Form of Government: Republic
Area: 300 000 sq km
Population: 109 035 343 inhab. (census 2020)
Density: 363.45 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 21° - 4° N; long. 116° - 127° E
Capital: Manila (capital) 1 846 513 inhab. (2020); Metro Manila 13 484 462 inhab. (2020), metropolitan area
Currency: Philippine peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.718 (rank: 107)
President and head of government: Rodrigo Duterte (PDP-Laban), elected 9 May 2016, in office since 30 June 2016
House of Representatives: first-past-the-post seats based on the elections of 13 May 2019: PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power), 82; NP (Nationalist Party), 42; NPC (Nationalist People’s Coalition), 36; NUP (National Unity Party, conservative), 25; LP (Liberal Party, centre-left), 18; Lakas-CMD (Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, populist ), 11; others, 27; not assigned, 4
Internet: https://psa.gov.ph (Philippine Statistics Authority)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OAS observer, UN, WTO

Philippines

Philippines, Pilipinas, Republic of the Philippines, Republika ng Pilipinas
Useful information

International license plate code RP
International dialling code 0063
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ph

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Manila 27.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Manila 25.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Manila 7/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Manila 1748
Days of rainfall (annual average) Manila 109

Politics and current affairs

On 7 March 2021, at least nine left-wing activists were killed by police forces in Luzon. The increase in violence and indiscriminate arrests was fomented by President R. Duterte as part of the campaign against Maoist rebels.

Geography.
The Philippines is an archipelago situated between the Pacific Ocean, the Celebes Sea and the South China Sea. The 11 largest islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol and Masbate) alone make up 92% of the country. The islands are generally mountainous (Mount Apo, 2954 m, on the island of Mindanao). The only extensive plains lie within the mountain ranges on Luzon and Mindanao.
The climate is hot and humid. The Philippines lay claim to some of the Spratly Islands, in the South China Sea.

Government


The archipelago became a Spanish colony in the 16th century, was ceded to the United States in 1898, and has been an independent republic since 12 June 1946. After 20 years of dictatorship under Ferdinando Marcos, democracy was restored by Corazón (Cory) Aquino (the widow of Senator Benigno Aquino, who was assassinated on 23 August 1983). Corazón Aquino was President of the Republic from 1986 to 1992. Since 1969, the Maoist rebels of the NPA (New People’s Army) have been campaigning for agricultural reform and the removal of the American military presence. Guerrilla movements are endemic on the island of Mindanao, which, over time, have become radicalized and have tightened ties with international Islamic fundamentalism.
In 1996 a peace agreement was signed with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and in 2014 with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). On 21 January 2019, a referendum in Mindanao approved the creation of the autonomous region of Bangsamoro in the Muslim-majority areas. Despite this, armed groups of Islamic fundamentalists such as Abu Sayyaf and minor militias remain active.
According to the 1987 Constitution, the President, who is also head of the government, is elected directly for a six-year term and cannot be re-elected; the vice-President is elected in a separate but similar procedure.
The Parliament is bicameral: at present the House of Representatives consists of 306 members (245 elected for three years on a first-past-the-post basis, plus 61 representatives of minor parties), the Senate has 24 members who remain in office for a six-year term, half of whom are renewed every three years. Since 2003, voting has also been extended to many Filipinos residing abroad.


