Form of Government: Republic
Area: 338 455 sq km
Population: 5 517 919 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 16.30 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 70° - 60° N; long. 19° - 32° E
Capital: Helsinki/Helsingfors (capital) 648 042 inhab. (2018); Helsinki 1 268 296 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.92 (rank: 15)
President: Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (KOK), since 1 March 2012, re-elected 28 January 2018
Prime Minister: Antti Rinne (SDP), since 6 June 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 14 April 2019: SDP (Social Democratic Party), 40; Finns Party (populist), 39; KOK (National Coalition Party, nationalist), 38; Centre Party (liberal conservative), 31; Green League (ecologist), 20; VAS (Left Alliance), 16; others, 16
Internet: www.stat.fi (Statistics Finland)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Finland

Suomi, Finland, Suomen Tasavalta, Republiken Finland
Useful information

International license plate code FIN
International dialling code 00358
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .fi

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Helsinki 5.6; Sodankylä -0.8
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Helsinki -4.5/15; Sodankylä -14.5/12
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Helsinki 10/0.5; Sodankylä 9/0
Annual average precipitation (mm) Helsinki 650; Sodankylä 520
Days of rainfall (annual average) Helsinki 113; Sodankylä 108

Politics and current affairs

The elections on 14 April 2019 were narrowly won by the Social Democratic Party (SDP), with 17.7% of the votes, followed closely by the Finns Party, which took 17.4%. On 6 June 2019, a large coalition was established, led by Antti Rinne (SDP) and supported by five parties (excluding the populists). The European elections on 26 May were instead won by the National Coalition Party with 20.8%. The Green League did well, rising to 16%, while SDP won 14.6% of the votes.

Geography.
Finland is bordered by Norway to the north, Russia to the east and south-east, and Sweden to the north-west. The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia, both part of the Baltic Sea, lie off its south and west coasts.
The Åland Islands (Ahvenanmaa in Finnish), which have belonged to Finland since 1921, are inhabited by a predominantly Swedish-speaking population. Åland is the largest island at 689 km². The Finnish landscape is mainly flat and there are about 40 000 lakes in all, accounting for approximately 10% of its total surface area. The landscape is hilly north of the River Oulu and Lake Oulu, and in Lapland, towards the north-eastern border, the landscape is mountainous (Mount Halti, 1328 m). The country has a cold, temperate climate.

Government


Finland became independent on 6 December 1917. After the Soviet invasion in 1940, it was forced to cede part of Karelia to the USSR, together with other border areas. In 1944, after the defeat of Nazi Germany, with whom it had been allied, Finland also ceded to the USSR the Petsamo (Pechengsky) fiord area, its only outlet to the Barents Sea. In 1948, Finland signed the Pact of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance with the USSR, which was renewed with Russia in 1992. Finland joined the EU in 1994.
According to the Constitution of 17 July 1919, Finland is a parliamentary republic. The Parliament (Eduskunta) is composed of 200 members elected by direct suffrage for a four-year term. The President, who is elected by direct suffrage for six years, has far-reaching powers in the sphere of foreign policy.


Defence.
The Finnish Defence Forces include the army, the navy (includes Coastal Defence Forces), the air-force and the Border Guards. Military service is compulsory.
Finland is not part of NATO, but in 2018 took part in a joint military exercise in the Baltic Sea.


