world’s greatest producers of oil. The main deposits are at Masjed-e Soleymān, Haftgel, Gachsārān, Āghājārī, Naft Sefīd, Ahvāz, Kūpāl, Mārūn, Bībī Hakīmeh, Kāranj, Bīnak and Manṣūrī, connected by oil pipelines to the refinery of Ābādān. There are also significant offshore deposits at Doroud, Soroush, Ras Bahrgān and Salmān as well as oil wells in Naft Shahr, along the border areas with Iraq (at Khānaqīn), which are connected by oil pipeline to the refinery in Kermānshāh. There are further deposits in Resālat, Reshadat and Salmān, connected by three oil pipelines to the island of Lāvān; a further undersea oil pipeline, 44 km in length, connects the island of Khārk to Gonāveh, on the mainland. Iran has vast natural gas reserves both offshore (North and South Pars fields) and on the mainland: the main extraction plants are in Gorgān, Sarājeh, Rāmshīr, Dālān, Aghar, Kangān, Nar, Varāvī, Lāmard, Sūrū and Sarkhūn. There are, moreover, rich deposits of copper (in Cheshmeh and Bīrjand); coalmines (in Kermān, Māzandarān, Semnān and Ṭabas), iron (in Kermān and Yazd), lead (in Nakhlak, Shāh Kūh and Angūrān), zinc (at Yazd, Eṣfahān and Qom), chromite (at Mīnāb, Forūmad and Esfandaqeh), bauxite (in Jājarm), sulfur (in Bandar ‘Abbās) and uranium mines (in Yazd).
Energy and industry.
The most important nuclear plants and research centres are in Naṭanz, Arāk, Eṣfahān, Būshehr and Fordow. Large oil refineries are located at Ābādān, Arāk, Bandar ‘Abbās, Eṣfahān, Kermānshāh, Lavan, Shīrāz, Tehrān and Tabrīz; the petrol produced, however, is less than domestic requirements. Among the chemical plants those worthy of note are those involved in the production of sulfuric acid, caustic soda and nitrogenous fertilizers in Ābādān, Karaj, Tehrān and Shīrāz. The iron and steel industry is centred on Eṣfahān and Ahvāz; there are also plants involved in aluminium production (in Arāk), foundry copper, refined copper and lead. The automotive industry is very developed (Kāshān, Mashhad, Semnān, Tabrīz,Tehrān). The woollen textile industry is important (in Eṣfahān, Tehrān, Kermān, Yazd and Qazvīn) as well as the cotton industry (in Qā’emshahr, Semnān, Tehrān, Qazvīn, Eṣfahān, Mashhad, Shīrāz, Yazd and Bandar ‘Abbās). Carpet-making is renowned, for the most part produced with modern systems (at Tabrīz, Kermān, Eṣfahān and Shīrāz). Cement-making is also important (with over 80 plants), as are the rubber and glass (in Tehrān, Sāveh, Tabrīz and Qazvīn), leather and hide (in Mashhad, Tehrān, Tabrīz and Hamadan), sugar (in Karaj, Varāmīn-Tehrān, Marv Dasht-Shīrāz, Eslamābād, Arāk, Torbat-e Heydarīyeh, Miāndowāb and Mashhad) industries.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1 7781000 t2020
coal, total1 7781000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.51000 t2020
bauxite8001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite2001000 t2020
bentonite3601000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin7901000 t2020
pumice1 5001000 t2012
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 700kg2018
precious stones - kg21 000kg2015
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.111000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal269 694.46M kWh2019
- hydro30 071.25M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal64 8291000 kW2018
- hydro11 1301000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation306 297.71M kWh2019
total installed capacity78 349.561000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2501000 t2019
aluminium3601000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars826 210no.2020
commercial vehicles54 787no.2020
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
radios477 263no.2015
TVs1 214 436no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4 6621000 t2018
petrol20 420.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3 5001000 t2020
nitrogen fertilizers1 826.61000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets33 2561000 m²2015
fabrics - m244 0001000 metres2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley70$1000 t2018
cottonseed oil9.51000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes13 110M units2015
cigars and cigarettes13 110M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp75$1000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp2091000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement60 0001000 t2020
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production9 388.064M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production4 830.737M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Economic sanctions and low oil prices have becalmed the country’s balance of payments. Imports are made up of machinery, petrol, military supplies, food products, steel, metal and pharmaceutical products. Intensive exports to China and imports from the United Arab Emirates, through which the embargo is partly circumvented.


Main exports (M US$ - 2016) 
crude oil and petroleum products 50 710, natural gas 5 296, plastics and articles thereof 4 940, chemicals 4 705, iron and steel 2 999, fruit and vegetables 2 872, metal ores 1 103, fertilizers 790


Finance and banking.
All banking institutions, even those that are private and foreign, are subject to Islamic law, which forbids interest. The uncertain application of the law has led to a significant accumulation of bad debt.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels68.678% of goods exports2018
manufactures21.866% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China9 218M US$2018
Iraq8 961M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 249M US$2018
United Arab Emirates5 706M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202054 243M US$ -
201965 718M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202038 758M US$ -
201941 828M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. There are numerous centres of archaeological worth, especially at Eṣfahān, Yazd, Tabrīz, Susa and Persepolis.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures11 928M US$2017
Number of arrivals9 107 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The Tehrān-Qom-Eṣfahān high-speed railway line is under construction

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown91 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried21 641.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers105.788per 1000 pop.2019
Computers106per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.

Elementary education is obligatory and free; secondary schools are divided into two cycles of 4 and 3 years. The literacy gap between men and women has diminished considerably: indeed, at the higher levels of education the number of female students has overtaken that of the males.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.814years2017
Graduates798 736units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level8 171 667units2017
Students, secondary level5 684 238units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending37.3% of total expenses2009
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2$per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.58per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.03%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums139units2012-13
Museums, visitors7 064 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.83% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking96.5%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing6$%2005-06
education2.5%2005-06
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