Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 357 582 sq km
Population: 82 792 351 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 231.53 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 55° - 47° N; long. 6° - 15° E
Capital: Berlin (capital) 3 613 495 inhab. (2017); Berlin 4 571 600 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.936 (rank: 5)
President: Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD), since 19 March 2017
Federal Chancellor: Angela Merkel (CDU), since 22 November 2005, last re-elected on 14 March 2018
Parliament: seats (July 2019 update): CDU-CSU (Christian Democratic Union, 200; Christian Social Union, 46), 246; SPD (Social Democratic Party), 152; AfD (Alternative for Germany, right-wing), 91; FDP (Free Democratic Party, liberal), 80; Die Linke (Left Party), 69; Greens, 67; independents, 4
Internet: www.destatis.de (Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Germany

Deutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Useful information

International license plate code D
International dialling code 0049
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .de

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Berlin 9.7; Hamburg 8.6; Essen 9.7; Frankfurt am Main 10.1; Munich 8.7; Nuremberg 9
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Berlin -0.5/19; Hamburg -0.5/17.5; Essen 2/17.5; Frankfurt am Main 0.5/19; Munich -2/17.5; Nuremberg -1/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Berlin 8/1; Hamburg 8/1; Essen 6/1; Frankfurt am Main 8/1; Munich 8/2; Nuremberg 7.5/1.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Berlin 605; Hamburg 770; Essen 945; Frankfurt am Main 675; Munich 815; Nuremberg 645
Days of rainfall (annual average) Berlin 118; Hamburg 131; Essen 142; Frankfurt am Main 116; Munich 118; Nuremberg 115

Politics and current affairs

The political scene in Germany has entered the final stage of Angela Merkel’s leadership, Chancellor since 2005, who stepped down from the leadership of her party, CDU, on 19 October 2018, announcing that she will not seek other positions once her term expires in 2021.
The coalition between CDU/CSU and the social democrats of the SPD has faced several difficulties. After a number of clashes between the allies, the elections in Bavaria on 14 October 2018 resulted in a strong decline in popularity for the Christian Social Union in Bavaria, though it nonetheless remains in power. Over the following months, the country was shaken by the rise of far-right groups, especially after the murder of Walter Lübcke (CDU), a politician who was dedicated to promoting solidarity for migrants. However, in the European elections on 26 May 2019, the real winners were The Greens, which doubled its votes with 20.5%, while CDU/CSU, despite being smaller, upheld its position as the top party, with 28.9% of the votes. The true defeat was the SPD, which reached a record low of 15.8%, putting in doubt its duration in the government coalition. The populists of AfD, increasingly shifting towards xenophobic positions, earned just 11%.
Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, A. Merkel’s successor, replaced Ursula von Der Leyen as the Minister of Defense on 17 July 2019, the latter becoming President-elect of the European Commission. On 22 January 2019, Germany renewed the Élysée Treaty with France, deepening bilateral rapports. The clash with Italy over the management of migration continues.

Geography.
Germany is bordered to the north by Denmark, to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, to the south-east and the south by Austria, to the south-west by Switzerland, to the west by France, Luxembourg and Belgium, and to the north-west by the Netherlands. To the north, it lies on the Baltic and North Seas. In the south the country reaches as far as the southern slopes of the Alps mountain chain between Lake Constance and the River Salzach. The stark wooded peaks slope down towards the rolling Swabian and Bavarian plains. The central part of the country is made up of a mountainous region, broken up by a series of river basins and valleys that gradually open out towards the northern plain. To the north of the River Danube the central hills (Thuringian Forest, Franconian Jura, Swabian Jura and the Black Forest) form a crown around the Swabian and Franconian basin, crossed by the River Neckar and the River Main. The Upper Rhine Plain lies between the Black Forest and the French Vosges region. The Thuringian Basin and Saxony lie to the east, descending from the Ore Mountains towards the northern plains. To the north-east the plain is crossed by a dense network of rivers formed by the River Elbe and smaller rivers flowing from it to the west (the River Saale and the River Mulde) and to the east (the River Havel). The coasts are low-lying with dunes, with groups and chains of islands facing it (the Eastern Frisian Islands). They are also broken up by the deep estuaries of the Rivers Elbe, Weser and Ems.
The climate is a mixture of the oceanic climate of north-west Europe, and a more continental climate.
Germany has an exclave in Switzerland, the town of Büsingen am Hochrhein (7.62 km²; pop. 1443 in 2017), as well as the Austrian enclave of Jungholz (7.06 km²; pop. 301 in 2018).

