Form of Government: Republic
Area: 27 065 sq km
Population: 11 402 533 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 421.3 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 20° - 18° N; long. 75° - 72° W
Capital: Port-au-Prince/Pòtoprens (capital) 977 790 inhab. (2015); Port-au-Prince 2 636 763 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: gourde (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.51 (rank: 170)
Interim President and Prime Minister: Ariel Henry (Patriotic Unity), since 20 July 2021
Internet: //ihsi.ayiti.digital (Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d'Informatique)
Member of Caricom, OAS, UN, WTO

Haiti

Ayiti, Haïti, Repiblik d'Ayiti, République d'Haïti
Useful information

International license plate code RH
International dialling code 00509
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended or advised)
Electricity (Voltage) 110
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ht

GMT  -5
DST  -4
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) Port-au-Prince 27
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Port-au-Prince 25.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Port-au-Prince 8/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Port-au-Prince 1245
Days of rainfall (annual average) Port-au-Prince 99

Politics and current affairs

The political crisis was exacerbated, having started after the fall of prime minister Jean-Henry Céant (18 March 2019). President Moïse, the target of continued protests, refused to step down, despite having been unable to form a stable government. He was killed on 7 July 2021 by foreign mercenaries. The legislative elections, previously scheduled for October 2019, did not take place and the parliament ceased its functions.

Geography.
Haiti lies on the western part of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea and is bordered to the east by the Dominican Republic. The country is mountainous and is formed by two mountain ranges (Morne La Selle, 2674 m) with a small chain between them. The coastline is rugged, high and rocky. The climate is hot and humid, tempered by the altitude.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Haiti was the first country in Latin America to gain independence in 1804. The USA occupied the island militarily from 1915 to 1934, also maintaining control following the Second World War. In 1957, the ferocious dictatorship of the Duvalier family began. It was toppled by popular revolt in 1986. In 1987, a new Constitution was approved, setting up a presidential republic. The first free elections in 1990 elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide to the presidency, but in 1991 the President was forced into exile by a military coup d’état. The democratic process began again in 1994 following US military intervention on a UN mandate which brought Aristide back to power. He was re-elected as President of the country in the elections of 2000. In 2004, a new revolt, led by the Democratic Convergence opposition, was quashed by US and French mediation and by the intervention of a UN stabilization mission (MINUSTAH), which officially ended in October 2017.
The President of the Republic, who is also head of the government, is elected with a mandate of five years. Legislative power is in the hands of a two-chamber parliament (the Chamber of Deputies with 119 members elected for four years, and the Senate with 30 members elected for six years, one-third of whom are renewed every two years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure0.001% of GDP2019
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides10$per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Port-au-Prince/Pòtoprens977 790inhab.2015
Carrefour/Kafou501 768inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Port-au-Prince2 636 763inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Huge numbers of emigrants have moved to the USA, Canada, Cuba and the Dominican Republic.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.9592019
Death rate8.4482019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black94$%2000
mulatto5$%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic55$%2017
Protestant29$%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Creole (official)
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years31.2%2020
15-29 years30.1%2020


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Economy


Haiti is the poorest country in the region and depends on international aid. The remittances received from emigrants are significant.
Agriculture is severely hindered by the poor soil, by frequent hurricanes and by the lack of farm machinery and irrigation systems. In the more fertile areas, produce destined for export is grown (especially coffee, cocoa and fruit). There are textile factories (at Port-au-Prince, Caracol, Les Cayes and Léogane), sugar refineries (at Port-au-Prince, Jérémie, Léogane and Les Cayes), distilleries, tobacco factories, chemical plants and a cement factory (at Cabaret).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)154.61index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)91.91index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 972 660units2020
Active population, Females47.3%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate14.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females57.3%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses108 810.7M LCU2018
Revenues79 767.2M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture28.7%2019
industry6.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.898%2019
industry35.183%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation76.711BN LCU2109
International reserves2 370.9M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land48.984%2018
forests12.827%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4621000 t2019
maize2201000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava507.8561000 t2019
potatoes44.9821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages18.4531000 t2019
eggplants0.8581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry106.8681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.5461000 t2019
groundnuts17.7071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts28.0821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa16.8761000 t2019
coffee20.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 689.521000 t2019
tobacco0.5611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.8281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal14.1381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 437.8781000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits162.6631000 t2019
grapefruits54.1321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados231.7191000 t2019
bananas252.4421000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize299.5841000 ha2019
rice65.0071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava113.3761000 ha2019
potatoes3.5471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.9081000 ha2019
eggplants0.0691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry262.3091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.6051000 ha2019
groundnuts19.9921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts9.5551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa34.6161000 ha2019
coffee40.0291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane25.5351000 ha2019
tobacco0.4621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1.5921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal25.5481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits31.1371000 ha2019
grapefruits7.1861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados39.9161000 ha2019
bananas62.9111000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber2 368 3492019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 510.0651000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 510.0651000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 016.8361000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep227.4761000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats2 367.8481000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses199.0281000 heads2019
asses and mules284.2951000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds6 3181000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2391000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs5.1151000 t2019
hides and skins8.6411000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals10$t2017
crustaceans and molluscs600t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble0.131000 m³2010
sand and gravel2 4501000 m³2010
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal797.12M kWh2018
- hydro195.03M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2901000 kW2018
- hydro60$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation993.15M kWh2018
total installed capacity370.911000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap0.8251000 t2005-06
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cottonseed oil0.0711000 t2018
rum, bottles530.11000 units2008
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production2 381.383M US$2020
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Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020721M US$ -
20191 200M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 971M US$ -
20194 514M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures554M US$2019
Number of arrivals286 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet4$units2021
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage891t2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.761per 1000 pop.2019
Computers51.4per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Gradautes, percentage0.7%1986
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female155index1997
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 023 319units1999
Students, secondary level449 597units1999
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians0.23per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.9% of adults2019
Malaria10 687cases2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking4.3%2019
Access to electricity45.371%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing8.7%1995
food, non-alcoholic beverages51.1%1995
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