Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 10 991 sq km
Population: 2 726 667 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 248.08 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° N; long. 78° - 76° W
Capital: Kingston (capital) 89 057 inhab. (2011); Kingston 584 627 inhab. (2011), urban agglomeration
Currency: Jamaican dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.732 (rank: 97)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Andrew Holness (JLP), since 3 March 2016
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 25 February 2016: JLP (Labour Party), 32; PNP (Conservative Party), 31
Internet: www.statinja.gov.jm (Statistical Institute of Jamaica)
Member of Caricom, Commonwealth, OAS, UN, WTO

Jamaica

Jamaica
Useful information

International license plate code JA
International dialling code 001876
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 110
Driving side left
Internet code .jm

GMT  -5
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kingston 26.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kingston 24.5/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kingston 8/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kingston 808
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kingston 58

Geography.
Jamaica is an island in the Caribbean Sea, part of the Greater Antilles. It is situated between the islands of Cuba to the north and Hispaniola to the east.
In the mountainous area (Blue Mountain Peak, 2256 m) it is crossed by a series of sloping chalky reliefs from west to east, covered in thick equatorial forest. The climate is tropical (warm and humid).

Government


Formerly a British colony, Jamaica became independent on 6 August 1962 and remained within the Commonwealth.
On the basis of the Constitution, the head of state is the sovereign of the United Kingdom, represented by a Governor General, who formally appoints the head of the majority party as Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible before Parliament which comprises the Chamber of Representatives (63 members elected for five-year terms) and the Senate (21 members appointed by the Governor: 13 attributed to the majority party and 8 to the opposition).
The judicial system is based on British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force7.2%2015
Army84.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides60.2per 100 000 pop.2017
Police personnel423per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Portmore182 153inhab.2011
Spanish Town147 152inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kingston584 627inhab.2011
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Emigration towards the United Kingdom, the USA and Canada is significant.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.12018
Death rate6.92018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
black92.1%2011
mestizo6.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant63.5%2011
nonreligious/atheist21.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26%2018
15-29 years26.1%2018


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Economy


Economic reforms have allowed to keep inflation and deficit under control; the IMF, World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank have granted substantial loans to implement reform (in terms of revenue and structure that could support growth) and to reduce debt, in gradual decline since 2013. The growth rate, usually low, has been increasing since 2018. Unemployment and underemployment, factors which encourage widespread crime associated with drug-trafficking, are gradually decreasing.
Sugar cane, providing a fine rum as well as sugar, is the most important agricultural activity. A typical crop is pimiento (pepper).
Jamaica is one of the world’s main producers of bauxite (deposits in Ocho Rios, Kirkvine, Nain and Ewarton, where there are plants for the production of aluminium). An oil refinery and several chemical factories have headquarters in Kingston. Other industries include textiles (at Ariguanabo), tobacco, paper, cement (Rockfort) and food processing. Notwithstanding problems connected to the lack of personal safety, the tourist industry is still a source of foreign currency, as are money transfers from emigrants.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)105.13index2016
Balance of trade-4 410M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 503 754units2018
Active population, Females45.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate9.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females59.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses552 050.1M LCU2017-18
Revenues560 773.5M LCU2017-18
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture16.6%2018
industry15.7%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.7%2017
industry22.9%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation110.92BN LCU2017
International reserves3 532M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land19.85%2015
forests30.96%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2.541000 t2017
maize2.5391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava10.2721000 t2017
potatoes17.1481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages35.8181000 t2017
carrots and turnips23.2311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1491000 t2017
broad beans, dry0.2431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.8781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts263.381000 t2017
copra7.51000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.3051000 t2017
coffee6.2221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 131.21000 t2017
tobacco1.6281000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total309.0441000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits146.6411000 t2017
grapefruits45.2321000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.4421000 t2017
bananas64.8151000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2.1841000 ha2017
rice0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava0.5361000 ha2017
potatoes1.0391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.9931000 ha2017
carrots and turnips1.6111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1391000 ha2017
broad beans, dry0.2241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts43.0931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.9771000 ha2017
coffee6.8741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane19.51000 ha2017
tobacco0.7791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal0.6021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits11.1581000 ha2017
grapefruits1.7191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.3821000 ha2017
bananas8.6561000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber665 7272017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle130.6681000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes130.6681000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs215.0711000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1.361000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats563.9721000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses231000 heads2017
asses and mules331000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds13 9161000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.771000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
condensed milk1 135t2014
eggs9.9361000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs984t2017
freshwater fishes2 433t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite10 0621000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum471000 t2018
salt191000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone2 2661000 t2018
pozzolan931000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 473.3M kWh2016
- other renew.416M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8901000 kW2016
- other renew.1581000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 007.3M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 0781000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina2 4841000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen201000 t2016
petrol202.41000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley951000 t2014
coconut oil11.51000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes889M units2005
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8411000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production13M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production476M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures44.686% of goods exports2017
food products26.950% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States649M US$2009
Canada132M US$2009
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States1 863M US$2009
Venezuela648M US$2009
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20181 710M US$ -
20171 310M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20186 120M US$ -
20175 818M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures471M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 353 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown27 200 000km flown2008
Civil aviation, passengers carried151.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers82.731per 1000 pop.2017
Computers67.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.9years2010
Graduates25 477units2009
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level11 172units2017
Teachers, secondary level13 173units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending0.5% of total expenses2007
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.7per 1000 pop.2013
Physicians0.47per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.8% of adults2017
HIV, total0.8%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking90.5%2016
Access to electricity99.506%2017
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