Form of Government: Republic
Area: 238 533 sq km
Population: 30 280 811 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 126.95 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 5° N; long. 3° W - 1° E
Capital: Greater Accra 2 439 389 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: cedi (100 pesewas)
Human development index: 0.592 (rank: 140)
President and head of government: Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (NPP), elected 7 December 2016, in office since 7 January 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 7 December 2016: NPP (New Patriotic Party), 171; NDC (National Democratic Congress), 104
Internet: www.statsghana.gov.gh (Ghana Statistical Service)
Member of AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, OAS observer, UN, WTO

Ghana

Ghana, Republic of Ghana
Useful information

International license plate code GH
International dialling code 00233
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .gh

GMT  0
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Accra 22.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Accra 27.5/24.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Accra 5/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Accra 790
Days of rainfall (annual average) Accra 58

Geography.
Ghana is bordered by Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, Côte d’Ivoire to the west and faces the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.
The country lies mostly within the confines of the basin of the River Volta and is made up of a plateau with a lower area in the centre following the course of the river. The coastal strip is low and sandy.
The climate is constantly hot with heavy rains during the long rainy season (March to July) and the short rainy season (September to November), diminishing towards the east. Inland there is only one rainy season (March to October).

Government


Formerly a British colony known as the Gold Coast, Ghana gained independence on 6 March 1957 within the British Commonwealth, and on 1 July 1960 it was declared a republic under President Kwame Nkrumah until 1966, when military forces took power. In 1979, a revolt of young officers in the Ghanaian air force led by Jerry Rawlings brought back democracy, but soon after (1981) Rawlings himself established an authoritarian regime.
Starting in 1988 the process of democratization began and in 1992 a new multi-party constitution came into effect. Based on this, the President of the Republic, elected for a four-year term by direct suffrage (and eligible for re-election only once) is also head of the executive. From that moment on, the country’s democracy has shown itself to be one of the most solid in Africa. The National Assembly is made up of 275 members elected for four-year terms.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.9%2015
Army74.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes833.8per 100 000 pop.2013
Homicides2.1per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Accra2 439 389inhab.2018
Kumasi2 035 064inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Accra2 439 389inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate30.52017
Death rate82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Akan47.5%2010
Mole Dagbani16.6%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Pentecostal28.3%2010
Protestant18.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English (official)
Kwa (Twi, Fante) and Gur (Moore, Dagbani) languages
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years37.8%2018
15-29 years26.4%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)152.64index2016
Balance of trade1 656.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population12 259 949units2018
Active population, Females48%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses59 514M LCU2018
Revenues43 156M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture33.9%2018
industry18.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture21.2%2017
industry33.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation12.16BN LCU2017
International reserves6 294.8M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crop is cocoa, grown particularly in the Ashanti area; other important plantation crops include peanuts, oranges and vegetables. Subsistence agriculture is based around cassava, yams, bananas, maize and taro.
The forests provide high quality wood, such as mahogany, wawa, sapele, Guarea cedrata.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land29.56%2015
forests37.29%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total3 083.4531000 t2017
maize1 9651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava18 470.7621000 t2017
roots and tubers, total27 769.821000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers120.3821000 t2017
cucumbers0.1491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry165.6381000 t2017
beans, green26.5431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4201000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 469.7631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts383.961000 t2017
copra111000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa883.6521000 t2017
coffee0.7271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane151.7621000 t2017
tobacco2.7131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton13.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total5 453.2541000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts901000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits754.1631000 t2017
lemons51.3021000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.1621000 t2017
bananas88.2761000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 0001000 ha2017
millet167.0051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava965.5141000 ha2017
sweet potatoes77.4271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chillies and peppers13.6691000 ha2017
cucumbers0.0111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry119.7171000 ha2017
beans, green2.7161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3381000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit364.5951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts71.2881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1 690.2371000 ha2017
coffee0.4381000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane6.1081000 ha2017
tobacco6.4391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton14.1451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts147.6061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits25.4291000 ha2017
lemons7.8241000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.0091000 ha2017
bananas7.8091000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber22 494t2017
timber48 866 9882017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 763.9841000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 763.9841000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs741.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep4 611.8311000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats6 4001000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses14.7911000 heads2017
asses and mules14.7911000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds74 4781000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs46.51000 t2017
hides and skins8.9551000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs3 160t2017
freshwater fishes147 405t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The main mineral resources are gold (at Bibiani, Butre, Damang, Obuasi, Prestea, Tarkwa and Wassa), oil and natural gas (off Saltpond and south-east of Cape Three Points), whose production is growing, and diamonds (at Akwatia and Birim). There are also significant manganese reserves (in Nsuta) and bauxite (at Awaso).
Most of the electricity produced comes from two facilities: Akosombo (on the River Volta) and Kpong. Production is however insufficient to meet the needs of the nation.
Foreign companies are behind industrial activity in the country’s industry, both in terms of most raw materials and the production plants. Tema is an important industrial centre with an oil refinery, an aluminium smelter plant, a sugar-refining plants and the country’s main port. At Atuabo there is a gas processing plant. Chemical, mechanical and textile plants are found in Kumasi, while Sekondi-Takoradi has chemical plants linked to the gas pipeline coming from Nigeria, as well as a cement works, some textile plants, wood mills and food processing plants. Cement factories are active in Accra, Buipe, Konongo, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas652M m³2017
oil, crude8 620.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bauxite1 6001000 t2016
manganese8501000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt2501000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds1401000 ct2017
gold130 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 988.9M kWh2016
- hydro5 505M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1901000 kW2016
- hydro1 5801000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation12 523.9M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 801.41000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium351000 t2017
steel, crude251000 t2009
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol56.41000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m42.5M m2002
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2751000 t2014
coconut oil91000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 800M units2002
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 8001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production41M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production208M US$2004
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

The Bank of Ghana acts as the central bank.


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
gold 4 347, oil and petroleum products 2 604, cocoa and derived products 2 594, tropical fruit 302, manganese 301, timber 215, fresh and preserved fish 186, aluminium 166, vegetable oils 142, natural rubber 65, refined copper 38, roots and tubers 36, iron and steel 35, machinery 25, electrical and electronic equipment 25, lead 18, fruit and vegetable juices and preserves 14, flours 13, oil seeds 12, residues and wastes of food industry 10, dyes and paints 10

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels47.546% of goods exports2018
food products40.480% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
India3 670M US$2018
China2 032M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China2 273M US$2018
United States954M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201814 642M US$ -
201713 835M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201812 986M US$ -
201712 647M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is partly supported by the arrivals of African American descendants of slaves taken to the USA.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 581M US$2017
Number of arrivals897 000units2015
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 900 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried299.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.970per 1000 pop.2017
Computers11per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is officially compulsory between 6 and 16 years of age. There are several universities, among the best of Africa’s former British colonies.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.5years2017
Graduates104 851units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level161 538units2018
Teachers, secondary level167 150units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.9per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.7% of adults2017
HIV, total1.8%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.38% of GDP2010
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking21.71%2016
Access to electricity79%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.8%2012-13
education10.6%2012-13
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