Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 88 794 sq km
Population: 10 309 000 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 116.10 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 33° - 29° N; long. 35° - 39° E
Capital: ‘Ammān (capital) 2 064 582 inhab. (2018); ‘Amman 4 327 800 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Jordanian dinar (1000 fils)
Human development index: 0.735 (rank: 95)
Sovereign: King ‘Abdullāh ibn al-Ḥusayn, since 7 February 1999
Prime Minister: ‘Umar ar-Razzāz (independent), since 5 June 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 20 September 2016: independents (close to the sovereign), 100; Islamic Action Front and allies (conservative Islamic), 10; Zamzam (Islamic), 5; Islamic Centrist Party, 5; others, 10
Internet: www.dos.gov.jo (Department of Statistics)
Member of Arab League, EBRD, OIC, UN, WTO

Jordan

Al-Urdun, Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunnīyah al-Hāshimīyah
Useful information

International license plate code JOR
International dialling code 00962
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .jo

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) ‘Ammān 17.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) ‘Ammān 8.5/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) ‘Ammān 13/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) ‘Ammān 269
Days of rainfall (annual average) ‘Ammān 34

Geography.
Jordan is bordered to the north with Syria, to the north-east with Iraq, to the south-east and the south with Saudi Arabia, to the west with Israel and the West Bank, occupied by Israel in 1967 and partly administered by the Palestinian Authority. To the south-west it lies on the Gulf of Aqaba (the Red Sea).
The country lies on the vast almost desert shelf bordered to the west by the valley of the River Jordan, by the Dead Sea and the valley of the Wādī ’Arabah. The climate is characterized by hot and dry summers and mild winters.

Government


Previously a British mandate territory following the First World War, Jordan obtained independence on 22 March 1946 (going under the name of Transjordan) and assumed the name of Jordan in 1949, after the annexation of the West Bank (occupied by Israel in 1967). In 1994, King Ḥusayn and the Israeli premier, Y. Rabin, signed a treaty to determine the borders and the division of the water resources of the Yarmouk and Jordan rivers. In order to encourage the formation of a Palestinian political authority, Jordan had already cut all administrative links with the West Bank in 1988.
On the basis of the Constitution of 1 January 1952, the sovereign appoints the prime minister, but the government has to be approved by the National Assembly, which is made up of the Chamber of Representatives (130 members elected, 15 seats are reserved for women, nine for Christians, nine for Bedouins, three for Jordanians of Circassian and Chechen descent) and the Senate (65 members appointed by the king), each of which has a four-year term.


Defence and justice.
The legal system is based on Islamic (Quranic) law, with influences from European continental civil law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.9%2015
Army73.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes417.6per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
‘Ammān2 064 582inhab.2018
Az-Zarqā’635 160inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
‘Amman4 327 800inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Approximately half the population is made up of refugees from the Arab-Israeli wars (1948-49, 1967) and their descendants. More than 700 000 refugees are currently in Jordan, primarily Syrians who are escaping civil war (since 2011).

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate22.32018
Death rate62018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Arab98%2015
other1%2015


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)97.2%2010
Christian2.2%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years34.1%2018
15-29 years28.7%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Political stability and reforms have helped contribute to a considerable improvement in the country’s economic climate, which since 2017 has started to grow again, but the increase in prices and the approval of a tax reform in 2018 have sparked social conflicts. Unemployment and public debt remain high.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)145.28index2016
Balance of trade-12 443.2M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 522 474units2018
Active population, Females17.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate15%2018
Unemployment rate, Females27.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 948.5M LCU2016
Revenues7 069.7M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.5%2018
industry24.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.8%2017
industry29.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation10.4BN LCU2016
International reserves15 543.5M US$2016
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Agriculture


Primary and secondary sector.

