Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 533 sq km
Population: 30 955 204 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 129.77 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 5° N; long. 3° W - 1° E
Capital: Greater Accra 2 439 389 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: cedi (100 pesewas)
Human development index: 0.611 (rank: 138)
President and head of government: Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (NPP), elected 7 December 2016, in office since 7 January 2017, reconfirmed 7 December 2020
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 7 December 2020: NPP (New Patriotic Party), 137; NDC (National Democratic Congress), 137; independents, 1
Internet: www.statsghana.gov.gh (Ghana Statistical Service)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, OAS observer, UN, WTO

Ghana

Ghana, Republic of Ghana
Useful information

International license plate code GH
International dialling code 00233
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .gh

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Accra 22.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Accra 27.5/24.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Accra 5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Accra 790
Days of rainfall (annual average) Accra 58

Geography.
Ghana is bordered by Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, Côte d’Ivoire to the west and faces the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south. The country lies mostly within the confines of the basin of the River Volta and is made up of a plateau with a lower area in the centre following the course of the river. The coastal strip is low and sandy. The climate is constantly hot with heavy rains during the long rainy season (March to July) and the short rainy season (September to November), diminishing towards the east. Inland there is only one rainy season (March to October).

Government


Formerly a British colony known as the Gold Coast, Ghana gained independence on 6 March 1957 within the British Commonwealth, and on 1 July 1960 it was declared a republic under President Kwame Nkrumah until 1966, when military forces took power. In 1979, a revolt of young officers in the Ghanaian air force led by Jerry Rawlings brought back democracy, but soon after (1981) Rawlings himself established an authoritarian regime.
Starting in 1988 the process of democratization began and in 1992 a new multi-party constitution came into effect. Based on this, the President of the Republic, elected for a four-year term by direct suffrage (and eligible for re-election only once) is also head of the executive. From that moment on, the country’s democracy has shown itself to be one of the most solid in Africa. The National Assembly is made up of 275 members elected for four-year terms.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.9%2015
Army74.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes833.8per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides2.1per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Accra2 439 389inhab.2018
Kumasi2 035 064inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Accra2 439 389inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate28.9922019
Death rate7.2192019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Akan47.5%2010
Mole Dagbani16.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Pentecostal28.3%2010
Protestant18.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Kwa (Twi, Fante) and Gur (Moore, Dagbani) languages
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.5%2020
15-29 years26.2%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)152.64index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)118.06index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 934 123units2020
Active population, Females46.4%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses74 499M LCU2019
Revenues56 003M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture29.3%2019
industry21.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.521%2019
industry34.239%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation23.383BN LCU2020
International reserves7 884.092M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crop is cocoa, grown particularly in the Ashanti area; other important plantation crops include palm oil (in the south) and peanuts (in the north). Subsistence agriculture is based around cassava, yams, bananas, maize and taro.
The forests provide high quality wood, such as mahogany, wawa, sapele, Guarea cedrata.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land32.522%2018
forests35.032%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total4 220.0471000 t2019
maize2 7601000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava22 447.6351000 t2019
roots and tubers, total32 408.7191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers97.0461000 t2019
cucumbers0.1561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry190.3391000 t2019
beans, green26.0951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts535.6851000 t2019
soybeans166.8461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 655.441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts403.9051000 t2019
copra11$1000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa811.71000 t2019
coffee0.61000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane153.671000 t2019
tobacco2.471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton12.4281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total6 748.631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts85.9621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits829.5541000 t2019
lemons53.8491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.4081000 t2019
bananas92.021000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 418.3461000 ha2019
millet189.2741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1 027.7551000 ha2019
sweet potatoes73.6211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers10.0111000 ha2019
cucumbers0.0111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry133.6351000 ha2019
beans, green2.5211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts403.4471000 ha2019
soybeans99.271000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit374.2561000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts75.1951000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1 478.4621000 ha2019
coffee0.3491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.1541000 ha2019
tobacco5.9721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton12.9941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts161.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits26.1111000 ha2019
lemons8.0331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.1071000 ha2019
bananas7.5221000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber30 500t2019
timber49 852 8612019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 9431000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 9431000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7681000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep5 3021000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats7 8841000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses14.9141000 heads2019
asses and mules14.9141000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds89 2101000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs53.8331000 t2019
hides and skins13.1491000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs3 671.27t2019
freshwater fishes142 350t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The main mineral resources are gold (at Bibiani, Butre, Damang, Obuasi, Prestea, Tarkwa and Wassa), oil and natural gas (off Saltpond and south-east of Cape Three Points), whose production is growing, and diamonds (at Akwatia and Birim). There are also significant manganese reserves (in Nsuta) and bauxite (at Awaso).
Most of the electricity produced comes from two facilities: Akosombo (on the River Volta) and Kpong. Production is however insufficient to meet the needs of the nation.
Foreign companies are behind industrial activity in the country’s industry, both in terms of most raw materials and the production plants. Tema is an important industrial centre with an oil refinery, an aluminium smelter plant, a sugar-refining plants and the country’s main port. At Atuabo there is a gas processing plant. Chemical, mechanical and textile plants are found in Kumasi, while Sekondi-Takoradi has chemical plants linked to the gas pipeline coming from Nigeria, as well as a cement works, some textile plants, wood mills and food processing plants. Cement factories are active in Accra, Buipe, Konongo, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 145M m³2019
oil, crude9 948.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite1 2001000 t2019
manganese1 4001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt2501000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds54$1000 ct2018
gold140 000kg2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 956.83M kWh2018
- thermal5 839.28M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 4761000 kW2018
- hydro1 5841000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 846.37M kWh2018
total installed capacity5 131.691000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium42$1000 t2019
steel, crude25$1000 t2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol56.41000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m42.5M m2002
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2851000 t2018
coconut oil7.1811000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 800M units2002
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production346.536M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production1 896.296M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

Credit is supported by a strong banking sector.
The Bank of Ghana acts as the central bank.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
gold 4 347, oil and petroleum products 2 604, cocoa and derived products 2 594, tropical fruit 302, manganese 301, timber 215, fresh and preserved fish 186, aluminium 166, vegetable oils 142, natural rubber 65, refined copper 38, roots and tubers 36, iron and steel 35, machinery 25

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels31.702% of goods exports2019
food products21.98% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 809M US$2019
Switzerland2 466M US$2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 896M US$2019
United States976M US$2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202014 481M US$ -
201915 668M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202012 352M US$ -
201913 411M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is partly supported by the arrivals of African American descendants of slaves taken to the USA.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 380M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 088 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried597.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.924per 1000 pop.2019
Computers11$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is officially compulsory between 6 and 16 years of age. There are several universities, among the best of Africa’s former British colonies.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.867years2019
Graduates109 874units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 549 875units2019
Students, secondary level2 851 160units2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.14per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.7% of adults2019
HIV, total1.8%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.38% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking22.6%2019
Access to electricity83.5%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.8%2012-13
education10.6%2012-13
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