Form of Government: Republic
Area: 108 889 sq km
Population: 17 311 086 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 158.98 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 14° N; long. 92° - 88° W
Capital: Guatemala City (capital) 2 450 200 inhab. (2018); Guatemala 5 103 700 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: quetzal (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.65 (rank: 127)
President and head of government: James “Jimmy” Morales Cabrera (FCN), elected 25 October 2015, in office since 14 January 2016
President-elect: Alejandro Giammattei Falla (Vamos), elected 11 August 2019
Congress of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 16 June 2019: UNE (National Unity of Hope, centre-left), 54; Vamos (“Let’s go”, conservative), 16; UCN (National Change Union, centre-right), 12; Valour (right-wing), 9; National Well-being (right), 8; FCN (National Convergence Front, right-wing), 8; others, 53
Internet: www.ine.gob.gt (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Guatemala

Guatemala, República de Guatemala
Useful information

International license plate code GCA
International dialling code 00502
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .gt

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Guatemala 20
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Guatemala 17.5/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Guatemala 2/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Guatemala 1245
Days of rainfall (annual average) Guatemala 125

Politics and current affairs

The second round of the presidential elections (11 August 2019) was won by Alejandro Giammattei (Vamos party) with 58% of the votes. His term of office is scheduled for January 2020.

Geography.
Guatemala is bordered to the north and west by Mexico, to the north-east by Belize, to the east by Honduras and to the south-east by El Salvador; it lies on the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the south-west. The country is, for the most part, made up of volcanic hills that slope steeply towards the Pacific Ocean and is subject to frequent earthquakes. The climate is warm and humid in the low-lying areas; temperatures are more moderate at medium altitudes; the higher regions have greater temperature ranges. Guatemala lays claim to 12 000 km² of Belize; in 2018 it was decided by referendum to resort to international arbitration; the border between the two countries is marked by a 2 km-wide “border strip”.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Guatemala became an autonomous republic in 1839. In 1954, President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, the promoter of land reform, was toppled by a military coup d’état and since then there has been a succession of various dictatorial regimes that have repressed every movement for reform, clashing with armed guerrillas, led mostly by the natives. In 1985, civilian government returned, but the military continued conditioning the political life of the country. Guerrilla warfare resumed, except for brief interruptions, until the signing of the peace agreement on 29 December 1996 between the government and the URNG (National Guatemalan Revolutionary Union).
On the basis of the Constitution of 14 January 1986, amended in 1993, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term and cannot be re-elected; the body of legislative power is the Congress of the Republic (160 members elected for four years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army86.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides27.3per 100 000 pop.2016
Police personnel192.6per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guatemala City2 450 200inhab.2018
Mixco277 400inhab.2002
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guatemala5 103 700inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Migration to the USA is very high (where there is a Guatemalan community of over one million people).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate22.52017
Death rate4.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ladinos60.4%2002
Maya39.5%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic45%2015
Protestant42%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Mayan dialects
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years34.6%2018
15-29 years29%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Since 2010, the economy has demonstrated stable growth, but income disparities, poverty and crime remain serious. The scarce influx of revenue limits public investments.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)157.62index2016
Balance of trade-8 715.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population7 042 791units2018
Active population, Females34.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females46.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses72 710.5M LCU2018
Revenues62 341.9M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.3%2018
industry20.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.3%2017
industry25.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation44.2BN LCU2018
International reserves12 583.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The most common crop is maize, of fundamental importance for local nutrition (as are potatoes and beans). The best farming land is destined for plantations coffee, bananas and sugar cane), controlled by foreign companies. Industrial maize and cane sugar crops have undergone considerable expansion following a demand for raw material to produce biofuel. Building timber (mahogany and cedar), rubber and chicle come from the Petén forests. Cattle are raised above all on the Pacific coast and in the Petén.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land18.62%2015
forests33.03%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.0211000 t2017
cereals, total2 004.3561000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4.7781000 t2017
potatoes545.7591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages77.1361000 t2017
carrots and turnips95.7521000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry251.7351000 t2017
beans, green34.4481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes19.6111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts9.9971000 t2017
sesame seed54.9811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 031.7431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts201000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa11.8031000 t2017
coffee245.4411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane33 758.3891000 t2017
tobacco29.4941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.3871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.281000 t2014
sisal0.111000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples25.1091000 t2017
fruits, total6 143.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits380.5511000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes71.2161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados125.5961000 t2017
bananas3 887.4391000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.011000 ha2017
maize882.8761000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4.4091000 ha2017
potatoes21.1561000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.461000 ha2017
carrots and turnips3.1831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry258.061000 ha2017
beans, green3.3811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.6341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.0041000 ha2017
sesame seed41.6571000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts3.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa4.3541000 ha2017
coffee278.2321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane278.9671000 ha2017
tobacco13.6641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.8651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.41000 ha2014
sisal0.1891000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples5.9861000 ha2017
peaches3.0141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits24.621000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes13.8421000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados12.0831000 ha2017
bananas80.1611000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber318 447t2017
timber21 213 7782017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 850.2061000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes3 850.2061000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 862.4291000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep587.9591000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats114.1511000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses10.0051000 heads2017
asses and mules48.9281000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds36 2781000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.8931000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.5071000 t2014
cheese14.6061000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs17 119t2017
freshwater fishes12 137t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Important mineral resources are nickel and oil (wells at Rubelsanto, in Upper Verapaz and in the Petén); antimony, silver, gold, gypsum, lead and zinc are also mined. There are textile plants (cotton mills in the capital and at Cantél-Quetzaltenango) and food industries (sugar-refineries). There is also an oil refinery at Puerto Barrios as well as chemical and petrochemical plants, cement (near the capital and at Sanarate), tobacco and paper factories.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas0.4M m³2013
oil, crude477.61000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.0251000 t2018
iron ore0.951000 t2013
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite0.51000 t2016
bentonite18.11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite16.61000 t2016
granite1.51000 t2014
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 826kg2016
silver793 083kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 705.64M kWh2016
- hydro3 992M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 9401000 kW2016
- hydro1 3901000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation12 116.64M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 6051000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
lead121000 t2011
steel, crude3001000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen13.61000 t2016
petrol1.11000 t2009
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1681000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.011000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper311000 t2017
paper311000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 6001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production166M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production1 224M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The economy depends on exports (plantation crops, sugar and ethanol), especially towards the USA, and on remittances from migrant workers.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products47.679% of goods exports2017
manufactures42.036% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 784M US$2017
El Salvador1 216M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States7 338M US$2017
China1 970M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201811 019M US$ -
201711 002M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 734M US$ -
201718 389M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is an important source of revenue (after coffee). The main attractions are the archaeological sites at Tikal, Uaxactún, Piedras Negras, Naranjo and Holmul.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 010M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 113 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried155.51000 units2017
Merchant fleet9units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers30.514per 1000 pop.2016
Computers20.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.8years2015
Graduates33 680units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level116 396units2017
Teachers, secondary level116 080units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.6per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
HIV, total0.6%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.03% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking45.23%2016
Access to electricity93.288%2017
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