Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 357 581 sq km
Population: 83 155 031 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 232.55 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 47° N; long. 6° - 15° E
Capital: Berlin (capital) 3 664 088 inhab. (2020); Berlin 4 650 500 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.947 (rank: 6)
President: Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD), since 19 March 2017
Federal Chancellor: Angela Merkel (CDU), since 22 November 2005, last re-elected on 14 March 2018
Parliament: seats (August 2021 update): CDU-CSU (Christian Democratic Union, 200; Christian Social Union, 45), 245; SPD (Social Democratic Party), 152; AfD (Alternative for Germany, right-wing), 86; FDP (Free Democratic Party, liberal), 80; Die Linke (Left Party), 69; Greens, 67; independents, 10
Internet: www.destatis.de (Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Germany

Deutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Useful information

International license plate code D
International dialling code 0049
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .de

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Berlin 9.7; Hamburg 8.6; Essen 9.7; Frankfurt am Main 10.1; Munich 8.7; Nuremberg 9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Berlin -0.5/19; Hamburg -0.5/17.5; Essen 2/17.5; Frankfurt am Main 0.5/19; Munich -2/17.5; Nuremberg -1/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Berlin 8/1; Hamburg 8/1; Essen 6/1; Frankfurt am Main 8/1; Munich 8/2; Nuremberg 7.5/1.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Berlin 605; Hamburg 770; Essen 945; Frankfurt am Main 675; Munich 815; Nuremberg 645
Days of rainfall (annual average) Berlin 118; Hamburg 131; Essen 142; Frankfurt am Main 116; Munich 118; Nuremberg 115

Politics and current affairs

After a relatively calm summer (2020) on the pandemic front, Germany was struck by several COVID-19 waves from autumn 2020 onwards. Angela Merkel’s government (CDU) tackled the crisis by introducing a range of restrictive measures, including a second lockdown that lasted several months (December 2020-May 2021). The vaccination campaign, which started on 27 December 2020, was met with widespread consensus (63.9% of the population had received the first dose by 22 August 2021). Initially excluded, the campaign was extended to children between 12 and 17 years.
In mid-July 2021, western Germany (mainly North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate) was struck by a catastrophic flood that caused buildings to collapse, widespread blackouts and more than 170 deaths.
The German federal elections, to be held on 26 September, will mark the end of the “Merkel Era”, characterized by the same chancellor for over 15 years (2005-21). The CDU-CSU coalition (whose candidate for Chancellor is Armit Laschet) is undergoing a wane in popularity and might not gain sufficient votes. The elections in Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate in March 2021 were won by the Greens and the SPD respectively.

Geography.
Germany is bordered to the north by Denmark, to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, to the south-east and the south by Austria, to the south-west by Switzerland, to the west by France, Luxembourg and Belgium, and to the north-west by the Netherlands. To the north, it lies on the Baltic and North Seas. In the south the country reaches as far as the southern slopes of the Alps mountain chain between Lake Constance and the River Salzach. The stark wooded peaks slope down towards the rolling Swabian and Bavarian plains. The central part of the country is made up of a mountainous region, broken up by a series of river basins and valleys that gradually open out towards the northern plain. To the north of the River Danube the central hills (Thuringian Forest, Franconian Jura, Swabian Jura and the Black Forest) form a crown around the Swabian and Franconian basin, crossed by the River Neckar and the River Main. The Upper Rhine Plain lies between the Black Forest and the French Vosges region. The Thuringian Basin and Saxony lie to the east, descending from the Ore Mountains towards the northern plains. To the north-east the plain is crossed by a dense network of rivers formed by the River Elbe and smaller rivers flowing from it to the west (the River Saale and the River Mulde) and to the east (the River Havel). The coasts are low-lying with dunes, with groups and chains of islands facing it (the Eastern Frisian Islands). They are also broken up by the deep estuaries of the Rivers Elbe, Weser and Ems.
The climate is a mixture of the oceanic climate of north-west Europe, and a more continental climate.
Germany has an exclave in Switzerland, the town of Büsingen am Hochrhein (7.62 km²; pop. 1519 in 2020), as well as the Austrian enclave of Jungholz (7.06 km²; pop. 308 in 2020).

