Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 10 991 sq km
Population: 2 961 161 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 269.42 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° N; long. 78° - 76° W
Capital: Kingston (capital) 89 057 inhab. (2011); Kingston 589 083 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Jamaican dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.734 (rank: 101)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Andrew Holness (JLP), since 3 March 2016
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 3 September 2020: JLP (Labour Party), 49; PNP (People's National Party, conservative), 14
Internet: www.statinja.gov.jm (Statistical Institute of Jamaica)
Member of Caricom, Commonwealth, OAS, UN, WTO

Jamaica

Jamaica
Useful information

International license plate code JA
International dialling code 001876
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 110
Driving side left
Internet code .jm

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kingston 26.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kingston 24.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kingston 8/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kingston 808
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kingston 58

Geography.
Jamaica is an island in the Caribbean Sea, part of the Greater Antilles. It is situated between the islands of Cuba to the north and Hispaniola to the east.
In the mountainous area (Blue Mountain Peak, 2256 m) it is crossed by a series of sloping chalky reliefs from west to east, covered in thick equatorial forest. The climate is tropical (warm and humid).

Government


Formerly a British colony, Jamaica became independent on 6 August 1962 and remained within the Commonwealth.
On the basis of the Constitution, the head of state is the sovereign of the United Kingdom, represented by a Governor General, who formally appoints the head of the majority party as Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible before Parliament which comprises the Chamber of Representatives (63 members elected for five-year terms) and the Senate (21 members appointed by the Governor: 13 attributed to the majority party and 8 to the opposition).
The judicial system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force7.2%2015
Army84.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides60.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Police personnel423per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Portmore182 153inhab.2011
Spanish Town147 152inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kingston589 083inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Emigration towards the United Kingdom, the USA and Canada is significant.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.9072019
Death rate7.5912019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black92.1%2011
mestizo6.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant63.5%2011
nonreligious/atheist21.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.2%2020
15-29 years25.8%2020


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Economy


In 2021, the country came out of the recession due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the crisis., the growth rate, usually low, was on the rise, while unemployment and underemployment, factors which encourage widespread crime associated with drug-trafficking, were gradually decreasing. Economic reforms have allowed to keep inflation and deficit under control; the IMF, World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank have granted substantial loans to implement reform (in terms of revenue and structure that could support growth) and to reduce debt. Sugar cane, providing a fine rum as well as sugar, is the most important agricultural activity. A typical crop is pimiento (pepper).
Jamaica is one of the world’s main producers of bauxite (deposits in Ocho Rios, Kirkvine, Nain and Ewarton, where there are plants for the production of aluminium). An oil refinery and several chemical factories have headquarters in Kingston. Other industries include textiles (at Ariguanabo), tobacco, paper, cement (Rockfort) and food processing. Notwithstanding problems connected to the lack of personal safety, the tourist industry is still a source of foreign currency, as are money transfers from emigrants.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)105.13index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.04index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 457 340units2020
Active population, Females46$%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females62.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses604 597.5M LCU2018-19
Revenues628 985.1M LCU2018-19
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.9%2019
industry16.2%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.154%2019
industry22.366%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation190.488BN LCU2020
International reserves3 938.029M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land19.852%2018
forests54.397%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2.0591000 t2019
maize2.0581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava26.5291000 t2019
potatoes15.7171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages38.3921000 t2019
carrots and turnips25.9541000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1281000 t2019
broad beans, dry0.221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.2761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts99.21000 t2019
copra7.51000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.3261000 t2019
coffee5.5871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane774.21000 t2019
tobacco1.5021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total368.0531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits147.681000 t2019
grapefruits45.2111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.3211000 t2019
bananas63.6531000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1.8281000 ha2019
rice0.0011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1.2711000 ha2019
potatoes0.991000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.1031000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.6481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1241000 ha2019
broad beans, dry0.2041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.9621000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.7961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1.1581000 ha2019
coffee7.6091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane15.71000 ha2019
tobacco0.6411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.5891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.9941000 ha2019
grapefruits1.4781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.3631000 ha2019
bananas8.5611000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber655 4982019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle121.1811000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes121.1811000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs216.1351000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1.3461000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats587.0361000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses23$1000 heads2019
asses and mules33$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds14 3501000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.771000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk1 190t2018
eggs9.0031000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs231t2019
freshwater fishes2 294.45t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite7 7001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum55$1000 t2019
salt19$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone2 3791000 t2019
pozzolan80$1000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 624.64M kWh2018
- other renew.367M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8711000 kW2018
- other renew.225.131000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 168.64M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 089.131000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 7001000 t2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen25$1000 t2018
petrol202.41000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley95$1000 t2018
coconut oil11.31000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes889M units2005
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7591000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production13$M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production476M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals54.724% of goods exports2019
food products22.497% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States649M US$2009
Canada132M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States1 863M US$2009
Venezuela648M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 126M US$ -
20191 586M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 466M US$ -
20196 339M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures503M US$2018
Number of arrivals2 681 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown27 200 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried1811000 units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers107.828per 1000 pop.2019
Computers67.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.3years2015
Graduates25 477units2009
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level248 836units2018
Students, secondary level200 563units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.5% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.78per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.56per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.4% of adults2019
HIV, total0.8%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking83.2%2019
Access to electricity99.384%2019
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