Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 57 179 sq km
Population: 3 718 200 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 65.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 44° - 41° N; long. 40° - 47° E
Capital: Tbilisi (capital) 1 114 600 inhab. (2017); ; Kutaisi (legislative capital) 147 200 inhab. (2017);
Currency: lari (100 tetri)
Human development index: 0.769 (rank: 70)
President: Giorgi Margvelashvilii (Georgian Dream), elected 27 October 2013, in office since 17 November 2013
Prime Minister: Mamuka Bakhtadze (Georgian Dream), since 20 June 2018
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 8 and 30 October 2016: Georgian Dream (centre-left coalition), 115; ENM (United National Movement, conservative), 27; independents, 1; others, 7
Internet: www.geostat.ge (National Statistics Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Georgia

Sakartvelo
Useful information

International license plate code GE
International dialling code 00995
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ge

GMT  +4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Tbilisi 17.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tbilisi 3/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tbilisi 9/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tbilisi 457
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tbilisi 68

Politics and current affairs

In the legislative elections of 8 and 30 October 2016, the coalition government Georgian Dream obtained 48.7% of the votes, increasing its majority from 85 to 115 seats.

Geography.
Georgia is bordered to the north and north-east by Russia, to the south-east by Azerbaijan, to the south by Armenia, to the south-west by Turkey and to the west the country lies on the Black Sea. Predominantly mountainous, to the north the country reaches up to and includes the southern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains and to the south it includes the Lesser Caucasus. The climate is of humid sub-tropical type on the coast, severe on the mountain slopes, and warmer and drier in the eastern Steppes region.

Government


Previously a federated republic within the USSR, Georgia declared independence on 9 April 1991. On 11 October 1992, President Eduard Shevardnadze was elected after a brief civil war. The election in November 2003, won by the president’s party, was voided after major protests (the “Rose Revolution”); the 2004 presidential election was won by conservative Mikhail Saakashvili. Since 2012, political life has been dominated by the opposition coalition Georgian Dream, founded by the business magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili.
In Abkhazia, Adjara and South Ossetia there are active separatist movements. Abkhazia declared its secession from Georgia in 1992 and the old 1925 Constitution was adopted in 1999 following a referendum. Since Russian military intervention in August 2008, Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been de facto independent from the Georgian government.
According to the 17 May 1995 Constitution, Georgia is a presidential republic. The President is elected by direct suffrage for five years. The Parliament is made up of 150 members (77 elected by proportional representation and 73 by majority rule) with a four-year term. In 2010 changes to the constitution were approved, which have reduced the President’s powers in favour of the Prime Minister and the government. Russian troops are stationed in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.3%2015
Army86%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes685.8per 100 000 pop.2011
Homicides2.7per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tbilisi1 114 600inhab.2017
Batumi155 500inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia caused approximately 260 thousand refugees to flee the country.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.22016
Death rate13.72016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Georgian86.8%2014
Azerbaijani (Azeri)6.3%2014


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox83.4%2014
Muslim10.7%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Georgian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.1%2017
15-29 years20.1%2017


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Economy


The country is traditionally dependent on foreign investments and the contraction hit by its principal economic partners after the drop in fuel prices has slowed growth, which however recovered in 2017-18; the unemployment rate is chronically high but constantly decreasing.
The most exported agricultural products are hazelnuts and cereals; the wine industry is also of importance.
The main mineral resource is manganese (Chiatura). Hydrocarbon deposits are scarce but the infrastructures crossing Georgia that bring oil and gas from the Caspian Sea and central Asia to the west (the pipeline Baku on the Caspian Sea to Supsa on the Black Sea, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey) are an important source of income for the state thanks to the rights of way. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power. Industrial activity includes steel and chemical plants (Rustavi), mechanical plants (vehicles at Kutaisi) and agricultural, food and textile factories. In 2017 the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line was inaugurated, connecting the Caspian Sea to Turkey.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)73.82index2016
Balance of trade-5 253M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 030 463units2017
Active population, Females45.7%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.6%2017
Unemployment rate, Females35.1%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses9 372.1M LCU2017
Revenues9 750.4M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture40.9%2017
industry12.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.1%2016
industry24.9%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.3BN LCU2017
International reserves3 038.8M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land8.75%2015
forests40.62%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley47.21000 t2016
cereals, total431.8271000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2491000 t2016
roots and tubers, total2491000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages19.71000 t2016
carrots and turnips1.81000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.81000 t2016
peas, dry0.0871000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes159.21000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.211000 t2016
soybeans2.641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper0.0431000 t2016
tea31000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0041000 t2014
tobacco0.3381000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples65.21000 t2016
apricots1.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9611000 t2016
hazelnuts29.51000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits65.51000 t2016
lemons31000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley23.11000 ha2016
maize931000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes201000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.81000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.4281000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.21000 ha2016
peas, dry0.0881000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape42.0051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2111000 ha2016
soybeans0.7021000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea2.851000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0071000 ha2014
tobacco0.9691000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples17.3051000 ha2016
apricots1.361000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9331000 ha2016
hazelnuts16.8331000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits20.0721000 ha2016
lemons0.8341000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber576 8812016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle992.11000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 010.8351000 heads2016
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes18.7351000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs161.51000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep841.61000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats49.81000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses10.1091000 heads2016
asses and mules10.2031000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8 7901000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.11000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.41000 t2014
cheese0.041000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs500t2016
freshwater fishes489t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total3531000 t2015
lignite3531000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper6.51000 t2015
lead0.41000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite5.31000 t2015
gypsum0.1551000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 160.71000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 100kg2015
silver800kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro8 369M kWh2015
- thermal2 236.26M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 7301000 kW2015
- thermal1 5501000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 605.26M kWh2015
total installed capacity4 2801000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferroalloys210.71000 t2015
pig iron41000 t2002
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen81000 t2009
petrol4.71000 t2012
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1901000 t2016
nitric acid2071000 t2003
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - sq m0.021M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear168 300pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley461000 t2014
fish, salted or smoked1.91000 t2015
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 888.3M units2015
cigars and cigarettes1 888.3M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper13.9161000 t2016
paper13.9161000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 755.41000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production202.1M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production828.7M US$2013
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products37.470% of goods exports2016
manufactures32.218% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkey172M US$2007
United States150M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkey728M US$2007
Russia577M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 728M US$ -
20162 113.1M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20177 981.3M US$ -
20167 294.6M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures706M US$2016
Number of arrivals6 361 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried323.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers196.856per 1000 pop.2017
Computers271.7per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15years2016
Graduates22 711units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level33 020units2016
Teachers, secondary level36 886units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending26.1% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.1per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians6.1per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2016
Malaria7cases2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums207units2015
Museums, visitors1 335 941units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking77.79%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.2%2015
education3.1%2015
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