Government


Defeated and divided by the Second World War, Germany was reunited following the disintegration of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe.
On 3 October 1990 the German Democratic Republic (DDR, established on 7 October 1949 in the Soviet-occupied zone) ceased to exist and became a part of the German Federal Republic (BRD, established on 23 May 1949 in the sectors occupied by the USA, France and the United Kingdom), according to procedures laid down by the Basic Law of 25 May 1949 (Grundgesetz) and by the Treaty of the State signed by the two Germanies on 31 August 1990.
After reunification, the BRD is made up of 16 confederated states (Länder), each one with its own legislative and executive bodies. Whilst the DDR was subjected to a communist regime, in the BRD government alternated between the Christian Democrats (CDU) and the Social Democrats (SPD).
According to the Grundgesetz, executive power lies with the Chancellor and his ministers, while legislative power is exercised by the Parliament, made up of two chambers with different powers: the Bundestag (the lower house with 598 members elected by direct suffrage for four years, even if the number may vary in each legislature because the parties can gain supplementary seats in constituencies: there are currently 709 members) and the Bundesrat (the upper house or the federal council, 69 members designated by the regional governments in proportion to population). The Chancellor must win approval from the Bundestag and may not be dismissed without a successor being designated (“a constructive vote of no confidence”). The Federal President is elected for five years by the members of the Bundestag and by as many electors designated by the Länder parliaments, in proportion to their political importance.