Justice.
The judicial system is based on Swedish Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12.1%2015
Army72.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes7 087.1per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Helsinki/Helsingfors648 042inhab.2018
Espoo/Esbo283 632inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Helsinki1 268 296inhab.2017
Tampere334 112inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The population is concentrated in the south of the country (on about one-tenth of the total surface area). Finnish (Suomi), which is spoken by 90% of the population, belongs to the Finno-Ugric family of languages.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.62018
Death rate9.92018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total257 572units2018
Estonians51 456units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Finnish87.6%2018
other5.8%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant69.8%2018
other27.4%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Finnish (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.4%2018
15-29 years17.6%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2018, economic growth slowed to 2.4%, which should be maintained in 2019-20. Private consumption and investments, especially in the building sector, support the economy.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)97.34index2016
Balance of trade-2 421.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 741 700units2018
Active population, Females48.1%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses60 272M LCU2018
Revenues57 539M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.7%2018
industry22.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.9%2018
industry28.7%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation20.84BN LCU2018
International reserves10 309.2M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Despite the extremes of climate, yields are high. The main cereals are barley and oats; in the south, the main crops are fruit, vegetables and sugar-beet.
Forests.
Forests continue to play a major role in the economy of the country. Exploitation of the forests is organized so that, for every tree felled, a new one is planted.
Livestock and fishing.
The main type of livestock farming is pigs and cattle, which boosts the dairy industry, but there is also extensive farming of animals for fur.
Reindeer farming, practised in the northern regions of Finland by the Lapp community using modern farming equipment, is still fairly important.
Fishing is an important industry, also on the lakes.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land7.39%2015
forests73.11%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 460.11000 t2017
cereals, total3 422.131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes611.91000 t2017
roots and tubers, total611.91000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.0111000 t2017
cabbages26.2131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0871000 t2017
peas, dry9.11000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed91.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet430.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples6.7581000 t2017
fruits, total21.0091000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.321000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley358.31000 ha2017
oats269.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes21.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.7541000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.7791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0471000 ha2017
peas, dry4.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed55.21000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet11.81000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.6841000 ha2017
raspberries0.4291000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber63 294 7122017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle893.1781000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes893.1781000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 135.5981000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep155.9261000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5.2781000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total74.41000 heads2017
horses74.41000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds8 3391000 heads2017
Livestock - Other animals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
reindeers2071000 heads2005
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey2.61000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter57.4541000 t2014
cheese99.1261000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs276t2017
freshwater fishes21 950.1t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main products of the mining industry are copper, cobalt and talc (of which Finland is one of the largest producers). In addition, gold, nickel, zinc and chromite are mined.
Energy and industry.
There are four active nuclear reactors (a fifth was approved in 2019). The use of coal to produce energy will be banned starting in 2029. A natural gas terminal was opened in Tornio. The bidirectional gas pipeline Baltic Connector, between Finland and Estonia, was finished in 2019, allowing for a greater variety in suppliers rather than solely depending on Russian imports. Two oil refineries are active at Porvoo and Naantali.
There are important science parks at Oulu, in the north, and at Espoo, near Helsinki. Industry is characterized by a great tendency to exports. The main sectors are electronics, telecommunications, shipbuilding, chemicals, fuel and ICT. The steel industry continues to play a significant role. In 2019, the Finnish state increased its stake in Nokia to 3.7%.
Other important industries include timber, cellulose and paper, of which Finland is one of the world’s largest producers. Wool and cotton are the basis of the most important textile industries. Other active segments include leather, matches, cement, tobacco, sugar and glass.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas8M m³2016
peat9 9001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite1 0701000 t2016
cobalt0.691000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar401000 t2016
mica551000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold8 865kg2016
palladium1 021kg2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- nuclear22 280M kWh2016
- hydro15 634M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 9111000 kW2016
- other renew.3 3481000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation66 541.18M kWh2016
total installed capacity16 2721000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium20.21000 t2015
cobalt12.41000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes25 993no.2016
cars112 104no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks6 000no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners168 000no.2016
computers22 263no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen2311000 t2016
petrol5 578.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia781000 t2016
artificial tow0.071000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets951000 m²2015
cotton fabrics0.036M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 006 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4011000 t2014
coconut oil0.0041000 t2013
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes868.1M units2004
pipe tobacco24t2004
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp7 756.2271000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp10 4251000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 3001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 601.9M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production3 538M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017)
machinery 8 547, paper and paperboard 8 030, electric and electronic equipment 5 739, iron and steel 5 362, petroleum products 5 043, vehicles and parts thereof 4 770, timber 3 218, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 012, chemicals 2 627, plastics 2 382, wood pulp 2 224, ships and boats 1 694


Finance and banking.
The Bank of Finland is the country’s central bank. The Helsinki stock exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX group.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.448% of goods exports2018
fuels8.342% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany11 156M US$2018
Sweden7 691M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany11 905M US$2018
Russia10 892M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201876 067M US$ -
201768 074M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201878 488M US$ -
201770 587M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is mainly developed in Lapland (thanks also to winter sports) and in the area of the lakes.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures6 675M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 180 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown107 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried14 831.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers309.492per 1000 pop.2017
Computers500.4per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.3years2016
Gradautes, percentage44.3%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level26 996units2016
Teachers, secondary level40 768units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending45.8% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending28.7% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.2per 1000 pop.2014
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2011
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums154units2018
Museums, visitors7 100 000units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.76% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.2%2017
education0.4%2017
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