Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 916 907 sq km
Population: 270 203 917 inhab. (census 2020)
Density: 140.96 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 6° N - 11° S; long. 94° - 141° E
Capital: Jakarta (capital) 10 562 088 inhab. (2020); Jabodetabek 35 362 000 inhab. (2020), metropolitan area; Jakarta 10 562 088 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Indonesian rupiah (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.718 (rank: 107)
President and head of government: Joko Widodo (PDI-P), elected on 9 July 2014, in office since 20 October 2014, reconfirmed 17 April 2019
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 April 2019: PDI-P (Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle), 128; Golkar (Party of the Functional Groups, military), 85; Gerindra (Great Indonesia Movement Party, military), 78; Nasdem Party (national democrats), 59; PKB (National Awakening Party, moderate Islamic), 58; PD (Democratic Party), 54; PKS (Prosperous Justice Party, conservative), 50; PAN (National Mandate Party, moderate Islamic), 44; PPP (United Development Party, Islamic), 19
Internet: www.bps.go.id (Statistics Indonesia)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OIC, UN, WTO

Indonesia

Indonesia, Republik Indonesia
Useful information

International license plate code RI
International dialling code 0062
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .id

GMT Jakarta +7; Banjarmasin +8; Ambon +9
DST Jakarta not applied; Banjarmasin not applied; Ambon not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Jakarta 26.7; Medan 26.5; Pontianak 27.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Jakarta 26/27; Medan 25.5/27; Pontianak 27/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Jakarta 7/5; Medan 7/6; Pontianak 7/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Jakarta 1795; Medan 2030; Pontianak 3170
Days of rainfall (annual average) Jakarta 125; Medan 126; Pontianak 184

Politics and current affairs

The approval of a law (5 October 2020) to encourage investments by simplifying labour laws resulted in a long series of protest rallies, in which the social malaise emerged about the economic slump caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Geography.
Indonesia is bordered by Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north and extends across an arch of islands between south-eastern Asia and Oceania. It marks the conventional border between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The following are part of Indonesia: the Celebes (Sulawesi), the Moluccas (Maluku), the Lesser Sunda Islands, Java, Sumatra, most of Borneo (Kalimantan) and the western part of the island of New Guinea. The southern groups of islands are the upper parts of large mountain chains that have emerged from the sea: Sumatra culminates in Mount Kerinci, 3800 m and Java in Mount Semeru, 3676 m. There are over a hundred active volcanoes (with strong activity of the volcano Sinabung since 2010). The climate is equatorial.

Government


Formerly a Dutch colony, Indonesia became a republic on 17 August 1945. It gained complete independence in 1949 following the withdrawal of Dutch troops. The first President of the Republic, Ahmed Sukarno, after having united the country, set up a regime that was characterised by state intervention in the economy and non-alignment in foreign policy.
On 30 September 1965, following a coup d’état, power was taken by the army headed by Mohamed Suharto (proclaimed President in 1967 and several times re-elected up until 1998); the Communist Party was outlawed and the subsequent repression caused hundreds of thousands of victims.
In 1999, a process of democratic transition began: after President Abdurrahman Wahid was removed from office for corruption in 2001, Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of former President Sukarno, took his place.
In 2002, after a 24-year struggle for liberation, the former Portuguese colony of East Timor, unilaterally annexed by Indonesia in 1976, gained independence. The GAM (Movement for Free Aceh) laid down its arms following the 2005 peace agreement. The influence of integralist Islam has been spreading, and the state has been monitoring groups with links to global terrorism (Jemaah Islamiyah in particular). In Papua, the separatist Free Papua Movement is active. Between 1999 and 2001 a bloody civil war was fought between the Christian and Muslim communities in the Moluccas, where the situation remains tense.
On the basis of the 1945 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years; the Chamber of Representatives, with 575 members, is supported by a Council of Regional Representatives (136 members), both elected for five years.


