Form of Government: Republic
Area: 267 667 sq km
Population: 2 176 766 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 8.13 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 2° N - 4° S; long. 9° - 14° E
Capital: Libreville (capital) 703 939 inhab. (2013);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.703 (rank: 119)
President: Ali Ben Bongo Ondimba (PDG), elected 30 August 2009, reconfirmed 27 August 2016
Prime Minister: Rose Christiane Raponda (PDG), since 16 July 2020
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 6 and 27 October 2018: PDG (Gabonese Democratic Party), 98; LD (The Democrats), 11; independents, 8; others, 26
Internet: www.statgabon.ga (Direction Générale de la Statistique)
Member of AU, CEMAC, OIC, OPEC, UN, WTO

Gabon

Gabon, République gabonaise
Useful information

International license plate code G
International dialling code 00241
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ga

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Libreville 23.7
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Libreville 27/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Libreville 4/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Libreville 2592
Days of rainfall (annual average) Libreville 160

Geography.
Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon to the north, and Congo to the east and south. To the west, it looks out onto the Atlantic Ocean. The country lies within the basin of the River Ogooué and is covered by equatorial forests. The sovereignty of certain small islands in Corisco Bay is disputed by Equatorial Guinea.

Government


Formerly a French colony, the country gained independence on 17 August 1960 and was governed by a single-party administration led by Léon M’Ba. After his death in 1967, the party leadership was passed to by Omar Bongo.
A multiparty system was introduced in 1990 but failed to put a dent in the absolute power of the President and his party (the PDG). After the death of Omar Bongo in 2009, his son Ali was elected President in elections that were contested by the opposition. According to the 1991 Constitution, altered several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a seven-year term. Parliament comprises the National Assembly (143 members elected for five years) and the Senate (102 members elected indirectly for six years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force21.3%2015
Army68.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides8$per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Libreville703 939inhab.2013
Port-Gentil136 462inhab.2013
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate30.9682019
Death rate6.7042019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other37.5%2000
Fang28.6%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic41.9%2012
other Christian32.4%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years36.4%2020
15-29 years31.1%2020


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Economy


Gabon has one of the highest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. This is due to the low population density and the presence of significant oil resources, whose productivity is, however, in decline; despite the government’s efforts to attract investments and encourage the diversification of production companies, the economic structure remains weak. Most of the population still lives in a state of poverty caused by an unequal distribution of wealth.
The main subsistence crops are cassava, yams, taro and bananas. The most important commercial crops are natural rubber, cocoa, tobacco and sugar cane. The vast tropical forests supply both valued wood and building timber, but at a high ecological price. Gabon has enormous energy and mineral resources including oil (at Gamba, Grondin, Tsengué, Rabi-Kounga and Obando), manganese (at Moanda and Ndjole), natural gas (at Mbassou), iron ore (at Mékambo-Bélinga and Tchibanga), gold (near Etéké and Moanda) and diamonds, as well as unexploited deposits of phosphates, rare earths, niobium, tantalum and uranium (at Mabounié). There are wood-processing plants (at Port-Gentil), textile plants (at Libreville), chemical plants (at Port-Gentil and Libreville), food-processing plants (at Port-Gentil and Franceville), tobacco plants, cement plants (at Ntoum, Owendo and Franceville) and a refinery (at Port-Gentil).
Gabon’s main trading partners are China, France, Belgium and the USA. The functions of the central bank are carried out by the Banque des États de l’Afrique Centrale (BEAC) with its headquarters in Yaoundé (in Cameroon), which acts on behalf of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEMAC). The CFA franc is pegged to the Euro at a fixed exchange rate.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)123.14index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)107.06index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population726 999units2020
Active population, Females40.3%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate20.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females57.3%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 796 000M LCU2019
Revenues1 931 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture32.8%2019
industry10.8%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.528%2019
industry49.082%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation468.214BN LCU2019
International reserves1 371.974M US$2019
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land1.921%2018
forests91.413%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total49.1151000 t2019
maize47.2791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava337.2091000 t2019
roots and tubers, total667.0061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggplants0.2531000 t2019
tomatoes0.3981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts34.0371000 t2019
soybeans4.1431000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits20.2911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.21000 t2019
coffee0.0861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane300.1721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total399.1551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits1.4141000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes1.4141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas19.9771000 t2019
pineapples1.4371000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize30.2191000 ha2019
rice0.6011000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava64.2121000 ha2019
sweet potatoes2.1191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggplants0.0481000 ha2019
tomatoes0.0471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts32.521000 ha2019
soybeans4.7171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit6.0541000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa3.2071000 ha2019
coffee0.2511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4.8071000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.2381000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.2381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas2.3491000 ha2019
pineapples0.1941000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber27 687t2019
timber3 209 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle38.4821000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes38.4821000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs222.7921000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep218.5481000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats113.261000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds3 1931000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs2.4791000 t2019
hides and skins0.4571000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs577t2019
freshwater fishes10 898t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas417M m³2019
oil, crude8 6601000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manganese2 8001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds0.51000 ct2010
gold1 000kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 264.3M kWh2018
- hydro891.99M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4181000 kW2018
- hydro3301000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation2 169.29M kWh2018
total installed capacity750.21000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ferroalloys42.91000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2$1000 t2018
petrol144.31000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paints3.71000 t2017
soap2.71000 t2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1351000 t2018
fish, salted or smoked3.21000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes, packs16.7M units2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4901000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production7$M US$2003
food, beverages and tobacco production103M US$2003
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Trade

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 243M US$2007
China1 096M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
France684M US$2007
United States478M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20204 903M US$ -
20196 621M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 937M US$ -
20193 140M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures346M US$2016
Number of arrivals692 506units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried77.31000 units2016
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers10.279per 1000 pop.2019
Computers34$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.1years2002
Gross enrolment ratio, primary - Female162index2012
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level370 917units2017
Students, secondary level217 845units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.8per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.68per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV3.5% of adults2019
Malaria142 917cases2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums1$units2017
Museums, visitors1 859units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.13% of GDP2011
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking87.9%2019
Access to electricity90.685%2019
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