Agriculture, limited to irrigated areas, produces fruit and vegetables for export; vines are cultivated in the hilly areas, producing fine wine, and olives are grown in the north. Livestock farming is traditionally carried out by Bedouin tribes.
The country possesses large deposits of phosphates (at Wādī al-Ḥasā, Wādī al-Abyaḍ, Ar-Ruṣayfah) and potassium salts (in the Dead Sea, near Aṣ-Ṣāfī).
Oil production (Hamzah, near Azraq) is limited, but there are sizeable oil shale reserves. There are copper deposits at Wādī al-‘Arabah. The main industries are food, chemicals (fertilizers at ‘Ammān and Aqaba), cement (at Al-Fuḥaiṣ, Al-Mafraq, Al-Qaṭrānah, ‘Ammān, Aṭ-Ṭafīlah, Az-Zarqā’), tobacco (at ‘Ammān); at Az-Zarqā’ there is an oil refinery; at ‘Ammān an industry and Information Technology (IT) park has been opened; since 2017, there has been a particle accelerator in the vicinity of As-Salṭ that is contributing to scientific research. An increasingly important problem is the difficulty of water supply.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.54%2015
forests1.1%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley41.21000 t2017
cereals, total101.8371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes111.7531000 t2017
roots and tubers, total111.7531000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes01000 t2017
cabbages55.4741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green7.821000 t2017
carobs01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes53.3661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives145.0731000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts01000 t2017
sesame seed0.0161000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples52.6961000 t2017
apricots15.0611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds3.7561000 t2017
pistachios0.411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits107.4591000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes1.21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas32.1571000 t2017
dates25.2221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.8981000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley50.8121000 ha2017
maize1.2621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes4.0081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes01000 ha2017
cabbages0.8331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.5461000 ha2017
chick peas0.4171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape3.8521000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive56.2141000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts01000 ha2017
sesame seed0.0091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.0121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.4661000 ha2017
apricots1.5291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3331000 ha2017
pistachios0.1461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits6.4191000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.1041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas0.7161000 ha2017
dates3.2231000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber360 9052017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle72.6441000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes72.7391000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes0.0951000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep3 057.9481000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats770.7711000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses6.7591000 heads2017
asses and mules7.7241000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels14.3221000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds28 8691000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.21000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese7.1851000 t2014
eggs481000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes1 481t2017
marine fishes277t2017
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Minerals


Tertiary sector.
The Jordan Central Bank controls approximately thirty authorized banks. A stock exchange has its headquarters in ‘Ammān. Free trade zones have been set up (at Aqaba and Az-Zarqā’, near the Syrian border, and near ‘Ammān airport).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas123M m³2017
oil, crude1.11000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay1 1001000 t2015
gypsum9001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin801000 t2016
marble2501000 m³2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal17 674.82M kWh2016
- other renew.885M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 2691000 kW2016
- other renew.4831000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation18 601.82M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 7641000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1501000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen158.51000 t2016
petrol1 082.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers122.81000 t2016
phosphate fertilizers271.41000 t2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley91000 t2014
olive oil231000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper541000 t2017
paper541000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 8001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 454.1M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 310.8M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
apparel and accessories 1 563, pharmaceuticals 668, fertilizers 657, fruit and vegetables 531, chemicals 473, phosphates 376, electrical and electronic equipment 361, plastics 260, parts of aircraft 253, home appliances and machinery 223, jewels and precious stones 189, live animals 167, paper 142, aluminium 139, iron and steel 110, vehicles and parts thereof 105, soap and detergents 101

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures73.233% of goods exports2017
food products17.813% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States1 771M US$2018
Saudi Arabia733M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Saudi Arabia3 394M US$2018
China2 770M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20187 773M US$ -
20177 512M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201820 216M US$ -
201720 498M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 496M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 843 500units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown42 500 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried3 381.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers48.288per 1000 pop.2016
Computers76per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling10.1years2015
Gradautes, percentage24.3%2003
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level52 598units2017
Teachers, secondary level66 809units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.1% of total expenses2012
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.5per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians2.2per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
Tuberculosis6.8per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites, visitors2 057 862units2017
Museums, visitors508 061units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.7% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.06%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2017
education4.7%2017
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