Defence.
On 1 April 1999, a police force was set up in order to replace the army in functions related to public order.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on Dutch law, with local influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force7.6%2015
Army76$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes103per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jakarta10 562 088inhab.2020
Surabaya2 765 487inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jabodetabek (metropolitan area)35 362 000inhab.2020
Jakarta10 562 088inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population is made up of approximately 300 different races, sub-divided into two large groups: Proto-Malay (to which belong peoples with primitive social and economic forms of organisation, such as the Dayaks and the Muruts in Borneo) and Deuter-Malays (of Muslim religion and Malay language).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.72019
Death rate6.52019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Javanese40.2%2010
other34.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim86.7%2018
Protestant7.6%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bahasa Indonesia (official)
Javanese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.5%2020
15-29 years24$%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The pandemic interrupted a decade of strong annual growth in GDP, primarily driven by domestic demand. The loss of jobs, however, has not helped an economy that was already struggling to provide enough employment for the influx of workers from new generations. In an attempt to prop up the economy, the executive branch has borrowed to fund a support plan for businesses, subsidies for low-income families and financial aid for the public health sector. In 2021, the growth rate turned positive.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.08index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)116.69index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population134 615 733units2020
Active population, Females39.3%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females38.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 124 411 532M LCU2019
Revenues2 259 032 743M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.479%2020
industry21.566%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.262%2019
industry40.617%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation898 870.169BN LCU2020
International reserves135 915.918M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture is practised intensively above all on the island of Java: the main crop is rice, followed by cassava, maize and sweet potatoes. The more commercially-oriented crops include palm oil (Borneo and Sumatra), sugar cane (Java), natural rubber, coconut palm, bananas, tea (western Java), coffee (eastern Java) and cocoa. Forests are often threatened by fires (set alight by farmers in order to gain fertile land) and excessive deforestation, which is also illegal.
Livestock and fishing.
Cattle-farming is significant, carried out in Bali and the less populated islands; buffaloes, sheep and also pigs are widespread (even though most of the population is Muslim).
Fishing is a primary source of food for the population; it is not only carried out in coastal areas (mackerel, sardines, tuna, shellfish and molluscs), but also in rivers and lakes (carp). Fish-farming is also developed (groupers and seaweeds). Large profits are also derived from the concession of fishing licences to foreign fleets.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land27.323%2018
forests49.717%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total85 297.3881000 t2019
maize30 693.3551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava14 586.6931000 t2019
potatoes1 314.6541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1 413.0591000 t2019
carrots and turnips698.881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry161.6241000 t2019
beans, green948.2851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.7181000 t2019
groundnuts276.4521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits245 633.0871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts17 128.5951000 t2019
copra1 3101000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon89.6571000 t2019
cloves134.7921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane29 1001000 t2019
tobacco197.251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.3111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.3941000 t2014
sisal0.3661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total21 453.1661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts134.1831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 563.4851000 t2019
oranges2 563.4851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados461.6131000 t2019
bananas7 280.6591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms33.1631000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize5 644.7751000 ha2019
rice10 677.8871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava640.5261000 ha2019
potatoes68.2231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages64.9911000 ha2019
carrots and turnips42.8951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry177.1011000 ha2019
beans, green122.1211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed4.1381000 ha2019
groundnuts267.2951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit14 677.561000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2 8001000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon116.1761000 ha2019
cloves569.4161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane443.5691000 ha2019
tobacco204.7981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton4.2081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.3491000 ha2014
sisal0.3261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts496.3311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits67.9041000 ha2019
oranges67.9041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados35.1361000 ha2019
bananas132.2141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.4621000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber3 448 782t2019
timber123 756 7392019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle17 118.651000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes18 259.9481000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 141.2981000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs8 922.6541000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep17 794.3441000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats18 975.9551000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total393.4541000 heads2019
