Form of Government: Republic
Area: 338 462 sq km
Population: 5 533 793 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 16.35 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 70° - 60° N; long. 19° - 32° E
Capital: Helsinki/Helsingfors (capital) 656 920 inhab. (2020); Helsinki 1 305 893 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.938 (rank: 11)
President: Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (KOK), since 1 March 2012, re-elected 28 January 2018
Prime Minister: Sanna Marin (SDP), since 10 December 2019
Parliament: seats (July 2020 update): SDP (Social Democratic Party), 40; Finns Party (populist), 38; KOK (National Coalition Party, nationalist), 38; Centre Party (liberal conservative), 31; Green League (ecologist), 20; VAS (Left Alliance), 16; others, 17
Internet: www.stat.fi (Statistics Finland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Finland

Suomi, Finland, Suomen Tasavalta, Republiken Finland
Useful information

International license plate code FIN
International dialling code 00358
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .fi

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Helsinki 5.6; Sodankylä -0.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Helsinki -4.5/15; Sodankylä -14.5/12
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Helsinki 10/0.5; Sodankylä 9/0
Annual average precipitation (mm) Helsinki 650; Sodankylä 520
Days of rainfall (annual average) Helsinki 113; Sodankylä 108

Politics and current affairs

The KOK nationalist conservatives won the local elections held on 13 June 2021 and the majority centre-left parties lost popularity. The far-right Finns Party gained ground, going from 770 seats (2017) to 1350 (2021). In April 2021, the coalition government led by Sanna Marin (SDP) almost fell, following threats made by the Centre Party to leave the majority during talks about budget laws. In July, after a record heat wave, the country experienced the worst forest fires in the last 50 years.

Geography.
Finland is bordered by Norway to the north, Russia to the east and south-east, and Sweden to the north-west. The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia, both part of the Baltic Sea, lie off its south and west coasts.
The Åland Islands (Ahvenanmaa in Finnish), which have belonged to Finland since 1921, are inhabited by a predominantly Swedish-speaking population. Åland is the largest island at 689 km². The Finnish landscape is mainly flat and there are about 40 000 lakes in all, accounting for approximately 10% of its total surface area. The landscape is hilly north of the River Oulu and Lake Oulu, and in Lapland, towards the north-eastern border, the landscape is mountainous (Mount Halti, 1328 m). The country has a cold, temperate climate.

Government


Finland became independent on 6 December 1917. After the Soviet invasion in 1940, it was forced to cede part of Karelia to the USSR, together with other border areas. In 1944, after the defeat of Nazi Germany, with whom it had been allied, Finland also ceded to the USSR the Petsamo (Pechengsky) fiord area, its only outlet to the Barents Sea.
In 1948, Finland signed the Pact of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance with the USSR, which was renewed with Russia in 1992. Finland joined the EU in 1994 and held its presidency in the second half of 2019.
According to the Constitution of 17 July 1919, Finland is a parliamentary republic. The Parliament (Eduskunta) is composed of 200 members elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term. The President, who is elected by direct suffrage for six years, has far-reaching powers in the sphere of foreign policy.


Defence.
The Finnish Defence Forces include the army, the navy (includes Coastal Defence Forces), the air-force and the Border Guards. Military service is compulsory.
Finland is not part of NATO, but in 2018 took part in a joint military exercise in the Baltic Sea.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on Swedish Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.1%2015
Army72.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes8 602.1per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides1.6per 100 000 pop.2018
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Helsinki/Helsingfors656 920inhab.2020
Espoo/Esbo292 796inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Helsinki1 305 893inhab.2019
Tampere341 696inhab.2019
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population is concentrated in the south of the country (on about one-tenth of the total surface area). Finnish (Suomi), which is spoken by 90% of the population, belongs to the Finno-Ugric family of languages.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.42020
Death rate10$2020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total278 917units2020
Estonians50 866units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Finnish86.9%2020
other6.4%2020


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant67.8%2020
other29.4%2020


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Finnish (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.4%2020
15-29 years17.3%2020


