Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 916 862 sq km
Population: 265 015 300 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 138.26 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 6° N - 11° S; long. 94° - 141° E
Capital: Jakarta (capital) 10 467 600 inhab. (2018); Jabodetabek 31 689 600 inhab. (2015), metropolitan area; Jakarta 10 467 600 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Indonesian rupiah (100 sen)
Human development index: 0.694 (rank: 116)
President and head of government: Joko Widodo (PDI-P), elected on 9 July 2014, in office since 20 October 2014, reconfirmed 17 April 2019
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 17 April 2019: PDI-P (Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle), 128; Golkar (Party of the Functional Groups, military), 85; Gerindra (Great Indonesia Movement Party, military), 78; Nasdem Party (national democrats), 59; PKB (National Awakening Party, moderate Islamic), 58; PD (Democratic Party), 54; PKS (Prosperous Justice Party, conservative), 50; PAN (National Mandate Party, moderate Islamic), 44; PPP (United Development Party, Islamic), 19
Internet: www.bps.go.id (Statistics Indonesia)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OIC, UN, WTO

Indonesia

Indonesia, Republik Indonesia
Useful information

International license plate code RI
International dialling code 0062
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side left
Internet code .id

GMT Jakarta +7; Banjarmasin +8; Ambon +9
DST Jakarta not applied; Banjarmasin not applied; Ambon not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Jakarta 26.7; Medan 26.5; Pontianak 27.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Jakarta 26/27; Medan 25.5/27; Pontianak 27/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Jakarta 7/5; Medan 7/6; Pontianak 7/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Jakarta 1795; Medan 2030; Pontianak 3170
Days of rainfall (annual average) Jakarta 125; Medan 126; Pontianak 184

Politics and current affairs

President J. Widodo (PDI-P) was reappointed for a second term in the general elections of 17 April 2019, in which he obtained 55.5% of the votes, against 44.5% of the former general Prabowo Subianto (Gerindra).

Geography.
Indonesia is bordered by Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north and extends across an arch of islands between south-eastern Asia and Oceania. It marks the conventional border between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The following are part of Indonesia: the Celebes (Sulawesi), the Moluccas (Maluku), the Lesser Sunda Islands, Java, Sumatra, most of Borneo (Kalimantan) and the western part of the island of New Guinea. The southern groups of islands are the upper parts of large mountain chains that have emerged from the sea: Sumatra culminates in Mount Kerinci, 3800 m and Java in Mount Semeru, 3676 m. There are over a hundred active volcanoes (with strong activity of the volcano Sinabung since 2010). The climate is equatorial.

Government


Formerly a Dutch colony, Indonesia became a republic on 17 August 1945. It gained complete independence in 1949 following the withdrawal of Dutch troops. The first President of the Republic, Ahmed Sukarno, after having united the country, set up a regime that was characterised by state intervention in the economy and non-alignment in foreign policy.
On 30 September 1965, following a coup d’état, power was taken by the army headed by Mohamed Suharto (proclaimed President in 1967 and several times re-elected up until 1998); the Communist Party was outlawed and the subsequent repression caused hundreds of thousands of victims.
In 1999, a process of democratic transition began: after President Abdurrahman Wahid was removed from office for corruption in 2001, Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of former President Sukarno, took his place.
In 2002, after a 24-year struggle for liberation, the former Portuguese colony of East Timor, unilaterally annexed by Indonesia in 1976, gained independence. The GAM (Movement for Free Aceh) laid down its arms following the 2005 peace agreement. The country has been the target of numerous terrorist attacks by Islamic fundamentalist groups (in particular Jemaah Islamiyah), linked to international terrorism. In Papua, the separatist Free Papua Movement is active. Between 1999 and 2001 a bloody civil war was fought between the Christian and Muslim communities in the Moluccas, where the situation remains tense.
On the basis of the 1945 Constitution, amended several times, the President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years; the Chamber of Representatives, with 575 members, is supported by a Council of Regional Representatives (136 members), both elected for five years.


