Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 916 907 sq km
Population: 270 203 917 inhab. (census 2020)
Density: 140.96 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 6° N - 11° S; long. 94° - 141° E
Capital: Jakarta (capital) 10 562 088 inhab. (2020); Jabodetabek 35 362 000 inhab. (2020), metropolitan area; Jakarta 10 562 088 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Indonesian rupiah (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.718 (rank: 107)
President and head of government: Joko Widodo (PDI-P), elected on 9 July 2014, in office since 20 October 2014, reconfirmed 17 April 2019
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 April 2019: PDI-P (Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle), 128; Golkar (Party of the Functional Groups, military), 85; Gerindra (Great Indonesia Movement Party, military), 78; Nasdem Party (national democrats), 59; PKB (National Awakening Party, moderate Islamic), 58; PD (Democratic Party), 54; PKS (Prosperous Justice Party, conservative), 50; PAN (National Mandate Party, moderate Islamic), 44; PPP (United Development Party, Islamic), 19
Internet: www.bps.go.id (Statistics Indonesia)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OIC, UN, WTO
International license plate code RI
International dialling code 0062
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .id
GMT Jakarta +7; Banjarmasin +8; Ambon +9
DST Jakarta not applied; Banjarmasin not applied; Ambon not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Jakarta 26.7; Medan 26.5; Pontianak 27.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Jakarta 26/27; Medan 25.5/27; Pontianak 27/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Jakarta 7/5; Medan 7/6; Pontianak 7/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Jakarta 1795; Medan 2030; Pontianak 3170
Days of rainfall (annual average) Jakarta 125; Medan 126; Pontianak 184
Politics and current affairs
The approval of a law (5 October 2020) to encourage investments by simplifying labour laws resulted in a long series of protest rallies, in which the social malaise emerged about the economic slump caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Indonesia is bordered by Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north and extends across an arch of islands between south-eastern Asia and Oceania. It marks the conventional border between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The following are part of Indonesia: the Celebes (Sulawesi), the Moluccas (Maluku), the Lesser Sunda Islands, Java, Sumatra, most of Borneo (Kalimantan) and the western part of the island of New Guinea. The southern groups of islands are the upper parts of large mountain chains that have emerged from the sea: Sumatra culminates in Mount Kerinci, 3800 m and Java in Mount Semeru, 3676 m. There are over a hundred active volcanoes (with strong activity of the volcano Sinabung since 2010). The climate is equatorial.
Formerly a Dutch colony, Indonesia became a republic on 17 August 1945. It gained complete independence in 1949 following the withdrawal of Dutch troops. The first President of the Republic, Ahmed Sukarno, after having united the country, set up a regime that was characterised by state intervention in the economy and non-alignment in foreign policy.
On 30 September 1965, following a coup d’état, power was taken by the army headed by Mohamed Suharto (proclaimed President in 1967 and several times re-elected up until 1998); the Communist Party was outlawed and the subsequent repression caused hundreds of thousands of victims.
In 1999, a process of democratic transition began: after President Abdurrahman Wahid was removed from office for corruption in 2001, Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of former President Sukarno, took his place.
In 2002, after a 24-year struggle for liberation, the former Portuguese colony of East Timor, unilaterally annexed by Indonesia in 1976, gained independence. The GAM (Movement for Free Aceh) laid down its arms following the 2005 peace agreement. The influence of integralist Islam has been spreading, and the state has been monitoring groups with links to global terrorism (Jemaah Islamiyah in particular). In Papua, the separatist Free Papua Movement is active. Between 1999 and 2001 a bloody civil war was fought between the Christian and Muslim communities in the Moluccas, where the situation remains tense.
On the basis of the 1945 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years; the Chamber of Representatives, with 575 members, is supported by a Council of Regional Representatives (136 members), both elected for five years.
On 1 April 1999, a police force was set up in order to replace the army in functions related to public order.
