Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 57 179 sq km
Population: 3 729 600 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 65.23 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 44° - 41° N; long. 40° - 47° E
Capital: Tbilisi (capital) 1 128 400 inhab. (2018); ; Kutaisi (legislative capital) 141 000 inhab. (2018);
Currency: lari (100 tetri)
Human development index: 0.78 (rank: 70)
President: Salomé Zourabichvili (independent), elected 28 November 2018, in office since 16 December 2018
Prime Minister: Giorgi Gakharia (Georgian Dream), since 8 September 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 8 and 30 October 2016: Georgian Dream (centre-left coalition), 115; ENM (United National Movement, conservative), 27; independents, 1; others, 7
Internet: www.geostat.ge (National Statistics Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Georgia

Sakartvelo
Useful information

International license plate code GE
International dialling code 00995
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ge

GMT  +4
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Tbilisi 17.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tbilisi 3/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tbilisi 9/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tbilisi 457
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tbilisi 68

Politics and current affairs

During the second round of voting in the presidential elections (28 November 2018), Salomé Zourabichvili was elected with 59.6% of the votes; she previously served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and is an independent, though she is backed by Georgian Dream.

Geography.
Georgia is bordered to the north and north-east by Russia, to the south-east by Azerbaijan, to the south by Armenia, to the south-west by Turkey and to the west the country lies on the Black Sea. Predominantly mountainous, to the north the country reaches up to and includes the southern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains and to the south it includes the Lesser Caucasus. The climate is of humid sub-tropical type on the coast, severe on the mountain slopes, and warmer and drier in the eastern Steppes region.

Government


Previously a federated republic within the USSR, Georgia declared independence on 9 April 1991. On 11 October 1992, President Eduard Shevardnadze was elected after a brief civil war. The election in November 2003, won by the president’s party, was voided after major protests (the “Rose Revolution”); the 2004 presidential election was won by conservative Mikhail Saakashvili. Since 2012, political life has been dominated by the opposition coalition Georgian Dream, founded by the business magnate Bidzina Ivanishvili.
In Abkhazia, Adjara and South Ossetia there are active separatist movements. Abkhazia declared its secession from Georgia in 1992 and the old 1925 Constitution was adopted in 1999 following a referendum. Since Russian military intervention in August 2008, Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been de facto independent from the Georgian government.
The constitution ratified on 17 May 1995 established the office of the president, but the amendment in 2010 reduced the president’s powers in favour of the prime minister and government; an additional amendment in 2017 pronounced that starting in 2024, the president will be elected indirectly by a college of 300 members. Normally, the president’s mandate lasts five years, but during the transitional phase, the mandate was extended to six years. The Parliament is made up of 150 members (77 elected by proportional representation and 73 by majority rule) with a four-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force6.3%2015
Army86%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes685.8per 100 000 pop.2011
Homicides1per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Administrative division
Autonomous republicAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Abkhazia8 640 sq km244 800 inhab.2018
Adjara2 900 sq km346 300 inhab.2018
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tbilisi1 128 400inhab.2018
Batumi163 400inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia caused approximately 260 thousand refugees to flee the country.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate14.32017
Death rate12.82017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Georgian86.8%2014
Azerbaijani (Azeri)6.3%2014


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox83.4%2014
Muslim10.7%2014


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Georgian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years18.2%2018
15-29 years19.5%2018


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Economy


The country is traditionally dependent on foreign investments, which have contributed to strong growth in recent years. The government approved reforms that will improve the economic climate. The unemployment rate is chronically high but constantly decreasing. The most exported agricultural products are hazelnuts and cereals; the wine industry is also of importance. The main mineral resource is manganese (Chiatura). Hydrocarbon deposits are scarce but the infrastructures crossing Georgia that bring oil and gas from the Caspian Sea and central Asia to the west (the pipeline Baku on the Caspian Sea to Supsa on the Black Sea, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey) are an important source of income for the state thanks to the rights of way. There is a great deal of potential for hydroelectric power. Industrial activity includes steel and chemical plants (Rustavi), mechanical plants (vehicles at Kutaisi) and agricultural, food and textile factories. In 2017 the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line was inaugurated, connecting the Caspian Sea to Turkey.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)73.82index2016
Balance of trade-5 764.2M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 024 923units2018
Active population, Females45.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate14.1%2018
Unemployment rate, Females41%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses9 543.7M LCU2018
Revenues10 595.6M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture42.9%2018
industry13.2%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7.9%2017
industry26%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.565BN LCU2018
International reserves3 289.5M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land8.75%2015
forests40.62%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley43.91000 t2017
cereals, total295.7811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes180.11000 t2017
roots and tubers, total180.11000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages17.41000 t2017
carrots and turnips1.21000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry5.71000 t2017
peas, dry0.1141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes180.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2041000 t2017
soybeans1.8121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pepper0.0431000 t2016
tea2.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0041000 t2014
tobacco0.421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples19.71000 t2017
apricots0.61000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9461000 t2017
hazelnuts21.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits58.11000 t2017
lemons1.41000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley22.11000 ha2017
maize78.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes19.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.81000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.2181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry61000 ha2017
peas, dry0.1151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape47.5661000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2281000 ha2017
soybeans0.5391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tea2.3021000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops0.0071000 ha2014
tobacco1.3681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples5.1871000 ha2017
apricots0.5161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.9081000 ha2017
hazelnuts12.0541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits17.3581000 ha2017
lemons0.4131000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber584 5422017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle962.71000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes981.0581000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes18.3581000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs136.21000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep875.91000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats60.61000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses10.1251000 heads2017
asses and mules10.2191000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8 4671000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.11000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.41000 t2014
cheese0.041000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs0t2017
freshwater fishes489t2017
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total296.51000 t2016
lignite296.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper6.51000 t2015
lead0.41000 t2012
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite1391000 t2016
gypsum0.1551000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 160.71000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 600kg2016
silver800kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro9 236M kWh2016
- thermal2 101.84M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 9201000 kW2016
- thermal1 7001000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 236.84M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 6411000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferroalloys210.71000 t2015
steel, crude182.31000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol4.71000 t2012
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1901000 t2016
nitric acid2071000 t2003
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fabrics - sq m0.021M m²2005
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear249 300pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley461000 t2014
fish, salted or smoked1.911000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 670.6M units2016
cigars and cigarettes1 670.6M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper20.911000 t2017
paper20.911000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 8091000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production163.4M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production630.4M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures39.429% of goods exports2018
food products30.618% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkey172M US$2007
United States150M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Turkey728M US$2007
Russia577M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 354M US$ -
20172 736M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20189 119M US$ -
20177 939M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures853M US$2017
Number of arrivals6 483 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown7 300 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried323.31000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers196.856per 1000 pop.2017
Computers271.7per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2017
Graduates23 825units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level33 398units2017
Teachers, secondary level37 258units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending26.1% of total expenses2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.1per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians7.3per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
Malaria8cases2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums248units2018
Museums, visitors2 114 666units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking77.79%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.4%2018
education3.4%2018
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