Government


Defeated and divided by the Second World War, Germany was reunited following the disintegration of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe.
On 3 October 1990 the German Democratic Republic (DDR, established on 7 October 1949 in the Soviet-occupied zone) ceased to exist and became a part of the German Federal Republic (BRD, established on 23 May 1949 in the sectors occupied by the USA, France and the United Kingdom), according to procedures laid down by the Basic Law of 25 May 1949 (Grundgesetz) and by the Treaty of the State signed by the two Germanies on 31 August 1990.
After reunification, the BRD is made up of 16 confederated states (Länder), each one with its own legislative and executive bodies. Whilst the DDR was subjected to a communist regime, in the BRD government alternated between the Christian Democrats (CDU) and the Social Democrats (SPD).
According to the Grundgesetz, executive power lies with the Chancellor and his ministers, while legislative power is exercised by the Parliament, made up of two chambers with different powers: the Bundestag (the lower house with 598 members elected by direct suffrage for four years, even if the number may vary in each legislature because the parties can gain supplementary seats in constituencies: there are currently 709 members) and the Bundesrat (the upper house or the federal council, 69 members designated by the regional governments in proportion to population). The Chancellor must win approval from the Bundestag and may not be dismissed without a successor being designated (“a constructive vote of no confidence”). The Federal President is elected for five years by the members of the Bundestag and by as many electors designated by the Länder parliaments, in proportion to their political importance.


Defence.
Despite the tradition of post-war peace, Germany has been asked to take on more responsibility in NATO. Trump’s US had accused Berlin of failing to meet their military spending targets, and in 2020 it announced the withdrawal of 12 000 American soldiers garrisoned in Germany: in Ramstein, the country has the main American airbase outside the USA. In the first half of 2021, President Biden overturned Trump’s decision and sent 500 soldiers to Germany in addition to the 12 000 already present. Its part in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan marked Germany’s first military intervention since the end of the Second World War. Eyes remain on Russia: in 2018, Germany agreed to heading a battalion of 1200 NATO soldiers in Lithuania.
In 2011, military service was abolished and the armed forces became a completely professional institution.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental civil law. Civil and penal justice is administered by the federal tribunals (Federal Constitutional Court and Upper Federal Courts) and by the tribunals of the Länder (split into local and regional tribunals and courts of appeal). In 2017, Germany’s Bundestag approved a law allowing same-sex marriages and adoptions.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16$%2015
Army34.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes7 447.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Berlin3 664 088inhab.2020
Hamburg1 852 478inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ruhr region=Ruhrgebiet5 612 000inhab.2019
Colonia-Düsseldorf4 919 100inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The rate of natural increase in the population has been below zero for several years. Asylum applications have decreased, compared to the peak of 2015. According to the law on citizenship, in force since 2000, only citizens born in Germany with at least one parent who has been resident for a minimum of 8 years may be considered a German citizen.
A new immigration law in 2018 introduced new legal access channels for highly professional migrants.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.32020
Death rate11.92020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total10 915 455units2018
Turks1 476 410units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
German86.9%2018
other4.7%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist38.8%2019
Catholic27.1%2019