Defence.
There are some American military bases in the country.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Spanish Law and British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12$%2015
Army68.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes715.5per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides11$per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Quezon City2 960 048inhab.2020
Manila1 846 513inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Metro Manila (metropolitan area)13 484 462inhab.2020
Cebu City3 325 385inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The annual growth rate, once among the highest in Asia, is in constant decline. Over ten million Filipinos live abroad.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate20.1662019
Death rate5.922019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other26.3%2010
Tagalog24.4%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic79.5%2015
other9.5%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
English (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years32.4%2020
15-29 years27.4%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
From 2012 to 2020, economic growth remained strong, driven by the government’s expansionary policy to finance infrastructure investments, and by domestic consumption.
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a recession and a rise in unemployment and income inequality. The situation was inverted by the recovery in 2021.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.44index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)104.25index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population43 719 197units2020
Active population, Females38.8%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females44.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses3 525 095.2M LCU2020
Revenues2 855 483.8M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.4%2019
industry19.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture8.35%2019
industry30.331%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 038.851BN LCU2020
International reserves109 990.274M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The ongoing agricultural reform has created many small plots of land, though large estates are still the norm. The main crops grown for domestic consumption are rice, maize and cassava; thanks to extensive irrigation, the most productive areas are the plains of Luzon.
The crops bound for export include coconut and oil palm (Mindanao), sugar-cane (Negros and Panay), bananas and pineapples (Mindanao). One of Manila’s traditional crops is Manila hemp (from the abacà plant). A great deal of tobacco is grown, with most (and the highest quality) tobacco coming from the northern Philippines (in particular from the valley of the River Cagayan on Luzon).
Forests.
Mahogany from the Philippines is greatly prized; the country is one of the largest producers of natural rubber.
Livestockand fishing.
Most of the livestock farming is practised on large estates on Mindanao and Masbate. Fishing is widespread (especially tuna, sardines, herrings and anchovies), but is limited on account of polluted coastal waters and destructive methods of exploitation. Fish-farming is relevant (especially seaweeds, shellfish, Chanos chanos, tilapia, and molluscs).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land36.69%2018
forests23.875%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total26 794.2511000 t2019
maize7 978.8451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 630.81000 t2019
potatoes116.0611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus1.3291000 t2019
cabbages128.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry36.2481000 t2019
beans, green14.0291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.2141000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0391000 t2019
groundnuts29.3011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits499.3071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts14 765.0571000 t2019
copra2 2001000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa8.4891000 t2019
coffee60.0441000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane20 719.2911000 t2019
tobacco51.0611000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.8271000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.971000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total16 660.2441000 t2019
strawberries1.1021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts242.3291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits167.4271000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes125.9691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados19.5971000 t2019
bananas6 049.6011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.6711000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2 516.7231000 ha2019
rice4 651.491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava222.4411000 ha2019
potatoes7.5141000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages7.8471000 ha2019
carrots and turnips5.451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry41.7281000 ha2019
beans, green3.0921000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.3891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0571000 ha2019
groundnuts23.9151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit62.8351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts3 651.8731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa30.2571000 ha2019
coffee112.0241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane379.2531000 ha2019
tobacco28.0081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.8671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal4.3171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
strawberries0.1451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts28.6881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits35.0951000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes19.6171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados5.1961000 ha2019
bananas185.8941000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber431 675t2019
timber15 360 1032019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 535.4141000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 408.9751000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes2 873.5611000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs12 709.2481000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 755.8791000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total252.2181000 heads2019
horses252.2181000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds198 9421000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs632.8031000 t2019
hides and skins45.9161000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs326 124.995t2019
freshwater fishes388 553.421t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
There are sizeable nickel deposits (on Palawan Island and in the regions of Caraga and Central Luzon), silver and gold (in the north and south-east of Luzon), coal (at Cebu City), copper (on the Zamboanga Peninsula, in northern Luzon and on the Bicol Peninsula), chromite (in the eastern part of Samar Island, on Dinagat Island and in the province of Zambales). Oil and natural gas are extracted from the deep-sea field of Malampaya.
Industry.
Industry has reached a reasonable level of diversification and is highly developed. The most important sectors are the food-processing sector (oil, sugar, wood, paper and tobacco), electronics, petrochemicals and textiles. There are important iron and steel plants, petrochemical plants at Limay, Batangas and Tabangao, and nitrogenous fertilizer plants at Limay, Cebu City, Malabon, Rizal and Taguig. Vehicle manufacturing is significant. Production of electrical and electronic components is located at the former US military bases of Subic Bay and Clark. Craft activities include straw hats, embroidery, reed-matting and ceramics.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal11 2101000 t2019
coal, total11 2101000 t2019
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite31.71000 t2019
cobalt4.71000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite2$1000 t2019
feldspar47$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite1 560.71000 t2018
kaolin10$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold20 800kg2018
silver29 800kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal78 956.24M kWh2019
- other renew.13 480M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal16 5891000 kW2018
- hydro3 7601000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation100 380.99M kWh2019
total installed capacity24 5001000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper170.81000 t2018
lead10$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars37 141no.2020
commercial vehicles30 156no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen46.51000 t2019
petrol2 344.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fertilizers781.31000 t2018
nitrogen fertilizers26.51000 t2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2 2201000 t2018
coconut oil1 3411000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint44$1000 t2019
other paper9701000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement26 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 996.616M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production23 566.423M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
electrical and electronic equipment 18 552, electronic integrated circuits 13 982, computers and accessories 5 814, machinery 3 312, optical and electro-medical appliances 2 488, refined copper 2 051, ships and boats 1 680, copper oil 1 520, timber 1 411, gold 1 236, vehicles and parts thereof 1 183, bananas 1 128, apparel and accessories 1 067, fresh and preserved fish and crustaceans 1 046


Finance and banking.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas acts as the central bank of the Philippines. Financial and insurance services are developing rapidly; foreign banks are becoming more numerous. There is a stock exchange at Manila.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures81.147% of goods exports2019
food products9.061% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Japan9 924M US$2020
United States9 724M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China20 959M US$2020
Japan8 717M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202063 767M US$ -
201970 927M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202090 654M US$ -
2019117 374M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures12 852M US$2019
Number of arrivals8 261 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown81 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried47 776.91000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers54.757per 1000 pop.2019
Computers72.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is completely free; primary school is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13; secondary education lasts for five years. Lessons are taught in Filipino and English at primary level and English at secondary level and thereafter.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.148years2017
Gradautes, percentage14$%2003
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level14 039 867units2017
Students, secondary level9 007 148units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.99per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.6per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.2% of adults2019
HIV, total0.01%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.157% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking47.4%2019
Access to electricity95.629%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.4%2015
education3.8%2015
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