Form of Government: Islamic republic
Area: 1 628 792 sq km
Population: 81 162 788 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 49.83 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 40° - 25° N; long. 44° - 63° E
Capital: Tehrān (capital) 8 895 947 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Iranian rial (100 dinars)
Human development index: 0.798 (rank: 60)
President and head of government: Hassan Rouhani, elected on 14 June 2013, in office since 3 August 2013, reconfirmed on 19 May 2017
Supreme Leader (Rahbar): Mohamad Ali Khamenei, since 3 June 1989
Islamic Consultative Assembly: seats based on the elections of 26 February and 29 April 2016: List of Hope (reformist coalition), 121; Principlists Grand Coalition (conservatives), 83; People's Voice (moderate conservatives), 11; independents, 65; religious minorities, 5; others, 5
Internet: www.amar.org.ir (Statistical Centre of Iran)
Member of OIC, OPEC, SCO observer, UN, WTO observer

Iran

Īrān, Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
Useful information

International license plate code IR
International dialling code 0098
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ir

GMT  +3.30
DST  +4.30
DST duration (start-end) early Spring-early Autumn

Annual average temperature (°C) Teheran 17.1; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 26.9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Teheran 3/30.5; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 17.5/34
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Teheran 11.5/5.5; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 10/7.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Teheran 227; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 176
Days of rainfall (annual average) Teheran 40; Bandar-e ‘Abbas 12

Politics and current affairs

The reintroduction of economic sanctions on the part of the USA, begun in August 2018, had serious repercussions on Iran’s economy, leading to a sharp devaluation of the rial and an increase in prices. This fed into public protests over the high cost of living, unemployment, corruption and the country’s involvement in the conflicts in Syria and Iraq. Terrorist attacks by extremist groups have rendered the situation even more unstable.

Geography.
Iran is bordered to the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the west by Iraq and Turkey. It lies on the Caspian Sea to the north and on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south. There is a considerable contrast between the outlying mountain chains (the Elburz and the Zagros) and the inland areas that are made up of a large rocky depression with no outlet to the sea, alternating with large salty expanses, saline steppes and sandy desert areas (such as the Dasht-e Kavīr).
The climate is continental on the upper plains; on the coasts the winters are warm and the summers are hot.

Government


The monarchy, particularly under Shah Pahlavi who ruled from 1941 and was supported by the USA, encouraged the country’s modernisation. In January 1979, however, the Shah was forced into exile by a popular revolt led by the Ayatollah Khomeini; in the referendum of 30 March 1979 Iran was transformed into an Islamic Republic, proclaiming itself defender of the destitute masses of Islam fighting against the “Great Satan” (the USA) and its ally (Israel). In the period 1980-88, Iran was involved in a long war against Iraq which ended with neither side having won or been defeated, but with an exceptionally high number of victims (more than a million dead) as well as material damage. The presidential elections in 1997 and the parliamentary elections 2000 paved the way to the government of the moderate Mohammad Khatami. The “reformist spring” ended in 2005 with the ultra-conservative Mahmoud Ahmadinejad winning the presidential elections. He was re-elected in 2009, but defeated in 2013 by Hassan Rouhani, a reformist backed by former presidents Rafsanjani and Khatami. The development of the Iranian civil nuclear programme, opposed by Israel and the USA, slowed down considerably following the agreement signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015, which in exchange provides for the economic sanctions to be slackened, but this was rejected in 2018 by the USA’s new administration.
The 2 December 1979 Constitution ratified the subordination of the State to Shia religious authority. As a result, the supreme head of the state is the Rahbar, the religious leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts (86 theologians elected by the people for a term of eight years); he presides over the Guardian Council of the Constitution (6 members appointed by him and 6 elected by the Islamic Assembly), who controls the laws and the organs of the State, including the President of the Republic. The latter, also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of four years and may be re-elected only once. The legislative organ is the Islamic Assembly, made up of 290 members elected for a term of four years; the candidates must have the approval of the Guardian Council.


