Form of Government: Republic
Area: 108 889 sq km
Population: 16 858 333 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 154.82 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 14° N; long. 92° - 88° W
Capital: Guatemala City (capital) 923 392 inhab. (2018); Guatemala 2 851 104 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: quetzal (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.663 (rank: 127)
President and head of government: Alejandro Giammattei Falla (Vamos), elected 11 August 2019, in office since 14 January 2020
Congress of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 16 June 2019: UNE (National Unity of Hope, centre-left), 54; Vamos (“Let’s go”, conservative), 16; UCN (National Change Union, centre-right), 12; Valour (right-wing), 9; National Well-being (right), 8; FCN (National Convergence Front, right-wing), 8; others, 53
Internet: www.ine.gob.gt (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Guatemala

Guatemala, República de Guatemala
Useful information

International license plate code GCA
International dialling code 00502
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .gt

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Guatemala 20
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Guatemala 17.5/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Guatemala 2/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Guatemala 1245
Days of rainfall (annual average) Guatemala 125

Politics and current affairs

On 22 November 2020, violent protests broke out against a plan to cut public spending, which was later sidelined. The country struggles to contain the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and two hurricanes that struck in the weeks before.

Geography.
Guatemala is bordered to the north and west by Mexico, to the north-east by Belize, to the east by Honduras and to the south-east by El Salvador; it lies on the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the south-west. The country is, for the most part, made up of volcanic hills that slope steeply towards the Pacific Ocean and is subject to frequent earthquakes. The climate is warm and humid in the low-lying areas; temperatures are more moderate at medium altitudes; the higher regions have greater temperature ranges. Guatemala lays claim to 12 000 km² of Belize; in 2018 it was decided by referendum to resort to international arbitration; the border between the two countries is marked by a 2 km-wide “border strip”.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Guatemala became an autonomous republic in 1839. In 1954, President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, the promoter of land reform, was toppled by a military coup d’état and since then there has been a succession of various dictatorial regimes that have repressed every movement for reform, clashing with armed guerrillas, led mostly by the natives. In 1985, civilian government returned, but the military continued conditioning the political life of the country. Guerrilla warfare resumed, except for brief interruptions, until the signing of the peace agreement on 29 December 1996 between the government and the URNG (National Guatemalan Revolutionary Union).
On the basis of the Constitution of 14 January 1986, amended in 1993, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term and cannot be re-elected; the body of legislative power is the Congress of the Republic (160 members elected for four years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army86.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides27.3per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel192.6per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guatemala City923 392inhab.2018
Mixco463 019inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guatemala2 851 104inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Migration to the USA is very high (where there is a Guatemalan community of over 1.5 million people).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate24.212019
Death rate4.722019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ladinos56$%2018
Maya41.7%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic45$%2015
Protestant42$%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Mayan dialects
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33.4%2020
15-29 years28.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2021, the country emerged from the recession due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which had interrupted a decade of stable growth. Income disparities, poverty and crime remain serious. The scarce influx of revenue limits public investments.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)157.62index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.94index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 433 528units2020
Active population, Females33.1%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.7%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses93 529M LCU2020
Revenues64 065.6M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture31.5%2019
industry18.5%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.969%2019
industry23.33%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation64.201BN LCU2020
International reserves18 463.562M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The most common crop is maize, of fundamental importance for local nutrition (as are potatoes and beans). The best farming land is destined for plantations coffee, bananas and sugar cane), controlled by foreign companies. Industrial maize and cane sugar crops have undergone considerable expansion following a demand for raw material to produce biofuel. Building timber (mahogany and cedar), rubber and chicle come from the Petén forests. Cattle are raised above all on the Pacific coast and in the Petén.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land19.084%2018
forests33.137%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.0291000 t2019
cereals, total1 954.3591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4.1851000 t2019
potatoes570.8951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages75.0291000 t2019
carrots and turnips101.6331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry263.4321000 t2019
beans, green36.6561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes20.0971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts11.7871000 t2019
sesame seed38$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits3 269.5741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts12.831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa12.4731000 t2019
coffee2251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane29 087.0861000 t2019
tobacco30.3371000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1.5211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.281000 t2014
sisal0.111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples25.2261000 t2019
fruits, total6 822.8191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits377.2831000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes73.2131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados137.2041000 t2019
bananas4 341.5641000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.0171000 ha2019
maize864.0981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4.1571000 ha2019
potatoes22.171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.3061000 ha2019
carrots and turnips3.3371000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry263.6591000 ha2019
beans, green3.5081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.7151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.1791000 ha2019
sesame seed39$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.1031000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa4.6411000 ha2019
coffee308.2171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane270.1441000 ha2019
tobacco14.691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.5221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.41000 ha2014
sisal0.1981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.1091000 ha2019
peaches3.0871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.6361000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes13.6281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados13.0321000 ha2019
bananas90.241000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber350 501t2019
timber21 912 7562019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 011.5771000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes4 011.5771000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 976.2441000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep600.8741000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats114.4061000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses10.031000 heads2019
asses and mules48.9891000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds36 9311000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.9811000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.1651000 t2018
cheese11.3051000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs20 477t2019
freshwater fishes13 330t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Important mineral resources are nickel and oil (wells at Rubelsanto, in Upper Verapaz and in the Petén); antimony, silver, gold, gypsum, lead and zinc are also mined. There are textile plants (cotton mills in the capital and at Cantél-Quetzaltenango) and food industries (sugar-refineries). There are also chemical and petrochemical plants (oil refineries at Puerto Barrios and La Libertad), as well as cement (near the capital and at Sanarate), tobacco and paper factories.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas0.4M m³2013
oil, crude386.51000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.0251000 t2020
iron ore0.951000 t2013
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.061000 t2019
bentonite17$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite15$1000 t2018
granite1.51000 t2014
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold200kg2018
silver336 943kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 514.98M kWh2019
- hydro4 438.17M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 7701000 kW2018
- hydro1 5601000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 579.15M kWh2019
total installed capacity4 629.491000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
lead12$1000 t2011
steel, crude2371000 t2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen96.81000 t2018
petrol1.11000 t2009
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley209.1231000 t2018
cottonseed oil0.0121000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper31$1000 t2019
paper31$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 8001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production166M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production1 224M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

The economy depends on exports (plantation crops, sugar, oil and apparel), especially towards the USA, and on remittances from migrant workers.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products48.184% of goods exports2019
manufactures43.543% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 763M US$2020
El Salvador1 313M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States6 294M US$2020
China2 251M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202011 567M US$ -
201911 175M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202018 204M US$ -
201919 882M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is an important source of revenue (after coffee). The main attractions are the archaeological sites at Tikal, Uaxactún, Piedras Negras, Naranjo and Holmul.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 128M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 752 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried107.41000 units2019
Merchant fleet9$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers31.392per 1000 pop.2017
Computers20.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.753years2015
Graduates33 680units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 362 116units2018
Students, secondary level1 227 191units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending10.126% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.44per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.35per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2019
HIV, total0.6%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.029% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking48.8%2019
Access to electricity95.725%2019
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