The judicial system is based on Dutch law, with local influences.
|Jakarta||10 562 088||inhab.||2020|
|Surabaya||2 765 487||inhab.||2010|
|Jabodetabek (metropolitan area)||35 362 000||inhab.||2020|
|Jakarta||10 562 088||inhab.||2020|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
The population is made up of approximately 300 different races, sub-divided into two large groups: Proto-Malay (to which belong peoples with primitive social and economic forms of organisation, such as the Dayaks and the Muruts in Borneo) and Deuter-Malays (of Muslim religion and Malay language).
|Bahasa Indonesia (official)|
The pandemic interrupted a decade of strong annual growth in GDP, primarily driven by domestic demand. The loss of jobs, however, has not helped an economy that was already struggling to provide enough employment for the influx of workers from new generations. In an attempt to prop up the economy, the executive branch has borrowed to fund a support plan for businesses, subsidies for low-income families and financial aid for the public health sector. In 2021, the growth rate turned positive.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||143.08||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||116.69||index||2019|
|Active population||134 615 733||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||39.3||%||2019|
|Unemployment rate, Females||38.2||%||2019|
|Expenses||2 124 411 532||M LCU||2019|
|Revenues||2 259 032 743||M LCU||2019|
|Currency in circulation||898 870.169||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||135 915.918||M US$||2020|
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture is practised intensively above all on the island of Java: the main crop is rice, followed by cassava, maize and sweet potatoes. The more commercially-oriented crops include palm oil (Borneo and Sumatra), sugar cane (Java), natural rubber, coconut palm, bananas, tea (western Java), coffee (eastern Java) and cocoa. Forests are often threatened by fires (set alight by farmers in order to gain fertile land) and excessive deforestation, which is also illegal.
Livestock and fishing.
Cattle-farming is significant, carried out in Bali and the less populated islands; buffaloes, sheep and also pigs are widespread (even though most of the population is Muslim).
Fishing is a primary source of food for the population; it is not only carried out in coastal areas (mackerel, sardines, tuna, shellfish and molluscs), but also in rivers and lakes (carp). Fish-farming is also developed (groupers and seaweeds). Large profits are also derived from the concession of fishing licences to foreign fleets.
|cereals, total||85 297.388||1000 t||2019|
|maize||30 693.355||1000 t||2019|
|cassava||14 586.693||1000 t||2019|
|potatoes||1 314.654||1000 t||2019|
|cabbages||1 413.059||1000 t||2019|
|carrots and turnips||698.88||1000 t||2019|
|beans, dry||161.624||1000 t||2019|
|beans, green||948.285||1000 t||2019|
|castor oil seed||1.718||1000 t||2019|
|oil palm fruits||245 633.087||1000 t||2019|
|coconuts||17 128.595||1000 t||2019|
|copra||1 310||1000 t||2006|
|sugar cane||29 100||1000 t||2019|
|seed cotton||0.311||1000 t||2019|
|fruits, total||21 453.166||1000 t||2019|
|cashew nuts||134.183||1000 t||2019|
|citrus fruits||2 563.485||1000 t||2019|
|oranges||2 563.485||1000 t||2019|
|bananas||7 280.659||1000 t||2019|
|maize||5 644.775||1000 ha||2019|
|rice||10 677.887||1000 ha||2019|
|carrots and turnips||42.895||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, dry||177.101||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, green||122.121||1000 ha||2019|
|castor oil seed||4.138||1000 ha||2019|
|oil palm fruit||14 677.56||1000 ha||2019|
|coconuts||2 800||1000 ha||2019|
|sugar cane||443.569||1000 ha||2019|
|seed cotton||4.208||1000 ha||2019|
|cashew nuts||496.331||1000 ha||2019|
|citrus fruits||67.904||1000 ha||2019|
|natural rubber||3 448 782||t||2019|
|timber||123 756 739||m³||2019|
|cattle||17 118.65||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||18 259.948||1000 heads||2019|
|buffaloes||1 141.298||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||8 922.654||1000 heads||2019|
|sheep||17 794.344||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||18 975.955||1000 heads||2019|
|equines, total||393.454||1000 heads||2019|
|birds||3 786 534||1000 heads||2019|
|silk, raw||0.12||1000 t||2018|
|condensed milk||20 922||t||2018|
|eggs||5 135.412||1000 t||2019|
|crustaceans and molluscs||1 887 010||t||2019|
|freshwater fishes||4 285 835||t||2019|
Oil reserves are constantly diminishing and the country, after returning in January 2016, withdrew from OPEC in December of the same year. In Borneo there are the oil wells at Tarakan and Bunyu and those more to the south at Attaka, Semberak, Sanga-Sanga, Handjl, Badak, Samboja and Tanjung. In Sumatra there are oil wells at Jambi, Talang Akar, Limau, Raja and Muraraenim (in the south), with oil pipelines that transport crude oil to Plaju (the river port of Palembang); in the central part of the island there are the oil wells at Minas and Duri, connected by oil pipeline to the refinery of Dumai, and other oil wells at Lirik; in the north the fields at Perlak and Rantau are both exploited. Natural gas is extracted in Arun, Gajah, Musi, Ogan (Sumatra) and in Bintuni Bay (West Papua). Coal mining in Borneo (southern and eastern Kalimantan) and in southern Sumatra is important. There are rich deposits of tin on the islands of Riau, Singkep, Bangka and Belitung; one of the largest copper mines in the world is at Tembagapura (Papua). Bauxite is mined on the islands of Tembeling, Kelong, Dendang and Bintan; nickel in the Celebes; gold and silver at Lebong Tandai and Meulaboh (Sumatra) and at Citondang (Java).