Defence and justice.
Apart from the armed forces, there is the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran), that controls the Basij, a body of volunteers who may mobilise in cases of emergency. The judicial system is based on Islamic (sharia) law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.7%2015
Army66.9%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.1per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tehrān8 895 947inhab.2018
Mashhad3 001 184inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.92017
Death rate4.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Persian34.9%2000
other16%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim99.6%2016
other0.2%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Farsi (Persian)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.2%2018
15-29 years24.2%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The sanctions imposed by the USA in 2018 led to a drop in revenue in the oil industry, which also affected banks and the maritime industry and limited the inflow of foreign currency. This resulted in a rapid depreciation of the rial and a rise in prices. Unemployment and the debts of companies continue to be high. H. Rouhani’s administration reviewed the inefficient system of subsidies, replaced by direct support for the poorer classes, allowing for public accounts to be improved, though this caused widespread anger. Most production activities are under the control of religious foundations (Bonyad), which keep the prices of consumer goods controlled, and by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)110.07index2016
Balance of trade58 546M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population27 580 400units2018
Active population, Females19%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12%2018
Unemployment rate, Females31.8%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 429 400M LCU2017-18
Revenues1 675 700M LCU2017-18
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.4%2018
industry32%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.6%2017
industry35.3%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 946 700BN LCU2017-18
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agricultural production does not satisfy domestic needs due to the scarcity of water, the lack of technologies in the water sector and the excessive fragmentation of land ownership. Wheat, barley and rice are grown in the north-western provinces, in Khūzestān and Golestān; sugar beet in Khūzestān, in the oasis of Eṣfahān and in the areas of Yazd, Tehrān and Kermān; vegetables and fruit, destined for export, on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Tea production is significant (the national drink) in Gīlān and Māzandarān. Iran is the largest producer of pistachios in the world (especially in Rafsanjān area). Cotton, the main industrial crop, is widespread in the provinces of Māzandarān, Golestān, Khorā-sān-e Raẕavī and Kermānshāh. Wooded areas are scarce (the Caspian slopes of the Elburz mountains, the mountain chains of Kordestān and Lorestān). Spontaneous floral production includes tragacanth and Asafoetida.
Livestock and fishing.
Sheep are numerous and produce the finest of skins (Karakul, Persian). Oceanic fishing is important (tuna, oily fish), as is sturgeon fishing developed along the coasts of the Caspian Sea, from whose eggs caviar is produced (prepared in Bandar-e Anzalī); aquaculture is also relevant (carp, trout, crustaceans).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.12%2015
forests6.56%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 1001000 t2017
cereals, total20 980.9421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5 102.3421000 t2017
roots and tubers, total5 102.3421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes17.7971000 t2017
asparagus16.1761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry225.6251000 t2017
beans, green61.6761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 866.341000 t2017
raisins145.51000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives79.3571000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.1421000 t2017
groundnuts14.851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0051000 t2017
tea100.581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet5 839.9381000 t2017
sugar cane7 561.7031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton156.1771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.2041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2 096.7491000 t2017
apricots239.7121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds111.8451000 t2017
hazelnuts15.6451000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3 351.0581000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes615.2811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas132.9261000 t2017
dates1 185.1651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms76.8931000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 6001000 ha2017
maize174.0331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes160.9021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.9111000 ha2017
cabbages6.9791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry108.4721000 ha2017
beans, green6.9961000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape141.9141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive71.2791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0851000 ha2017
groundnuts3.2841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0071000 ha2017
tea15.8481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet106.4461000 ha2017
sugar cane93.6541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton68.4951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.2741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hempseed0.1981000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples119.5281000 ha2017
apricots11.5471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds50.8561000 ha2017
hazelnuts17.5891000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits154.6431000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes26.5611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas4.561000 ha2017
dates169.7931000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber446 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 879.3631000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes5 006.1281000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes126.7651000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep40 029.6871000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats15 711.0841000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses1 531.0791000 heads2017
asses and mules1 708.4471000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels141.0521000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 034 7051000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey761000 t2014
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.91000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter165.8641000 t2014
cheese241.1251000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs50 112t2017
freshwater fishes268 186t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Iran is one of the world’s greatest producers of oil. The main deposits are at Masjed-e Soleymān, Haftgel, Gachsārān, Āghājārī, Naft Sefīd, Ahvāz, Kūpāl, Mārūn, Bībī Hakīmeh, Kāranj, Bīnak and Manṣūrī, connected by oil pipelines to the refinery of Ābādān. There are also significant offshore deposits at Doroud, Soroush, Ras Bahrgān and Salmān as well as oil wells in Naft Shahr, along the border areas with Iraq (at Khānaqīn), which are connected by oil pipeline to the refinery in Kermānshāh. There are further deposits in Resālat, Reshadat and Salmān, connected by three oil pipelines to the island of Lāvān; a further undersea oil pipeline, 44 km in length, connects the island of Khārk to Gonāveh, on the mainland. Iran has vast natural gas reserves both offshore (North and South Pars fields) and on the mainland: the main extraction plants are in Gorgān, Sarājeh, Rāmshīr, Dālān, Aghar, Kangān, Nar, Varāvī, Lāmard, Sūrū and Sarkhūn.
There are, moreover, rich deposits of copper (in Cheshmeh and Bīrjand); coalmines (in Kermān, Māzandarān, Semnān and Ṭabas), iron (in Kermān and Yazd), lead (in Nakhlak, Shāh Kūh and Angūrān), zinc (at Yazd, Eṣfahān and Qom), chromite (at Mīnāb, Forūmad and Esfandaqeh), bauxite (in Jājarm), sulfur (in Bandar ‘Abbās) and uranium mines (in Yazd). The most important nuclear plants and research centres are in Naṭanz, Arāk, Eṣfahān and Būshehr.
Energy and industry.
Large oil refineries are located at Ābādān, Arāk, Bandar ‘Abbās, Eṣfahān, Kermānshāh, Lavan, Shīrāz, Tehrān and Tabrīz; the petrol produced, however, is less than domestic requirements. Among the chemical plants those worthy of note are those involved in the production of sulfuric acid, caustic soda and nitrogenous fertilizers in Ābādān, Karaj, Tehrān and Shīrāz.
The iron and steel industry is centred on Eṣfahān and Ahvāz; there are also plants involved in aluminium production (in Arāk), foundry copper, refined copper and lead. The automotive industry is very developed (Kāshān, Mashhad, Semnān, Tabrīz,Tehrān). The woollen textile industry is important (in Eṣfahān, Tehrān, Kermān, Yazd and Qazvīn) as well as the cotton industry (in Qā’emshahr, Semnān, Tehrān, Qazvīn, Eṣfahān, Mashhad, Shīrāz, Yazd and Bandar ‘Abbās).
Carpet-making is renowned, for the most part produced with modern systems (at Tabrīz, Kermān, Eṣfahān and Shīrāz).
Cement-making is also important (with over 80 plants), as are the rubber and glass (in Tehrān, Sāveh, Tabrīz and Qazvīn), leather and hide (in Mashhad, Tehrān, Tabrīz and Hamadan), sugar (in Karaj, Varāmīn-Tehrān, Marv Dasht-Shīrāz, Eslamābād, Arāk, Torbat-e Heydarīyeh, Miāndowāb and Mashhad) industries.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal1 393.81000 t2018
coal, total1 393.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.31000 t2018
bauxite5001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite5501000 t2018
bentonite4401000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite6001000 t2011
kaolin7901000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 500kg2016
precious stones - kg21 000kg2015
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic0.111000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal249 828.5M kWh2016
- hydro16 257M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal64 6351000 kW2016
- hydro10 7701000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation272 287.5M kWh2016
total installed capacity77 6021000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2501000 t2016
aluminium3401000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes151 700no.2009
cars1 027 313no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 638 200no.2009
fridges896 000no.2009
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4 8371000 t2016
petrol20 420.91000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 6001000 t2018
caustic soda1 158.41000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets33 2561000 m²2015
cotton fabrics - m19.8M m2008
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear27 185 400pairs2009
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cottonseed oil15.81000 t2014
fish, preserved18.91000 t2015
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes13 110M units2015
cigars and cigarettes13 110M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2091000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp2091000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement53 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production13 313.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production5 496.6M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.

