Form of Government: Republic
Area: 300 000 sq km
Population: 109 035 343 inhab. (census 2020)
Density: 363.45 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 21° - 4° N; long. 116° - 127° E
Capital: Manila (capital) 1 846 513 inhab. (2020); Metro Manila 13 484 462 inhab. (2020), metropolitan area
Currency: Philippine peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.718 (rank: 107)
President and head of government: Rodrigo Duterte (PDP-Laban), elected 9 May 2016, in office since 30 June 2016
House of Representatives: first-past-the-post seats based on the elections of 13 May 2019: PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power), 82; NP (Nationalist Party), 42; NPC (Nationalist People’s Coalition), 36; NUP (National Unity Party, conservative), 25; LP (Liberal Party, centre-left), 18; Lakas-CMD (Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, populist ), 11; others, 27; not assigned, 4
Internet: https://psa.gov.ph (Philippine Statistics Authority)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OAS observer, UN, WTO
International license plate code RP
International dialling code 0063
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ph
DST not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Manila 27.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Manila 25.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Manila 7/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Manila 1748
Days of rainfall (annual average) Manila 109
Politics and current affairs
On 7 March 2021, at least nine left-wing activists were killed by police forces in Luzon. The increase in violence and indiscriminate arrests was fomented by President R. Duterte as part of the campaign against Maoist rebels.
The Philippines is an archipelago situated between the Pacific Ocean, the Celebes Sea and the South China Sea. The 11 largest islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol and Masbate) alone make up 92% of the country. The islands are generally mountainous (Mount Apo, 2954 m, on the island of Mindanao). The only extensive plains lie within the mountain ranges on Luzon and Mindanao.
The climate is hot and humid. The Philippines lay claim to some of the Spratly Islands, in the South China Sea.
The archipelago became a Spanish colony in the 16th century, was ceded to the United States in 1898, and has been an independent republic since 12 June 1946. After 20 years of dictatorship under Ferdinando Marcos, democracy was restored by Corazón (Cory) Aquino (the widow of Senator Benigno Aquino, who was assassinated on 23 August 1983). Corazón Aquino was President of the Republic from 1986 to 1992. Since 1969, the Maoist rebels of the NPA (New People’s Army) have been campaigning for agricultural reform and the removal of the American military presence. Guerrilla movements are endemic on the island of Mindanao, which, over time, have become radicalized and have tightened ties with international Islamic fundamentalism.
In 1996 a peace agreement was signed with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and in 2014 with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). On 21 January 2019, a referendum in Mindanao approved the creation of the autonomous region of Bangsamoro in the Muslim-majority areas. Despite this, armed groups of Islamic fundamentalists such as Abu Sayyaf and minor militias remain active.
According to the 1987 Constitution, the President, who is also head of the government, is elected directly for a six-year term and cannot be re-elected; the vice-President is elected in a separate but similar procedure.
The Parliament is bicameral: at present the House of Representatives consists of 306 members (245 elected for three years on a first-past-the-post basis, plus 61 representatives of minor parties), the Senate has 24 members who remain in office for a six-year term, half of whom are renewed every three years. Since 2003, voting has also been extended to many Filipinos residing abroad.
There are some American military bases in the country.
The legal system is based on Spanish Law and British Common Law.
|Quezon City||2 960 048||inhab.||2020|
|Manila||1 846 513||inhab.||2020|
|Metro Manila (metropolitan area)||13 484 462||inhab.||2020|
|Cebu City||3 325 385||inhab.||2020|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
The annual growth rate, once among the highest in Asia, is in constant decline. Over ten million Filipinos live abroad.
From 2012 to 2020, economic growth remained strong, driven by the government’s expansionary policy to finance infrastructure investments, and by domestic consumption.
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a recession and a rise in unemployment and income inequality. The situation was inverted by the recovery in 2021.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||113.44||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||104.25||index||2019|
|Active population||43 719 197||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||38.8||%||2019|
|Unemployment rate, Females||44.1||%||2019|
|Expenses||3 525 095.2||M LCU||2020|
|Revenues||2 855 483.8||M LCU||2020|
|Currency in circulation||2 038.851||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||109 990.274||M US$||2020|
The ongoing agricultural reform has created many small plots of land, though large estates are still the norm. The main crops grown for domestic consumption are rice, maize and cassava; thanks to extensive irrigation, the most productive areas are the plains of Luzon.