Defence.
On 1 April 1999, a police force was set up in order to replace the army in functions related to public order.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on Dutch law, with local influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force7.6%2015
Army76%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes129per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides0.5per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jakarta10 467 600inhab.2018
Surabaya2 765 487inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Jabodetabek (metropolitan area)31 689 600inhab.2015
Jakarta10 467 600inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population is made up of approximately 300 different races, sub-divided into two large groups: Proto-Malay (to which belong peoples with primitive social and economic forms of organisation, such as the Dayaks and the Muruts in Borneo) and Deuter-Malays (of Muslim religion and Malay language).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.62017
Death rate7.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Javanese40.2%2010
other34.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim87.2%2010
Protestant7%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bahasa Indonesia (official)
Javanese
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years24.6%2018
15-29 years24.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Despite maintaining a good annual increase, mainly due to the increase in domestic demand, growth is not sufficient for creating enough work placements to meet the younger generations’ demands for employment opportunities. In order to kick-start the economy, the cabinet allowed for foreign capital to be invested in many industries needed to support the ambitious plan for investments in infrastructure, especially in the energy sector. The revised policy of generalized subsidies freed up resources that could be used for more direct social actions. To contain workers’ protests, minimum pay in some areas of the country were increased in 2018.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)143.08index2016
Balance of trade-8 496.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population130 710 566units2018
Active population, Females38.9%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females37.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 790 435 098M LCU2017
Revenues1 944 654 310M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture30.5%2018
industry22%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture13.7%2017
industry41%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation749 167.3BN LCU2018
International reserves120 661M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
Agriculture is practised intensively above all on the island of Java: the main crop is rice, followed by cassava, maize and sweet potatoes. The more commercially-oriented crops include palm oil, sugar cane (Java), natural rubber, coconut palm, bananas, tea (western Java), coffee (eastern Java) and cocoa. Forests are often threatened by fires (set alight by farmers in order to gain fertile land) and excessive deforestation, which is also illegal.
Livestock and fishing.
Cattle-farming is significant, carried out in Bali and the less populated islands; buffaloes, sheep and also pigs are widespread (even though most of the population is Muslim).
Fishing is a primary source of food for the population; it is not only carried out in coastal areas (mackerel, sardines, tuna, shellfish and molluscs), but also in rivers and lakes (carp). Fish-farming is also developed (groupers and seaweeds). Large profits are also derived from the concession of fishing licences to foreign fleets.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land25.39%2015
forests50.24%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total109 3341000 t2017
maize27 9521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava19 0461000 t2017
potatoes1 164.7431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1 442.6311000 t2017
carrots and turnips559.7691000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2441000 t2017
beans, green915.5911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.6961000 t2017
groundnuts4801000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits158 343.0621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts18 983.3781000 t2017
copra1 3101000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon87.131000 t2017
cloves123.7731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane21 212.951000 t2017
tobacco152.3191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute3.3941000 t2014
sisal0.371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total19 518.51000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts131.6851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2 295.3251000 t2017
oranges2 295.3251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados363.1571000 t2017
bananas7 162.6851000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms37.021000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize5 3751000 ha2017
rice15 7881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava7791000 ha2017
potatoes75.6111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages90.8381000 ha2017
carrots and turnips33.7061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2071000 ha2017
beans, green120.9331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed4.4051000 ha2017
groundnuts3641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit9 277.691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts3 260.0151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon105.531000 ha2017
cloves548.0911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane430.1121000 ha2017
tobacco185.7081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton5.8331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.3491000 ha2014
sisal0.3121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts511.2681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits58.5051000 ha2017
oranges58.5051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados28.5241000 ha2017
bananas1191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.4751000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber3 629 544t2017
timber118 251 6212017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle16 599.2471000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes17 994.4381000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes1 395.1911000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs8 138.2761000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep16 462.2741000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats18 410.3791000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total442.6021000 heads2017
