Form of Government: Republic
Area: 108 889 sq km
Population: 16 924 190 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 155.43 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 14° N; long. 92° - 88° W
Capital: Guatemala City (capital) 1 168 000 inhab. (2011); Guatemala 4 500 000 inhab. (2012), urban agglomeration
Currency: quetzal (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.64 (rank: 125)
President and head of government: James “Jimmy” Morales Cabrera (FCN), elected 25 October 2015, in office since 14 January 2016
Congress of the Republic: seats based on the elections of 6 September 2015: LIDER (Renewed Democratic Liberty, populist), 44; UNE (National Unity of Hope, centre-left), 36; Todos ("All", centre), 18; PP (Patriotic Party, conservative), 17; FCN (National Convergence Front, right-wing), 11; others, 32
Internet: www.ine.gob.gt (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Guatemala

Guatemala, República de Guatemala
Useful information

International license plate code GCA
International dialling code 00502
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .gt

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Guatemala 20
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Guatemala 17.5/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Guatemala 2/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Guatemala 1245
Days of rainfall (annual average) Guatemala 125

Geography.
Guatemala is bordered to the north and west by Mexico, to the north-east by Belize, to the east by Honduras and to the south-east by El Salvador; it lies on the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the south-west. The country is, for the most part, made up of volcanic hills that slope steeply towards the Ocean and is subject to frequent earthquakes. The climate is warm and humid in the low-lying areas; temperatures are more moderate at medium altitudes; the higher regions have greater temperature ranges. Guatemala lays claim to 12 000 km² of Belize; the border between the two countries is marked by a 2 km-wide “border strip”.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Guatemala became an autonomous republic in 1839. In 1954, President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, the promoter of land reform, was toppled by a military coup d’état and since then there has been a succession of various dictatorial regimes that have repressed every movement for reform, clashing with armed guerrillas, led mostly by the natives.
In 1985, civilian government returned, but the military continued conditioning the political life of the country. Guerrilla warfare resumed, except for brief interruptions, until the signing of the peace agreement on 29 December 1996 between the government and the URNG (National Guatemalan Revolutionary Union).
On the basis of the Constitution of 14 January 1986, amended in 1993, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term and cannot be re-elected; the body of legislative power is the Congress of the Republic (158 members elected for four years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force5.6%2015
Army86.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides31.2per 100 000 pop.2014
Police personnel192.6per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guatemala City1 168 000inhab.2011
Mixco277 400inhab.2002
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guatemala4 500 000inhab.2012
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Migration to the USA is very high (where there is a Guatemalan community of over one million people).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate23.62016
Death rate52016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ladinos60.4%2002
Maya39.5%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic45%2015
Protestant42%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Mayan dialects
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years34.5%2017
15-29 years30.8%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)157.62index2016
Balance of trade-7 387M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 812 567units2017
Active population, Females33.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.7%2017
Unemployment rate, Females47.4%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses63 078.5M LCU2016
Revenues57 398.5M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.4%2017
industry21.1%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.7%2016
industry26.7%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation39.8BN LCU2017
International reserves11 765.1M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The most common crop is maize, of fundamental importance for local nutrition (as are potatoes and beans). The best farming land is destined for plantations coffee, bananas and sugar cane), controlled by foreign companies. Industrial maize and cane sugar crops have undergone considerable expansion following a demand for raw material to produce biofuel. Building timber (mahogany and cedar), rubber and chicle come from the Petén forests. Cattle are raised above all on the Pacific coast and in the Petén.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land18.62%2015
forests33.03%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.0181000 t2016
cereals, total1 986.4851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4.1851000 t2016
potatoes538.5321000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages76.1131000 t2016
carrots and turnips92.1751000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry247.681000 t2016
beans, green21.9741000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes19.1171000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts9.9651000 t2016
sesame seed55.6471000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 103.3561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts12.9191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa11.5671000 t2016
coffee236.1451000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane33 533.4031000 t2016
tobacco29.7421000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.4981000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.281000 t2014
sisal0.1121000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples26.4991000 t2016
fruits, total6 143.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits386.2371000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes73.391000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados122.1841000 t2016
bananas3 775.151000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley0.0081000 ha2016
maize882.4961000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava3.3771000 ha2016
potatoes20.9671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.5161000 ha2016
carrots and turnips3.0051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2531000 ha2016
beans, green2.0661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.5661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.0271000 ha2016
sesame seed41.2351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1431000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.1921000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa4.3331000 ha2016
coffee274.1771000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane259.851000 ha2016
tobacco13.9781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.91000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.41000 ha2014
sisal0.1881000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples5.8711000 ha2016
peaches3.1451000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.6191000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes14.4371000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados11.6021000 ha2016
bananas78.2061000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber332 755t2016
timber20 872 9582016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 768.41000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes3 768.41000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 875.91000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep589.31000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats113.81000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses9.9991000 heads2016
asses and mules48.9181000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds36 0441000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.8931000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.5071000 t2014
cheese14.6061000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs16 818t2016
freshwater fishes12 409t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
Important mineral resources are antimony and oil (wells at Rubelsanto, in Upper Verapaz and in the Petén); silver, gold, lead and zinc are also mined. There are textile plants (cotton mills in the capital and at Cantél-Quetzaltenango) and food industries (sugar-refineries). There is also an oil refinery at Puerto Barrios as well as chemical and petrochemical plants, cement (near the capital and at Sanarate), tobacco and paper factories.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas0.4M m³2013
oil, crude482.11000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.0251000 t2017
iron ore0.951000 t2013
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite381000 t2015
feldspar101000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite1.51000 t2014
kaolin1.31000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold5 600kg2015
silver863 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 117.2M kWh2015
- hydro3 836M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 5801000 kW2015
- other renew.1 0591000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 760.2M kWh2015
total installed capacity3 6791000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
lead121000 t2011
steel, crude2941000 t2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen26.91000 t2015
petrol1.11000 t2009
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1681000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.011000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper311000 t2016
paper311000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 5001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production166M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production1 224M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The economy depends on exports (plantation crops, sugar and ethanol), especially towards the USA, and on remittances from migrant workers.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products45.008% of goods exports2016
manufactures42.251% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 784M US$2017
El Salvador1 216M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States7 338M US$2017
China1 970M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201711 001.5M US$ -
201610 465.3M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201718 388.8M US$ -
201617 001.760M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is the second most important source of revenue (after coffee). The main tourist attractions are the archaeological sites at Tikal, Uaxactún, Piedras Negras, Naranjo and Holmul.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures989M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 906 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried155.51000 units2017
Merchant fleet9units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers30.514per 1000 pop.2016
Computers20.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.8years2015
Graduates33 680units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level108 113units2016
Teachers, secondary level98 419units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.6per 1000 pop.2012
Physicians0.9per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2016
HIV, total0.6%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.03% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking45.23%2016
Access to electricity91.779%2016
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