Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 88 794 sq km
Population: 10 806 000 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 121.7 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 29° N; long. 35° - 39° E
Capital: ‘Ammān (capital) 2 064 582 inhab. (2018); ‘Amman 4 536 500 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Jordanian dinar (1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.729 (rank: 102)
Sovereign: King ‘Abdullāh II ibn al-Ḥusayn, since 7 February 1999
Prime Minister: Bisher al-Khaṣāwina, since 12 October 2020
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 10 November 2020: independents (close to the sovereign), 120; Islamic Action Front (conservative Islamic), 10
Internet: www.dos.gov.jo (Department of Statistics)
Member of Arab League, EBRD, OIC, UN, WTO

Jordan

Al-Urdun, Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunnīyah al-Hāshimīyah
Useful information

International license plate code JOR
International dialling code 00962
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .jo

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) ‘Ammān 17.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) ‘Ammān 8.5/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) ‘Ammān 13/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) ‘Ammān 269
Days of rainfall (annual average) ‘Ammān 34

Geography.
Jordan is bordered to the north with Syria, to the north-east with Iraq, to the south-east and the south with Saudi Arabia, to the west with Israel and the West Bank, occupied by Israel in 1967 and partly administered by the Palestinian Authority. To the south-west it lies on the Gulf of Aqaba (the Red Sea).
The country lies on the vast almost desert shelf bordered to the west by the valley of the River Jordan, by the Dead Sea and the valley of the Wādī ’Arabah. The climate is characterized by hot and dry summers and mild winters.

Government


Previously a British mandate territory following the First World War, Jordan obtained independence on 22 March 1946 (going under the name of Transjordan) and assumed the name of Jordan in 1949, after the annexation of the West Bank (occupied by Israel in 1967). In 1994, King Ḥusayn and the Israeli premier, Y. Rabin, signed a treaty to determine the borders and the division of the water resources of the Yarmouk and Jordan rivers. In order to encourage the formation of a Palestinian political authority, Jordan had already cut all administrative links with the West Bank in 1988.
On the basis of the Constitution of 1 January 1952, the sovereign appoints the prime minister, but the government has to be approved by the National Assembly, which is made up of the Chamber of Representatives (130 members elected, 15 seats are reserved for women, nine for Christians, nine for Bedouins, three for Jordanians of Circassian and Chechen descent) and the Senate (65 members appointed by the king), each of which has a four-year term.


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on Islamic (Quranic) law, with influences from European continental civil law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.9%2015
Army73.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes436.1per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides1$per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
‘Ammān2 064 582inhab.2018
Az-Zarqā’635 160inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
‘Amman4 536 500inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Approximately half the population is made up of refugees from the Arab-Israeli wars (1948-49, 1967) and their descendants. About 750 000 refugees are currently in Jordan, primarily Syrians who are escaping civil war (since 2011).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate17.42020
Death rate6$2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab98$%2015
other1$%2015


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)97.2%2010
Christian2.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33$%2020
15-29 years28.5%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic worsened a scenario of low growth, high unemployment and high public debt, increasing social tensions.
In 2021, the country came out of the recession, starting a slow recovery.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)145.28index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)94.67index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 595 844units2020
Active population, Females18.1%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate18.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females28.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 567.3M LCU2018
Revenues7 839.6M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.1%2019
industry24.5%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.439%2019
industry27.081%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation6.496BN LCU2020
International reserves15 543.5M US$2016
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Agriculture


Primary and secondary sector.

Agriculture, limited to irrigated areas, produces fruit and vegetables for export; vines are cultivated in the hilly areas, producing fine wine, and olives are grown in the north. Livestock farming is traditionally carried out by Bedouin tribes.
The country possesses large deposits of phosphates (at Wādī al-Ḥasā, Wādī al-Abyaḍ, Ar-Ruṣayfah) and potassium salts (in the Dead Sea, near Aṣ-Ṣāfī). Oil production (Hamzah, near Azraq) is limited, but there are sizeable oil shale reserves. There are copper deposits at Wādī al-‘Arabah. The main industries are food, chemicals (fertilizers at ‘Ammān and Aqaba), cement (at Al-Fuḥaiṣ, Al-Mafraq, Al-Qaṭrānah, ‘Ammān, Aṭ-Ṭafīlah, Az-Zarqā’), tobacco (at ‘Ammān); at Az-Zarqā’ there is an oil refinery; at ‘Ammān an industry and Information Technology (IT) park has been opened; since 2017, there has been a particle accelerator in the vicinity of As-Salṭ that is contributing to scientific research. An increasingly important problem is the difficulty of water supply.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.152%2018
forests1.098%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley66.6181000 t2019
cereals, total114.2181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes173.6531000 t2019
roots and tubers, total173.6531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0$1000 t2017
cabbages35.0741000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green11.161000 t2019
carobs0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes53.8861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives214.9941000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0$1000 t2017
sesame seed0.1031000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.1111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples21.0511000 t2019
apricots26.4591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.4091000 t2019
pistachios0.5281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits111.6021000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.6971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas32.8031000 t2019
dates23.3751000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.9531000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley57.8281000 ha2019
maize0.6941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4.5861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0$1000 ha2017
cabbages0.5861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.461000 ha2019
chick peas0.8731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape3.0571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive56.9521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0$1000 ha2017
sesame seed0.0141000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.0681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.7881000 ha2019
apricots1.5751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3631000 ha2019
pistachios0.161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits6.6891000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0771000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.7191000 ha2019
dates3.3721000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber375 9212019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle77.1261000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes77.2241000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.0981000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 997.4091000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats701.3841000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.9981000 heads2019
asses and mules6.8041000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels12.8411000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds29 7411000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.2511000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese10.0131000 t2018
eggs53.7291000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes1 946t2019
marine fishes277t2019
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Minerals


Tertiary sector.
The Jordan Central Bank controls approximately thirty authorized banks. A stock exchange has its headquarters in ‘Ammān. Free trade zones have been set up (at Aqaba and Az-Zarqā’, near the Syrian border, and near ‘Ammān airport).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas116M m³2019
oil, crude1$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay3651000 t2018
gypsum2601000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1901000 t2019
marble3.71000 m³2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal17 196.36M kWh2018
- other renew.2 165M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 2421000 kW2018
- other renew.1 3851000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 384.13M kWh2018
total installed capacity5 385.21000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude3501000 t2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1651000 t2018
petrol1 082.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers144.91000 t2019
phosphate fertilizers365.11000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7.61000 t2018
olive oil21.2331000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper54$1000 t2019
paper54$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 1301000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 338.193M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production2 085.883M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 1 563, pharmaceuticals 668, fertilizers 657, fruit and vegetables 531, chemicals 473, phosphates 376, electrical and electronic equipment 361, plastics 260, parts of aircraft 253, home appliances and machinery 223, jewels and precious stones 189, live animals 167, paper 142, aluminium 139, iron and steel 110, vehicles and parts thereof 105, soap and detergents 101

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures74.202% of goods exports2019
food products14.641% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States1 754M US$2020
India866M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 708M US$2020
Saudi Arabia2 099M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20207 832M US$ -
20198 317M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202016 983M US$ -
201919 170M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 569M US$2019
Number of arrivals4 488 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 478.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers45.289per 1000 pop.2019
Computers76$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.561years2019
Gradautes, percentage24.3%2003
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 147 202units2019
Students, secondary level832 784units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.1% of total expenses2012
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.43per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians1.98per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
Tuberculosis5.5per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites, visitors2 057 862units2017
Museums, visitors508 061units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.708% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.9%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2017
education4.7%2017
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