Languages
DESCRIPTION
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years12.9%2020
15-29 years15.5%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The global economic crisis and the restrictions introduced to limit COVID-19 infection caused the German GDP to fall by 4.9% in 2020. The economy is expected to recover in 2021 (+3.6%). Retail prices could increase significantly (+2.8%) in 2021 due to an increase in VAT from 16 to 19% on certain products and services after being temporarily lowered during the pandemic.
Notwithstanding improvements in the health emergency compared with 2020, the German deficit will have more than doubled in 2021 (9% of the GDP) against the previous year (4.2%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)106.81index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)93.55index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population43 519 300units2020
Active population, Females47$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females41.5%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses508 168M LCU2020
Revenues421 593M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.201%2020
industry27.035%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.758%2020
industry28.959%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation359.479BN LCU2020
International reserves268 408.603M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The main agricultural crops are cereals, potatoes, oats, sugar beet, hops (for the flourishing beer industry), rape, sunflowers and tobacco (areas of Baden and the Palatinate). Vines are widespread in the Rhineland Palatinate and in the areas close to the Rhine, the Moselle, the Main and the Neckar. The forests are relatively large and provide the raw materials for the timber, cellulose and paper industries.
Livestockand fishing.
Livestock farming (especially pigs and cattle) contributes over two-thirds to the primary sector of the economy. Sea fisheries are large in scale (in the North Sea, the Barents Sea and along the coasts of Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland). The main fishing ports are those at Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven, Hamburg, Sassnitz, Kiel, Stralsund, Rostock and Wismar.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land35.841%2018
forests34.306%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley11 591.51000 t2019
cereals, total44 302.41000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes10 602.21000 t2019
roots and tubers, total10 602.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus130.561000 t2019
cabbages722.291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green39.711000 t2019
broad beans, dry159.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 1251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed2 830.21000 t2019
soybeans84.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed8.1181000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops48.51000 t2019
sugar beet29 728.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed6.651000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples991.451000 t2019
apricots0.2291000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts18.4231000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms71.791000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 708.81000 ha2019
maize4161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes271.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages13.11000 ha2019
carrots and turnips13.731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green4.061000 ha2019
broad beans, dry49.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape100.521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed856.81000 ha2019
soybeans28.91000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed6.0381000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops20.31000 ha2019
sugar beet408.71000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed3.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste3.61000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples33.981000 ha2019
apricots0.231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.351000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber76 167 4302019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle11 639.531000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes11 649.641000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes10.111000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs26 053.41000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 556.51000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1411000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total406.2691000 heads2018
horses406.2691000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds174 3291000 heads2018
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey20.3331000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter484.0471000 t2018
cheese2 422.7121000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs32 113.3t2019
freshwater fishes24 828.3t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The large coal basins (Ruhr, Saarland, Aachen and Zwickau-Ölsnitz) are being mined less and less. There are considerable deposits of lignite (in North Rhine-Westphalia, northern Hesse, Upper Palatinate, the Leipzig-Halle-Bitterfeld-Merseburg and Lower Lusatia areas), of which Germany is the second largest producer in the world after China. Uranium mines were in operation during the Cold War, but today the ore is imported. The mining of hydrocarbons plays a marginal role. The network of oil and refined products pipelines includes the stretches Wilhelmshaven-Frankfurt-Hamburg and Karlsruhe-Ingolstadt.
An oil pipeline connects Cologne and Frankfurt to Rotterdam, and a further three oil pipelines connect Ingolstadt to Marseilles, Genoa and Trieste. Other pipelines are Druzhba from Russia, and MERO from the Czech Republic.
The natural gas basins in Lower Saxony, in the Molasse basin to the east of Munich, in Upper Hesse, as well as the fields at Rüdersdorf, Staakow, Mühl, Bad Langensalza and Roxförde are also important. Several pipelines allow the import of natural gas from the North Sea fields (Europipe, MIDAL, TENP) and from the Russian ones (Yamal-Europe). The German/Russian Nord Stream gas pipeline along the Baltic Sea bed is operationale, thus avoiding Ukraine and the Baltic states.
In 2021, work was completed on a second gas pipeline in the Baltic Sea (Nord Stream 2), aimed at doubling the Nord Stream capacity. The project, initially opposed by the US, was approved by President Biden following an agreement with Germany, which involves both countries backing the Ukraine financially and in gas talks with Russia.
Energy.