Defence.
Despite the tradition of post-war peace, Germany was asked to take on more responsibility in NATO.
By taking part in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan (2001-14), deploying 5300 forces, Germany carried out its first military intervention abroad since the end of the Second World War. Attention towards Russia has increased: in October 2018, Germany coordinated a large naval exercise in the Baltic Sea and later confirmed its efforts in leading a battalion of 1200 NATO soldiers in Lithuania. Garrisons of American and British soldiers remain in Germany: the US’s main foreign air base is in Ramstein.
In 2011, military service was abolished and the armed forces became a completely professional institution.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental civil law. Civil and penal justice is administered by the federal tribunals (Federal Constitutional Court and Upper Federal Courts) and by the tribunals of the Länder (split into local and regional tribunals and courts of appeal). On 30 June 2017, Germany’s Bundestag approved a law allowing same-sex marriages and adoptions.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16%2015
Army34.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes7 447.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Berlin3 613 495inhab.2017
Hamburg1 830 584inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Ruhr region=Ruhrgebiet5 614 900inhab.2017
Berlin4 571 600inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The rate of natural increase in the population has been below zero for several years. A foreign presence is increasing rapidly. At the end of 2017, foreigners in Germany were about 10.6 million, but asylum applications decreased, compared to the peak of 2015. According to the law on citizenship, in force since 2000, only citizens born in Germany with at least one parent who has been resident for a minimum of 8 years may be considered a German citizen.
A new immigration law in 2018 introduced new legal access channels for highly professional migrants.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.52017
Death rate11.32017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total10 623 940units2017
Turks1 483 515units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
German87.2%2017
other4.6%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist37%2017
Catholic28.2%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years12.8%2018
15-29 years16%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
After years of sustained economic performance, in 2018, the economy grew less than usual (1.45%), risking a technical recession in the second half of the year, and should slow to 0.5% in 2019. The trade surplus is also expected to drop to 6.5% of the GDP in 2020. Consumption and public accounts remain strong. Unemployment is still very low, registered at 3.4%.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)106.81index2016
Balance of trade275 171.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population43 382 300units2018
Active population, Females46.3%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females39.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses417 364M LCU2018
Revenues435 270M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.2%2018
industry27.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture0.8%2018
industry31%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation300.4BN LCU2018
International reserves198 027.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The main agricultural crops are cereals, potatoes, oats, sugar beet, hops (for the flourishing beer industry), rape, sunflowers and tobacco (areas of Baden and the Palatinate). Vines are widespread in the Rhineland Palatinate and in the areas close to the Rhine, the Moselle, the Main and the Neckar.
The forests are relatively large and provide the raw materials for the timber, cellulose and paper industries.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming (especially pigs and cattle) contributes 70% to the primary sector of the economy. Sea fisheries are large in scale (in the North Sea, the Barents Sea and along the coasts of Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland). The main fishing ports are those at Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven, Hamburg, Sassnitz, Kiel, Stralsund, Rostock and Wismar.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land34.55%2015
forests32.73%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley10 853.41000 t2017
cereals, total45 556.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes11 7201000 t2017
roots and tubers, total11 7201000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus130.8811000 t2017
cabbages790.1911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green51.4691000 t2017
broad beans, dry188.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 014.2351000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed4 275.61000 t2017
soybeans611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed8.2041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops32.5821000 t2017
sugar beet34 059.91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed71000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples596.6661000 t2017
apricots0.2141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts18.4151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms73.4541000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 566.11000 ha2017
maize4321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes250.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages13.9911000 ha2017
carrots and turnips12.5451000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green4.5081000 ha2017
broad beans, dry46.41000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape100.2551000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1 308.91000 ha2017
soybeans191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed6.0811000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops17.0771000 ha2017
sugar beet406.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed4.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste01000 ha2013
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples33.9131000 ha2017
apricots0.0461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts5.5471000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.3091000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber53 490 6002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle12 281.1951000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes12 289.8691000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes8.6741000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs27 577.5681000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 579.7931000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1401000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total448.1461000 heads2017
horses448.1461000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds175 5931000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey20.1951000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter441.1091000 t2014
cheese2 740.5821000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs27 160t2017
freshwater fishes24 973t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The large coal basins (Ruhr, Saarland, Aachen and Zwickau-Ölsnitz) are being mined less and less. There are considerable deposits of lignite (in North Rhine-Westphalia, northern Hesse, Upper Palatinate, the Leipzig-Halle-Bitterfeld-Merseburg and Lower Lusatia areas), of which Germany is the second largest producer in the world after China. Uranium mines were in operation during the Cold War, but today the ore is imported.
The mining of hydrocarbons plays a marginal role in covering requirements. The network of oil and refined products pipelines includes the stretches from Wilhelmshaven to Frankfurt and Hamburg, and between Karlsruhe and Ingolstadt.
An oil pipeline connects Cologne and Frankfurt to Rotterdam, and a further three oil pipelines connect Ingolstadt to Marseilles, Genoa and Trieste. Other pipelines are Druzhba from Russia, whose flow was temporarily interrupted in April 2019 due to the presence of contaminants, and MERO from the Czech Republic. The natural gas basins in Lower Saxony, in the Molasse basin to the east of Munich, in Upper Hesse, as well as the fields at Rüdersdorf, Staakow, Mühl, Bad Langensalza and Roxförde are also important. Several pipelines allow the import of natural gas from the North Sea fields (Europipe, MIDAL, TENP) and from the Russian ones (Yamal-Europe). In 2012, building work on the German/Russian Nord Stream gas pipeline along the Baltic Sea bed was also completed, thus avoiding Ukraine and the Baltic states. Despite international criticism, work on a second pipeline in the Baltic Sea began near the German coast in 2018, in order to double the capacity of Nord Stream.
Energy.
In 2011, the German government launched a plan for the gradual closure by 2022 of its 17 oldest nuclear reactors which provided about one quarter of the national electrical energy requirement; currently, seven nuclear reactors are still in operation, which supply about 13% of the energy produced. In 2018, it was also established that coal-fired power stations will have to be closed down by 2038. The country initiated a wide campaign in favour of renewable energy (strongly subsidized by Energiewende), particularly wind and solar energy, which in 2018 for the first time exceeded the contribution of coal to national energy production. Against a backdrop of this policy of diversification, the government introduced measures to incentivize the development of several regasification terminals (Stade-Hamburg, Brunsbüttel and Wilhelmshaven). The transition led to an industrial reconfiguration in the energy sector: in 2018 the main utilities, E.On and Rwe, divided another larger company in the sector, Innogy. However, the agreement is subject to a European Commission investigation.
Industry.
The industrial sector is very solid and well-developed and covers the whole range of industrial activity: the German Mittelstand, the SME system, is highly specialized and dedicated to exports. Although nowadays scaled down, the German iron and steel industry enjoys a leading role in Europe; most of the plants are concentrated in the coalmining area of the Ruhr. Products of the metal-working industry include lead, magnesium, tin, zinc, aluminium and copper. Oil refineries operate at Hamburg, Böhlen, Bremen, Brunsbuttel-Ostermoor, Burghausen, Cologne, Emden, Gelsenkirchen, Heide-Holstein, Ingolstadt, Karlsruhe, Leuna, Lingen, Mannheim, Neustadt, Salzbergen, Schwedt, Speyer, Vohburg, Wilhelmshaven, Zeitz.
The petrochemical industry is present with large plants at Dormagen and Hüls. Among basic chemical products there are synthetic rubber, artificial fibres, plastic materials, resins and synthetic fibres. Cement production factories are widespread throughout the national territory, while the major chemical plants are located in Frankfurt and Leipzig (for dyes) and in Leverkusen, Jena and Wolfen (pharmaceutical and photo-chemical products).
The engineering industry is of great importance. The main centres, especially in the Ruhr area, are specialized in the production of printing machines, textile machinery, and agricultural machinery.
The car industry has its major centres in Wolfsburg (headquarters of Volkswagen, which has further plants in Augsburg, Emden, Hannover, Ingolstadt, Kassel, Munich, Salzgitter and Stuttgart), Rüsselsheim (Opel), Cologne (Ford), Stuttgart (Daimler-Benz/Mercedes), Ingolstadt and Neckarsulm (Audi), Munich (BMW). Tractors, bicycles, locomotive engines and railway carriages are also manufactured. The plans to merge the German Siemens and French Alstom to create a European giant in railway production was blocked in February 2019 by the European Commission on the grounds of safeguarding competitiveness.
There are shipyards in Hamburg, Bremen, Emden, Flensburg, Rostock and Wismar. There are electronic and electro-technical centres in Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, Erfurt, Radeberg, Weimar, Stuttgart and Munich.
Precision mechanics is highly developed. In Karlsruhe, Munich and Berlin, there are technological parks specializing in the sectors of information technology and other leading-edge technologies.
The textile industry is concentrated on the Rhine valley area parallel to the Dutch border, in the south-west, in the Plauen-Leipzig-Zittau triangle and other locations dotted throughout the country. The leather industry is of world renown; furthermore, Germany is one of the most important countries in the world for the fur trade.
The rubber industry is well-developed in the northern regions, in Westphalia and the Rhineland, and, in the south, in the Munich area. The glass industry has centres in the Ruhr, in Saarland, in Saxony and in Thuringia; the optical industries are also important. Germany has traditional centres for the manufacture of ceramics, musical instruments, jewellery and toys. These productions are located in large cities such as Berlin, Munich and Nuremberg, but above all they are widespread in small and medium-sized centres scattered throughout the territory.
Beer production is very widespread in Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Kulmbach) and in some large cities (Frankfurt, Dortmund, Bremen and Hamburg).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3 8361000 t2017
coal, total169 0311000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
iron ore4561000 t2014
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite451000 t2016
bentonite3901000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite501000 t2018
dolomite19 0001000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal339 655.84M kWh2016
- other renew.174 736M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.101 2651000 kW2016
- thermal85 1361000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation612 791.84M kWh2016
total installed capacity208 5001000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
alumina1 9001000 t2017
aluminium1 6171000 t2017
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 014 000no.2017
cars5 120 409no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cameras10 772no.2012
watches and clocks286 383no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners7 894 000no.2017
computers813 373no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4 0651000 t2016
petrol28 434.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2 5001000 t2018
artificial tow149.61000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets86 0661000 m²2017
cotton fabrics159.8M m²2010
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear35 208 000pairs2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley8 723.11000 t2014
fish, frozen571000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes149 607M units2017
cigars2 673M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp1 6361000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp2 4331000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement32 0001000 t2016
sheet glass707.21000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production76 531.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production55 211.4M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Germany firmly remains one of the main players in international trade and one of the leading exporters in the world: for this reason, it is exposed to growing protectionist tensions. The country exports cars and other machinery, electronics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. It imports hydrocarbons and raw materials, industrial components, food and textiles. The major trading partners are the USA and the EU countries (especially France, Italy and the Netherlands), and China.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 231 237, cars 157 403, electrical and electronic equipment and appliances 149 970, vehicles and parts thereof 100 884, pharmaceuticals 84 468, technical and electro-medical appliances 72 539, plastics 63 604, chemicals 59 008, iron and steel 56 932, aircraft and parts thereof 41 798, apparel and accessories 20 753, paper and paperboard 20 278, furniture and accessories 17 422, tyres and rubber articles 17 218, aluminium 16 448, computers and accessories 14 921, petroleum products 13 466, dyes 12 984, refined copper 12 371, glass and ceramic products 10 721, cosmetics and perfumes 10 604, tools and implements 9 455, cheese and dairy products 9 146, meat 9 038, timber 9 023, articles of base metal 8 497, soap and detergents 8 488, footwear 7 615, natural gas 7 265, ships and boats 6 930, beverages 6 736