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
The economy struggled less than its EU partners in 2020 (-2.9%). The GDP is expected to recover in 2021 (+2.3%). Inflation is on the rise.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)97.34index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.15index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 740 900units2020
Active population, Females47.9%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females46$%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses69 211M LCU2020
Revenues55 841M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.647%2020
industry21.889%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.833%2020
industry27.246%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation24.855BN LCU2020
International reserves13 479.976M US$2020
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Despite the extremes of climate, yields are high. The main cereals are barley and oats; in the south, the main crops are fruit, vegetables and sugar-beet.
Forests.
Forests continue to play a major role in the economy of the country. Exploitation of the forests is organized so that, for every tree felled, a new one is planted.
Livestock and fishing.
The main type of livestock farming is pigs and cattle, which boosts the dairy industry, but there is also extensive farming of animals for fur.
Reindeer farming, practised in the northern regions of Finland by the Lapp community using modern farming equipment, is still fairly important. Fishing is an important industry, also on the lakes.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.394%2018
forests73.736%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 701.961000 t2019
cereals, total4 036.111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes618.91000 t2019
roots and tubers, total618.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.021000 t2019
cabbages25.41000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.061000 t2019
broad beans, dry30.171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed41.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet501.41000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.41000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples8.091000 t2019
blueberries0.21000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.331000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley397.91000 ha2019
oats297.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes21.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.771000 ha2019
carrots and turnips1.841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.041000 ha2019
broad beans, dry15.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed31.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet10.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.651000 ha2019
blueberries0.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.011000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber63 963 8672019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle840.741000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes840.741000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 062.21000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep144.8761000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5.9251000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total74.41000 heads2018
horses74.41000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds9 7691000 heads2019
Livestock - Other animals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
reindeers2071000 heads2005
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey3.31000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter59.9131000 t2018
cheese87.1871000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs135t2019
freshwater fishes24 894.756t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main products of the mining industry are copper, cobalt and talc (of which Finland is one of the largest producers). In addition, gold, nickel, zinc and chromite are mined. In 2020, uranium mining was authorized in eastern Finland.
Energy and industry.
There are four active nuclear reactors (a fifth is being built). The goal is to produce 60% of electricity from nuclear power, abandoning coal by 2029. A natural gas terminal was opened in Tornio.
The bidirectional gas pipeline Baltic Connector, between Finland and Estonia, was finished in 2019, allowing for a greater variety in suppliers rather than solely depending on Russian imports. Two oil refineries are active at Porvoo and Naantali. There are important science parks at Oulu, in the north, and at Espoo, near Helsinki. Industry is characterized by a great tendency to exports. The main sectors are electronics, telecommunications, shipbuilding, chemicals, fuel and ICT. The steel industry continues to play a significant role. In 2020, the Finnish state, through the Solidium sovereign fund, increased its stake in Nokia to 5.3%. Other important industries include timber, cellulose and paper, of which Finland is one of the world’s largest producers. Wool and cotton are the basis of the most important textile industries. Other active segments include leather, matches, cement, tobacco, sugar and glass.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas8$M m³2016
peat10 0001000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite2 4001000 t2020
cobalt1.41000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar17.51000 t2018
mica65$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone3 7261000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold8 732kg2018
palladium699kg2019
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear22 915M kWh2019
- other renew.19 981.71M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 9361000 kW2018
- other renew.4 7771000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation66 773.32M kWh2019
total installed capacity17 2441000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium20.21000 t2015
cobalt12.51000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes25 993no.2016
cars86 270no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks6 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners168 000no.2016
computers22 263no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2251000 t2018
petrol5 578.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia78$1000 t2019
artificial tow0.071000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets95$1000 m²2015
cotton fabrics0.036M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 006 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3741000 t2018
coconut oil0.0041000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes868.1M units2004
pipe tobacco24$t2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp8 3201000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp11 6001000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 3001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production4 647.143M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production3 659.403M US$2018
TOP

Trade


Tertiary sector


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
machinery 8 547, paper and paperboard 8 030, electric and electronic equipment 5 739, iron and steel 5 362, petroleum 
products 5 043, 
vehicles and parts thereof 4 770, timber 3 218, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 012, 
chemicals 2 627, plastics 2 382, wood pulp 2 224, ships and boats 1 694


Finance and banking.
The Bank of Finland is the country’s central bank. The Helsinki stock exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX group.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.988% of goods exports2019
fuels8.939% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany8 887M US$2020
Sweden6 797M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany10 450M US$2020
Sweden7 448M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202066 060M US$ -
201973 468M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202067 731M US$ -
201973 716M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is mainly developed in Lapland (thanks also to winter sports) and in the area of the lakes.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures6 861M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 290 000units2019
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown107 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried14 610.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers324.828per 1000 pop.2019
Computers500.4per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.476years2018
Gradautes, percentage45.934%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level368 852units2018
Students, secondary level546 469units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending45.142% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending29.132% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.61per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.81per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums150units2020
Museums, visitors4 500 000units2020
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.79% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2019
education0.4%2019
TOP