Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 57 179 sq km
Population: 3 728 600 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 65.21 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 44° - 41° N; long. 40° - 47° E
Capital: Tbilisi (capital) 1 172 000 inhab. (2021); ; Kutaisi (legislative capital) 134 400 inhab. (2021);
Currency: lari (100 tetri)
Human development index: 0.812 (rank: 61)
President: Salomé Zourabichvili (independent), elected 28 November 2018, in office since 16 December 2018
Prime Minister: Irakli Garibashvili (Georgian Dream), since 22 February 2021
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 31 October and 21 November 2020: Georgian Dream (coalition of parties of different orientations), 90; Strength is in Unity–United Opposition (conservative coalition led by the United National Movement), 36; others, 24
Internet: www.geostat.ge (National Statistics Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Georgia

Sakartvelo
Useful information

International license plate code GE
International dialling code 00995
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ge

GMT  +4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Tbilisi 17.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tbilisi 3/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tbilisi 9/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tbilisi 457
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tbilisi 68

Politics and current affairs

The government party Georgian Dream won the legislative elections on 31 October and 21 November 2020. Signing (19 April 2021) an agreement between the government and opposition mediated by the EU put an end to a long political crisis.

Geography.
Georgia is bordered to the north and north-east by Russia, to the south-east by Azerbaijan, to the south by Armenia, to the south-west by Turkey and to the west the country lies on the Black Sea. Predominantly mountainous, to the north the country reaches up to and includes the southern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains and to the south it includes the Lesser Caucasus. The climate is of humid sub-tropical type on the coast, severe on the mountain slopes, and warmer and drier in the eastern Steppes region.

Government


Previously a federated republic within the USSR, Georgia declared independence on 9 April 1991. On 11 October 1992, President Eduard Shevardnadze was elected after a brief civil war. The election in November 2003, won by the president’s party, was voided after major protests (the “Rose Revolution”); the 2004 presidential election was won by conservative Mikhail Saakashvili, who remained in office until 2013. Since 2012, political life has been dominated by the opposition coalition Georgian Dream, founded by the business magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili. In Abkhazia, Adjara and South Ossetia there are active separatist movements. Abkhazia declared its secession from Georgia in 1992 and the old 1925 Constitution was adopted in 1999 following a referendum. Since Russian military intervention in August 2008, Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been de facto independent from the Georgian government. The constitution ratified on 17 May 1995 established the office of the president, but the amendment in 2010 reduced the president’s powers in favour of the prime minister and government; an additional amendment in 2017 pronounced that starting in 2024, the president will be elected indirectly by a college of 300 members. Normally, the president’s mandate lasts five years, but during the transitional phase, the mandate was extended to six years. The Parliament is made up of 150 members (77 elected by proportional representation and 73 by majority rule) with a four-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.3%2015
Army86$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes685.8per 100 000 pop.2011
Homicides1$per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tbilisi1 172 000inhab.2021
Batumi172 100inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate12.52020
Death rate13.62020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Georgian86.8%2014
Azerbaijani (Azeri)6.3%2014


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox83.4%2014
Muslim10.7%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Georgian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.4%2020
15-29 years18.3%2020


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Economy


The COVID-19 pandemic has stopped the strong growth observed in recent years. The country is traditionally dependent on foreign investments, supported by reforms that have improved the economic climate. The unemployment rate is chronically high. The most exported agricultural products are hazelnuts and cereals; the wine industry is also of importance. The main mineral resource is manganese (Chiatura). Hydrocarbon deposits are scarce but the infrastructures crossing Georgia that bring oil and gas from the Caspian Sea and central Asia to the west (the pipeline Baku on the Caspian Sea to Supsa on the Black Sea, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey) are an important source of income for the state thanks to the rights of way. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power. Industrial activity includes steel and chemical plants (Rustavi), mechanical plants (vehicles at Kutaisi) and agricultural, food and textile factories. In 2017 the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line was inaugurated, connecting the Caspian Sea to Turkey.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)73.82index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)104.89index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 890 552units2020
Active population, Females44.9%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate12.1%2020
Unemployment rate, Females40.2%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses12 531.7M LCU2020
Revenues10 488.1M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture19.821%2020
industry18.249%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.184%2019
industry23.044%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation4.661BN LCU2020
International reserves3 913.274M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.214%2018
forests40.616%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley53.51000 t2019
cereals, total371.8651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes194.71000 t2019
roots and tubers, total194.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages29.31000 t2019
carrots and turnips1.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.91000 t2019
peas, dry0.1151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes293.81000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2241000 t2019
soybeans2$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper0.0431000 t2016
tea2$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0041000 t2014
tobacco0.5771000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples44.31000 t2019
apricots1.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9251000 t2019
hazelnuts24$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits64$1000 t2019
lemons2.21000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley25.81000 ha2019
maize73$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes16.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.91000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.1931000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry4.71000 ha2019
peas, dry0.1141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape80.5291000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2451000 ha2019
soybeans0.5921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea1.9041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0071000 ha2014
tobacco2.7461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples13.8971000 ha2019
apricots1.1361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9251000 ha2019
hazelnuts13.4221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits17.9011000 ha2019
lemons0.6891000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber584 8932019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle878.91000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes897.221000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes18.321000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs163.21000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep819.11000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats50.31000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses10.1641000 heads2019
asses and mules10.2571000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8 3661000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.51000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.331000 t2018
cheese0.0331000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs31.86t2019
freshwater fishes1 044.1t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal15.31000 t2019
coal, total15.31000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper9.21000 t2018
lead0.41000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite1401000 t2019
gypsum62$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone866.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 000kg2018
silver700kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 842.68M kWh2019
- thermal2 680.88M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 2201000 kW2019
- thermal9241000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 608.56M kWh2019
total installed capacity4 215.261000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferroalloys332.91000 t2018
steel, crude179.31000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4.71000 t2012
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia2001000 t2019
nitric acid2071000 t2003
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - sq m0.022M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear249 300pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley88.7951000 t2018
fish, salted or smoked1.911000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 670.6M units2016
cigars and cigarettes1 670.6M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper35.391000 t2019
paper35.391000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 0921000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production150.505M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production665.166M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures39.055% of goods exports2019
food products37.193% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkey172M US$2007
United States150M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkey728M US$2007
Russia577M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 342M US$ -
20193 798M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 011M US$ -
20199 517M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 124M US$2019
Number of arrivals5 080 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried615.31000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers235.568per 1000 pop.2019
Computers271.7per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.615years2019
Graduates24 760units2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level316 542units2019
Students, secondary level282 929units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.376% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.3per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians8.3per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2019
Malaria8$cases2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums253units2019
Museums, visitors2 253 200units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.281% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking88.2%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.4%2018
education3.4%2018
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