In 2011, the German government launched a plan for the gradual closure by 2022 of its 17 oldest nuclear reactors which provided about one quarter of the national electrical energy requirement; currently, six nuclear reactors are still in operation, which supply about 12% of the energy produced by the Gundremmingen, Grohnde, Brokdorf, Isar, Emsland and Neckarwestheim power stations. In 2018, it was also established that coal-fired power stations will have to be closed down by 2038. The country initiated a wide campaign in favour of renewable energy (strongly subsidized by Energiewende), particularly wind and solar energy, which contributed more than 50% of national energy production in 2020. Against a backdrop of this policy of diversification, the government introduced measures to incentivize the development of several regasification terminals (Stade-Hamburg, Brunsbüttel and Wilhelmshaven).
Industry.
The industrial sector is very solid and well-developed and covers the whole range of industrial activity: the German Mittelstand, the SME system, is highly specialized and dedicated to exports.
In 2020, Merkel’s government introduced a new protection policy for sectors vulnerable to foreign takeovers. Although nowadays scaled down, the German iron and steel industry enjoys a leading role in Europe; most of the plants are concentrated in the coalmining area of the Ruhr. Products of the metal-working industry include lead, magnesium, tin, zinc, aluminium and copper.
Oil refineries are located at Böhlen, Brunsbüttel-Ostermoor, Burghausen, Gelsenkirchen, Hamburg, Heide (Holstein), Karlsruhe, Kösching (Ingolstadt), Lingen, Neustadt an der Donau, Salzbergen, Schwedt, Spergau, Vohburg an der Donau, Webau, Wesseling (Cologne), Wilhelmshaven. The petrochemical industry is present with large plants at Dormagen and Hüls. Among basic chemical products there are synthetic rubber, artificial fibres, plastic materials, resins and synthetic fibres. Cement production factories are widespread throughout the national territory, while the major chemical plants are located in Frankfurt and Leipzig (for dyes) and in Leverkusen, Jena and Wolfen (pharmaceutical and photo-chemical products).
The engineering industry is of great importance. The main centres, especially in the Ruhr area, are specialized in the production of printing machines, textile machinery, and agricultural machinery. The car industry has its major centres in Wolfsburg (headquarters of Volkswagen, which has 24 plants, including those in Augsburg, Emden, Hannover, Ingolstadt, Kassel, Munich, Salzgitter and Stuttgart), Rüsselsheim (Opel), Cologne (Ford), Stuttgart (Daimler-Benz/Mercedes), Ingolstadt and Neckarsulm (Audi), Munich (BMW). Tractors, bicycles, locomotive engines and railway carriages are also manufactured. There are shipyards in Hamburg, Bremen, Emden, Flensburg, Rostock and Wismar. Electronic and electro-technical centres are numerous: in Karlsruhe, Munich and Berlin, there are technological parks specializing in the sectors of information technology and other leading-edge technologies.
The textile industry is concentrated on the Rhine valley area parallel to the Dutch border, in the south-west, in the Plauen-Leipzig-Zittau triangle and other locations dotted throughout the country. The leather industry is of world renown; furthermore, Germany is one of the most important countries in the world for the fur trade. The rubber industry is well-developed, as well as the glass and the optical industries. Germany has traditional centres for the manufacture of ceramics, musical instruments, jewellery and toys. These productions are located in large cities such as Berlin, Munich and Nuremberg, but above all they are widespread in small and medium-sized centres scattered throughout the territory.
Beer production is very widespread in Bavaria and in some large cities (Frankfurt, Dortmund, Bremen and Hamburg).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 7621000 t2018
coal, total107 4001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore4561000 t2014
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite40$1000 t2019
bentonite3901000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite52$1000 t2020
dolomite14 5631000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal267 936.66M kWh2019
- other renew.226 683.09M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.121 8111000 kW2019
- thermal91 4151000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation583 158.14M kWh2019
total installed capacity227 9151000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 9001000 t2019
aluminium5501000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 400 000no.2018
cars3 515 372no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras10 772no.2012
watches and clocks286 383no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners6 709 000no.2018
computers813 373no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4 0831000 t2018
petrol28 434.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 4001000 t2020
artificial tow149.61000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets81 5711000 m²2018
cotton fabrics159.8M m²2010
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear44 701 000pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley8 656.8241000 t2018
fish, frozen57$1000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes127 284M units2018
cigars3 301M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 485.7691000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp2 348.8991000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement33 6331000 t2018
sheet glass707.21000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production81 892.433M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production59 575.392M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Germany firmly remains one of the main players in international trade and one of the leading exporters in the world: for this reason, it is exposed to growing protectionist tensions and the effects of the crisis on international value chains. The country exports cars and other machinery, electronics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. It imports hydrocarbons and raw materials, industrial components, food and textiles. The major trading partners are the USA and the EU countries (especially France, Italy and the Netherlands), and China.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 231 237, cars 157 403, electrical and electronic equipment and appliances 149 970, vehicles and parts thereof 100 884, pharmaceuticals 84 468, technical and electro-medical appliances 72 539, plastics 63 604, chemicals 59 008, iron and steel 56 932, aircraft and parts thereof 41 798, apparel and accessories 20 753, paper and paperboard 20 278, furniture and accessories 17 422, tyres and rubber articles 17 218, aluminium 16 448, computers and accessories 14 921, petroleum products 13 466, dyes 12 984, refined copper 12 371, glass and ceramic products 10 721, cosmetics and perfumes 10 604, tools and implements 9 455, cheese and dairy products 9 146, meat 9 038, timber 9 023, articles of base metal 8 497, soap and detergents 8 488, footwear 7 615, natural gas 7 265, ships and boats 6 930, beverages 6 736