horses393.4541000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3 786 5341000 heads2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.121000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk20 922t2018
eggs5 135.4121000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs1 887 010t2019
freshwater fishes4 285 835t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Oil reserves are constantly diminishing and the country, after returning in January 2016, withdrew from OPEC in December of the same year. In Borneo there are the oil wells at Tarakan and Bunyu and those more to the south at Attaka, Semberak, Sanga-Sanga, Handjl, Badak, Samboja and Tanjung. In Sumatra there are oil wells at Jambi, Talang Akar, Limau, Raja and Muraraenim (in the south), with oil pipelines that transport crude oil to Plaju (the river port of Palembang); in the central part of the island there are the oil wells at Minas and Duri, connected by oil pipeline to the refinery of Dumai, and other oil wells at Lirik; in the north the fields at Perlak and Rantau are both exploited. Natural gas is extracted in Arun, Gajah, Musi, Ogan (Sumatra) and in Bintuni Bay (West Papua). Coal mining in Borneo (southern and eastern Kalimantan) and in southern Sumatra is important. There are rich deposits of tin on the islands of Riau, Singkep, Bangka and Belitung; one of the largest copper mines in the world is at Tembagapura (Papua). Bauxite is mined on the islands of Tembeling, Kelong, Dendang and Bintan; nickel in the Celebes; gold and silver at Lebong Tandai and Meulaboh (Sumatra) and at Citondang (Java).
Industry.
Heavy industry includes oil refineries in Borneo (Balikpapan), in Sumatra (Dumai, Sungaigerong, Palembang, Pangkalanbrandan), in Java (Balongan, Cepu, Cilacap) and in Papua (Kasim); there are also gas liquefaction plants (Arun, Bontang, Bintuni Bay), chemical factories (Palembang, Cilacap), steel and metal-working plants (Kualatanjung, Pematangsiantar) and many cement factories. The automotive industry is concentrated in the metro region of Jakarta and in Surabaya. There are shipyards in Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang and Amboin, and aeronautical construction facilities in Bandung. Geothermal electricity production is significant. Cotton-weaving is highly important with centres in Cilacap and Semarang. Tyres are produced at Bogor and Palembang, paper at Blabak and cigarettes at Yogyakarta.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal506 351.71000 t2019
coal, total562 5301000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite23 0001000 t2020
chromite5.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite6$1000 t2019
feldspar18$1000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite4 0001000 t2016
kaolin1 4001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds7$1000 ct2014
diamonds, gemstones and industrial37$1000 ct2014
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine40$t2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal233 471.56M kWh2019
- other renew.26 714M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal57 1341000 kW2018
- hydro5 0311000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation281 134.95M kWh2019
total installed capacity65 885.741000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 0001000 t2020
aluminium2401000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes2 064 000no.2002
cars551 400no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1641000 t2018
petrol14 174.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia5 0001000 t2020
nitrogen fertilizers4 137.71000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets11 3481000 m²2002
cotton yarn309.41000 t2001
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear306 761 000pairs2002
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2221000 t2018
coconut oil880.31000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco79 112t2002
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp7 8071000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp8 0841000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement73 0001000 t2020
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production25 331.575M US$2017
food, beverages and tobacco production54 808.977M US$2017
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Indonesia mainly imports hydrocarbons and machinery.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
coal and its products 21 126, palm oil 18 513, natural gas 8 861, electric and electronic equipment 8 467, apparel and accessories 7 882, chemicals 7 830, crude oil and petroleum products 6 159, machinery 5 873, gold and precious stones 5 608, natural rubber 5 105, footwear 4 912, iron and steel 4 417, fish and crustaceans 4 202, timber 4 004


Finance and banking.
Bank Indonesia carries out the functions of a central bank. There is a Stock Exchange in Jakarta.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures46.291% of goods exports2019
fuels20.338% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China31 775M US$2020
United States18 666M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China39 634M US$2020
Singapore12 341M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020163 307M US$ -
2019167 683M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020141 622M US$ -
2019171 276M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is mainly focused on the islands of Java and Bali.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures14 462M US$2019
Number of arrivals15 455 000units2019
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Communications


A high-speed railway line between Jakarta and Bandung is under construction.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown263 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried91 323.21000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers38.002per 1000 pop.2019
Computers20.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.607years2018
Gradautes, percentage11.858%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level29 425 748units2018
Students, secondary level24 893 570units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending7.972% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.04per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.36per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2018
Malaria250 644cases2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.226% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking82.4%2019
Access to electricity98.85%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.9%2015
education3.4%2015
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