Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 533 sq km
Population: 28 956 587 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 121.39 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 5° N; long. 3° W - 1° E
Capital: Greater Accra 2 070 463 inhab. (2010), urban agglomeration
Currency: cedi (100 pesewas)
Human development index: 0.579 (rank: 139)
President and head of government: Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (NPP), elected 7 December 2016, in office since 7 January 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 7 December 2016: NPP (New Patriotic Party), 171; NDC (National Democratic Congress), 104
Internet: www.statsghana.gov.gh (Ghana Statistical Service)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, EU associated, OAS observer, UN, WTO

Ghana

Ghana, Republic of Ghana
Useful information

International license plate code GH
International dialling code 00233
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .gh

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Accra 22.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Accra 27.5/24.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Accra 5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Accra 790
Days of rainfall (annual average) Accra 58

Geography.
Ghana is bordered by Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, Côte d’Ivoire to the west and faces the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.
The country lies mostly within the confines of the basin of the River Volta and is made up of a plateau with a lower area in the centre following the course of the river. The coastal strip is low and sandy.
The climate is constantly hot with heavy rains during the long rainy season (March to July) and the short rainy season (September to November), diminishing towards the east. Inland there is only one rainy season (March to October).

Government


Formerly a British colony known as the Gold Coast, Ghana gained independence on 6 March 1957 within the British Commonwealth, and on 1 July 1960 it was declared a republic under President Kwame Nkrumah until 1966, when military forces took power. In 1979, a revolt of young officers in the Ghanaian air force led by Jerry Rawlings brought back democracy, but soon after (1981) Rawlings himself established an authoritarian regime.
Starting in 1988 the process of democratization began and in 1992 a new multi-party constitution came into effect. Based on this, the President of the Republic, elected for a four-year term by direct suffrage (and eligible for re-election only once) is also head of the executive. From that moment on, the country’s democracy has shown itself to be one of the most solid in Africa. The National Assembly is made up of 275 members elected for four-year terms.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.9%2015
Army74.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes833.8per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides2.1per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Accra2 070 463inhab.2010
Kumasi2 035 064inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Accra2 070 463inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate312016
Death rate8.12016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Akan47.5%2010
Mole Dagbani16.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Pentecostal28.3%2010
Protestant18.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Kwa (Twi, Fante) and Gur (Moore, Dagbani) languages
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38%2017
15-29 years26.5%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)152.64index2016
Balance of trade898M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population13 636 612units2017
Active population, Females49.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.8%2016
Unemployment rate, Females53.6%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses54 984M LCU2017
Revenues43 097M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture40.6%2017
industry14.1%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.6%2016
industry28.2%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation12.1BN LCU2017
International reserves7 015.2M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crop is cocoa, grown particularly in the Ashanti area; other important plantation crops include peanuts, oranges and vegetables. Subsistence agriculture is based around cassava, yams, bananas, maize and taro.
The forests provide high quality wood, such as mahogany, wawa, sapele, Guarea cedrata.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land29.56%2015
forests37.29%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 798.2571000 t2016
maize1 721.911000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava17 798.2171000 t2016
roots and tubers, total26 683.041000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers122.41000 t2016
cucumbers0.1461000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry143.2161000 t2016
beans, green26.571000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts417.1991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 4431000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts380.381000 t2016
copra111000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa858.721000 t2016
coffee0.7361000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane152.1361000 t2016
tobacco2.581000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton14.6151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5 453.2541000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts78.2681000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits740.3451000 t2016
lemons50.2151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.0731000 t2016
bananas87.5051000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize883.0311000 ha2016
millet162.2631000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava938.7251000 ha2016
sweet potatoes76.5941000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers14.41000 ha2016
cucumbers0.0111000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry110.7391000 ha2016
beans, green2.7151000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts336.451000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit349.041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts601000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1 683.7651000 ha2016
coffee0.461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.1221000 ha2016
tobacco5.5531000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton15.6491000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts142.2751000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.0271000 ha2016
lemons7.6871000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.9951000 ha2016
bananas7.9551000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber22 427t2016
timber47 813 3472016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 7341000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 7341000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs7301000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep4 5221000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats6 3521000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses14.821000 heads2016
asses and mules14.821000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds71 5941000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs46.2461000 t2016
hides and skins8.9551000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs4 630t2016
freshwater fishes142 470t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The main mineral resources are gold (at Bibiani, Butre, Damang, Obuasi, Prestea, Tarkwa and Wassa), oil (off Saltpond and south-east of Cape Three Points), whose production is growing, and diamonds (at Akwatia and Birim). There are also significant manganese reserves (in Nsuta) and bauxite (at Awaso).
Most of the electricity produced comes from two facilities: Akosombo (on the River Volta) and Kpong. Production is however insufficient to meet the needs of the nation.
Foreign companies are behind industrial activity in the country’s industry, both in terms of most raw materials and the production plants.
Tema is an important industrial centre with an oil refinery, an aluminium smelter plant, a sugar-refining plants and the country’s main port. At Atuabo there is a gas processing plant. Chemical, mechanical and textile plants are found in Kumasi, while Sekondi-Takoradi has chemical plants linked to the gas pipeline coming from Nigeria, as well as a cement works, some textile plants, wood mills and food processing plants. A cement factory is active at Aflao.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas652M m³2017
oil, crude7 530.11000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite1 6001000 t2016
manganese5501000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt2501000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds1401000 ct2017
gold80 000kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 787M kWh2015
- thermal5 304.42M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro1 5801000 kW2015
- thermal1 2511000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 094.42M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 8391000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium401000 t2016
steel, crude251000 t2009
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol56.41000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m42.5M m2002
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2751000 t2014
coconut oil91000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 800M units2002
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 0001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production41M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production208M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

The Bank of Ghana acts as the central bank.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
gold 4 347, oil and petroleum products 2 604, cocoa and derived products 2 594, tropical fruit 302, manganese 301, timber 215, fresh and preserved fish 186, aluminium 166, vegetable oils 142, natural rubber 65, refined copper 38, roots and tubers 36, iron and steel 35, machinery 25, electrical and electronic equipment 25, lead 18, fruit and vegetable juices and preserves 14, flours 13, oil seeds 12, residues and wastes of food industry 10, dyes and paints 10

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products51.289% of goods exports2016
fuels22.146% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India2 689M US$2017
China2 381M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 134M US$2017
United States1 200M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201713 486.410M US$ -
201611 136.88M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201712 588.496M US$ -
201612 907.21M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is partly supported by the arrivals of African American descendants of slaves taken to the USA.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 571M US$2016
Number of arrivals897 000units2015
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried299.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.970per 1000 pop.2017
Computers11per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is officially compulsory between 6 and 16 years of age. There are several universities, among the best of Africa’s former British colonies.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.6years2016
Graduates90 942units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level160 939units2017
Teachers, secondary level163 123units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.6% of adults2016
HIV, total1.8%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.38% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking21.71%2016
Access to electricity79.3%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.8%2012-13
education10.6%2012-13
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