Despite the sanctions, until 2018 the balance of trade remained in surplus. Imports are made up of machinery, petrol, military supplies, food products, steel, metal and pharmaceutical products. Intensive exports to China (Iran is a main oil supplier) and imports from the United Arab Emirates, through which the embargo is partly circumvented.


Main exports (M US$ - 2016) crude oil and petroleum products 50 710, natural gas 5 296, plastics and articles thereof 4 940, chemicals 4 705, iron and steel 2 999, fruit and vegetables 2 872, metal ores 1 103, fertilizers 790


Finance and banking.
All banking institutions, even those that are private and foreign, are subject to Islamic law, which forbids interest. The uncertain application of the law has led to a significant accumulation of bad debt.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels70.778% of goods exports2017
manufactures19.681% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China9 218M US$2018
Iraq8 961M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China10 249M US$2018
United Arab Emirates5 706M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018107 900M US$ -
201792 764M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201849 354M US$ -
201749 499M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. There are numerous centres of archaeological worth, especially at Eṣfahān, Yazd, Tabrīz, Susa and Persepolis.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures9 893M US$2016
Number of arrivals4 867 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown91 400 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried19 282.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers123.920per 1000 pop.2017
Computers106per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.

Elementary education is obligatory and free; secondary schools are divided into two cycles of 4 and 3 years. The literacy gap between men and women has diminished considerably: indeed, at the higher levels of education the number of female students has overtaken that of the males.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.9years2016
Graduates859 697units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level286 476units2017
Teachers, secondary level299 031units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending37.3% of total expenses2009
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.5per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians1.5per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.03%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums139units2012-13
Museums, visitors8 360 000units2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking98.49%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing6%2005-06
education2.5%2005-06
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