Financeand banking.
The European Central Bank has its headquarters in Frankfurt; the Deutsche Bundesbank has headquarters in each of the 16 Länder (Landeszentralbanken). The other banks are divided into three groups: merchant banks, including Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank; public law credit institutes, such as savings banks (Sparkassen), and rural and crafts saving banks (Volksbanken and Raiffeisenbanken).
The insurance group, Allianz, is one of the most important in Europe. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the key financial centres in the world. The young bank N26, founded in Berlin in 2013, continues to expand its activities on a European level.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures85.074% of goods exports2019
food products5.449% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States119 520M US$2020
China110 343M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China133 551M US$2020
Netherlands90 168M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 380 000M US$ -
20191 489 412M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20201 170 787M US$ -
20191 233 978M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main tourist destinations are: the Black Forest, the Thuringian Mountains, the Rhine Valley, the large cities (Berlin and Munich), the old university cities (such as Heidelberg and Mainz) and the villages along the Romantische Strasse.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures99 865M US$2019
Number of arrivals39 563 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The Rhine Valley is the main German transport axis. The motorway network covers the whole country. Rail communications are well developed and include a highly diversified network of high-speed services (ICE trains) which are in the process of being integrated with the European rail network.
The most important rivers for transport are the Rhine, the Neckar-Danube and the Elbe.
The main airport is in Frankfurt, the first in Europe for freight traffic and the fourth for number of passengers (after London, Paris and Amsterdam), followed by Munich and Berlin. On 31 October 2020, the new Berlin “Willy Brandt” airport was inaugurated. The former Berlin airport, Tegel, has been closed.


Media and telecommunication.
Deutsche Telekom is the most important European telecommunications company.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 198 400km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried109 633.81000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers419.933per 1000 pop.2019
Computers656per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education begins at 6 years of age and is compulsory for nine years (in some Länder for ten). Primary education (Grundschule) lasts for four years and is free. The first secondary cycle includes four courses of study of five or six years: the Hauptschule, general, the Realschule, cultural and technical, the Gymnasium, with four large thematic areas, in preparation for university and for higher professional training, and lastly the Gesamtschule, offering a course that combines the main features of the three previous cycles. The second secondary cycle is divided into two courses of study: general culture, leading to the attainment of the Abitur (secondary school leaving certificate) and enabling access to university, and higher professional training.


Social security and health.
Social legislation has established full insurance cover for illness, accident, old age, disability and unemployment. The pension reform of 2007 anticipates a gradual increase in the retirement age from 65 to 67 years of age; the reform was then mitigated by successive coalition governments.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.932years2018
Gradautes, percentage29.9%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 987 112units2018
Students, secondary level6 948 797.42units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending43.746% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending25.881% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds8$per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians4.31per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums4 543units2019
Museums, visitors111 634 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.18% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.4%2019
education0.9%2019
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