horses442.6021000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 225 3211000 heads2017
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.121000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk18 360t2014
eggs1 895.9471000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals0t2016
crustaceans and molluscs1 878 786t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Oil reserves are constantly diminishing and the country, after returning in January 2016, withdrew from OPEC in December of the same year. In Borneo there are the oil wells at Tarakan and Bunyu and those more to the south at Attaka, Semberak, Sanga-Sanga, Handjl, Badak, Samboja and Tanjung. In Sumatra there are oil wells at Jambi, Talang Akar, Limau, Raja and Muraraenim (in the south), with oil pipelines that transport crude oil to Plaju (the river port of Palembang); in the central part of the island there are the oil wells at Minas and Duri, connected by oil pipeline to the refinery of Dumai, and other oil wells at Lirik; in the north the fields at Perlak and Rantau are both exploited.
Natural gas is extracted in Arun, Gajah, Musi, Ogan (Sumatra) and in Bintuni Bay (West Papua). Coal mining in Borneo (southern and eastern Kalimantan) and in southern Sumatra is important. There are rich deposits of tin on the islands of Riau, Singkep, Bangka and Belitung; one of the largest copper mines in the world is at Tembagapura (Papua). Bauxite is mined on the islands of Tembeling, Kelong, Dendang and Bintan; nickel in the Celebes; gold and silver at Lebong Tandai and Meulaboh (Sumatra) and at Citondang (Java).
Industry.
Heavy industry includes oil refineries in Borneo (Balikpapan), in Sumatra (Dumai, Sungaigerong, Palembang, Pangkalanbrandan), in Java (Balongan, Cepu, Cilacap) and in Papua (Kasim); there are also gas liquefaction plants (Arun, Bontang, Bintuni Bay), chemical factories (Palembang, Cilacap), steel and metal-working plants (Kualatanjung, Pematangsiantar) and many cement factories. The automotive industry is concentrated in the metro region of Jakarta and in Surabaya. There are shipyards in Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang and Amboin, and aeronautical construction facilities in Bandung. Cotton-weaving is highly important with centres in Cilacap and Semarang. Tyres are produced at Bogor and Palembang, paper at Blabak and cigarettes at Yogyakarta.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal388 332.11000 t2016
coal, total548 6001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite7 1001000 t2018
chromite5.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite61000 t2016
feldspar181000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite4 0001000 t2016
kaolin1801000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds71000 ct2014
diamonds, gemstones and industrial371000 ct2014
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iodine40t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal203 755.34M kWh2016
- hydro19 176M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal52 5811000 kW2016
- hydro5 3821000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation235 413.34M kWh2016
total installed capacity61 4281000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 3001000 t2018
aluminium2501000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes2 064 000no.2002
cars1 055 774no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners4 400 000no.2002
TVs23 680 000no.2002
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1921000 t2016
petrol14 174.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia6 0001000 t2018
artificial tow2141000 t2002
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets11 3481000 m²2002
cotton yarn309.41000 t2001
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear306 761 000pairs2002
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2801000 t2014
coconut oil911.11000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco79 112t2002
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp7 6771000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp7 6771000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement67 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production25 296M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production56 664.8M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The main commercial partners are China, Japan, Singapore and the USA.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
coal and its products 21 126, palm oil 18 513, natural gas 8 861, electric and electronic equipment 8 467, apparel and accessories 7 882, chemicals 7 830, crude oil and petroleum products 6 159, machinery 5 873, gold and precious stones 5 608, natural rubber 5 105, footwear 4 912, iron and steel 4 417, fish and crustaceans 4 202, timber 4 004


Finance and banking.
Bank Indonesia carries out the functions of a central bank. There is a Stock Exchange in Jakarta.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures44.722% of goods exports2018
fuels23.228% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China27 127M US$2018
Japan19 480M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China45 538M US$2018
Singapore21 440M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018180 215M US$ -
2017168 775M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018188 712M US$ -
2017156 976M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. It is mainly focused on the islands of Java and Bali.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures10 945M US$2017
Number of arrivals14 040 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown263 000 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried110 252.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers22.897per 1000 pop.2017
Computers20.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.4years2017
Gradautes, percentage11.9%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level1 827 213units2017
Teachers, secondary level1 586 484units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending8.6% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians0.4per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
Malaria261 617cases2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.2% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking58.37%2016
Access to electricity98.14%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.9%2015
education3.4%2015
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