Heavy industry includes oil refineries in Borneo (Balikpapan), in Sumatra (Dumai, Sungaigerong, Palembang, Pangkalanbrandan), in Java (Balongan, Cepu, Cilacap) and in Papua (Kasim); there are also gas liquefaction plants (Arun, Bontang, Bintuni Bay), chemical factories (Palembang, Cilacap), steel and metal-working plants (Kualatanjung, Pematangsiantar) and many cement factories. The automotive industry is concentrated in the metro region of Jakarta and in Surabaya. There are shipyards in Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang and Amboin, and aeronautical construction facilities in Bandung. Geothermal electricity production is significant. Cotton-weaving is highly important with centres in Cilacap and Semarang. Tyres are produced at Bogor and Palembang, paper at Blabak and cigarettes at Yogyakarta.
|coal||506 351.7||1000 t||2019|
|coal, total||562 530||1000 t||2020|
|bauxite||23 000||1000 t||2020|
|granite||4 000||1000 t||2016|
|kaolin||1 400||1000 t||2019|
|diamonds, gemstones and industrial||37$||1000 ct||2014|
|- thermal||233 471.56||M kWh||2019|
|- other renew.||26 714||M kWh||2019|
|- thermal||57 134||1000 kW||2018|
|- hydro||5 031||1000 kW||2019|
|total net generation||281 134.95||M kWh||2019|
|total installed capacity||65 885.74||1000 kW||2018|
|alumina||1 000||1000 t||2020|
|bikes||2 064 000||no.||2002|
|petrol||14 174.7||1000 t||2014|
|ammonia||5 000||1000 t||2020|
|nitrogen fertilizers||4 137.7||1000 t||2019|
|carpets||11 348||1000 m²||2002|
|cotton yarn||309.4||1000 t||2001|
|footwear||306 761 000||pairs||2002|
|beer of barley||222||1000 t||2018|
|coconut oil||880.3||1000 t||2018|
|chemical pulp||7 807||1000 t||2019|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||8 084||1000 t||2019|
|cement||73 000||1000 t||2020|
|chemicals production||25 331.575||M US$||2017|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||54 808.977||M US$||2017|
Indonesia mainly imports hydrocarbons and machinery.
(M US$ - 2017) coal and its products 21 126, palm oil 18 513, natural gas 8 861, electric and electronic equipment 8 467, apparel and accessories 7 882, chemicals 7 830, crude oil and petroleum products 6 159, machinery 5 873, gold and precious stones 5 608, natural rubber 5 105, footwear 4 912, iron and steel 4 417, fish and crustaceans 4 202, timber 4 004
Finance and banking.
Bank Indonesia carries out the functions of a central bank. There is a Stock Exchange in Jakarta.
|manufactures||46.291||% of goods exports||2019|
|fuels||20.338||% of goods exports||2019|
|China||31 775||M US$||2020|
|United States||18 666||M US$||2020|
|China||39 634||M US$||2020|
|Singapore||12 341||M US$||2020|
Tourism. It is mainly focused on the islands of Java and Bali.
|Expenditures||14 462||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||15 455 000||units||2019|
A high-speed railway line between Jakarta and Bandung is under construction.
|Civil aviation, km flown||263 000 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||91 323.2||1000 units||2019|
|Broadband subscribers||38.002||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|Computers||20.3||per 1000 pop.||2008|
Social and welfare
|Expected years of schooling||13.607||years||2018|
|Students, primary level||29 425 748||units||2018|
|Students, secondary level||24 893 570||units||2018|
|Social protection spending||7.972||% of total expenses||2019|
|Hospital beds||1.04||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Physicians||0.36||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|HIV||0.4||% of adults||2018|
|Research and development spending||0.226||% of GDP||2018|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||82.4||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||98.85||%||2019|