Finance and banking.
The European Central Bank has its headquarters in Frankfurt; the Deutsche Bundesbank has headquarters in each of the 16 Länder (Landeszentralbanken). The other banks are divided into three groups: merchant banks, including Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank; public law credit institutes, such as savings banks (Sparkassen), and rural and crafts saving banks (Volksbanken and Raiffeisenbanken). After the failed attempt to merge with Commerzbank in 2019, Deutsche Bank presented an extensive restructuring program of its business model.
The insurance group, Allianz, is one of the most important in Europe. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the key financial centres in the world.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures85.364% of goods exports2018
food products5.325% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States134 389M US$2018
France124 223M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China126 722M US$2018
Netherlands104 984M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20181 560 816M US$ -
20171 448 190M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20181 285 644M US$ -
20171 162 907M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main tourist destinations are: the Black Forest, the Thuringian Mountains, the Rhine Valley, the large cities (Berlin and Munich), the old university cities (such as Heidelberg and Mainz) and the villages along the Romantische Strasse.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures97 597M US$2017
Number of arrivals37 452 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The Rhine Valley is the main German transport axis. The motorway network covers the whole country. Rail communications are well developed and include a highly diversified network of high-speed services (ICE trains) which are in the process of being integrated with the European rail network. The most important rivers for transport are the Rhine, the Neckar-Danube and the Elbe.
The main airport is in Frankfurt, the first in Europe for freight traffic and the fourth for number of passengers (after London, Paris and Amsterdam).


Media and telecommunication.
Deutsche Telekom is the most important European telecommunications company.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 198 400km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried116 8471000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers404.521per 1000 pop.2017
Computers656per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education begins at 6 years of age and is compulsory for nine years (in some Länder for ten). Primary education (Grundschule) lasts for four years and is free. The first secondary cycle includes four courses of study of five or six years: the Hauptschule, general, the Realschule, cultural and technical, the Gymnasium, with four large thematic areas, in preparation for university and for higher professional training, and lastly the Gesamtschule, offering a course that combines the main features of the three previous cycles. The second secondary cycle is divided into two courses of study: general culture, leading to the attainment of the Abitur (secondary school leaving certificate) and enabling access to university, and higher professional training.


Social security and health.
Social legislation has established full insurance cover for illness, accident, old age, disability and unemployment. The pension reform of 2007 anticipates a gradual increase in the retirement age from 65 to 67 years of age; the reform was then mitigated by successive coalition governments.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling17.1years2016
Gradautes, percentage28.6%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level238 361units2016
Teachers, secondary level588 926units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending44% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending25.1% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds8.1per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians4.2per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2017
HIV, total0.04%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums4 699units2016
Museums, visitors111 877 000units2016
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.02% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.8%2017
education0.9%2017
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