The crops bound for export include coconut and oil palm (Mindanao), sugar-cane (Negros and Panay), bananas and pineapples (Mindanao). One of Manila’s traditional crops is Manila hemp (from the abacà plant). A great deal of tobacco is grown, with most (and the highest quality) tobacco coming from the northern Philippines (in particular from the valley of the River Cagayan on Luzon).
Mahogany from the Philippines is greatly prized; the country is one of the largest producers of natural rubber.
Most of the livestock farming is practised on large estates on Mindanao and Masbate. Fishing is widespread (especially tuna, sardines, herrings and anchovies), but is limited on account of polluted coastal waters and destructive methods of exploitation. Fish-farming is relevant (especially seaweeds, shellfish, Chanos chanos, tilapia, and molluscs).
|cereals, total||26 794.251||1000 t||2019|
|maize||7 978.845||1000 t||2019|
|cassava||2 630.8||1000 t||2019|
|beans, dry||36.248||1000 t||2019|
|beans, green||14.029||1000 t||2019|
|castor oil seed||0.039||1000 t||2019|
|oil palm fruits||499.307||1000 t||2019|
|coconuts||14 765.057||1000 t||2019|
|copra||2 200||1000 t||2006|
|sugar cane||20 719.291||1000 t||2019|
|seed cotton||0.827||1000 t||2019|
|fruits, total||16 660.244||1000 t||2019|
|cashew nuts||242.329||1000 t||2019|
|citrus fruits||167.427||1000 t||2019|
|citrus fruits, nes||125.969||1000 t||2019|
|bananas||6 049.601||1000 t||2019|
|maize||2 516.723||1000 ha||2019|
|rice||4 651.49||1000 ha||2019|
|carrots and turnips||5.45||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, dry||41.728||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, green||3.092||1000 ha||2019|
|castor oil seed||0.057||1000 ha||2019|
|oil palm fruit||62.835||1000 ha||2019|
|coconuts||3 651.873||1000 ha||2019|
|sugar cane||379.253||1000 ha||2019|
|seed cotton||0.867||1000 ha||2019|
|cashew nuts||28.688||1000 ha||2019|
|citrus fruits||35.095||1000 ha||2019|
|citrus fruits, nes||19.617||1000 ha||2019|
|natural rubber||431 675||t||2019|
|timber||15 360 103||m³||2019|
|cattle||2 535.414||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||5 408.975||1000 heads||2019|
|buffaloes||2 873.561||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||12 709.248||1000 heads||2019|
|goats||3 755.879||1000 heads||2019|
|equines, total||252.218||1000 heads||2019|
|birds||198 942||1000 heads||2019|
|hides and skins||45.916||1000 t||2019|
|crustaceans and molluscs||326 124.995||t||2019|
|freshwater fishes||388 553.421||t||2019|
There are sizeable nickel deposits (on Palawan Island and in the regions of Caraga and Central Luzon), silver and gold (in the north and south-east of Luzon), coal (at Cebu City), copper (on the Zamboanga Peninsula, in northern Luzon and on the Bicol Peninsula), chromite (in the eastern part of Samar Island, on Dinagat Island and in the province of Zambales). Oil and natural gas are extracted from the deep-sea field of Malampaya.
Industry has reached a reasonable level of diversification and is highly developed. The most important sectors are the food-processing sector (oil, sugar, wood, paper and tobacco), electronics, petrochemicals and textiles. There are important iron and steel plants, petrochemical plants at Limay, Batangas and Tabangao, and nitrogenous fertilizer plants at Limay, Cebu City, Malabon, Rizal and Taguig. Vehicle manufacturing is significant. Production of electrical and electronic components is located at the former US military bases of Subic Bay and Clark. Craft activities include straw hats, embroidery, reed-matting and ceramics.
|coal||11 210||1000 t||2019|
|coal, total||11 210||1000 t||2019|
|dolomite||1 560.7||1000 t||2018|
|- thermal||78 956.24||M kWh||2019|
|- other renew.||13 480||M kWh||2019|
|- thermal||16 589||1000 kW||2018|
|- hydro||3 760||1000 kW||2019|
|total net generation||100 380.99||M kWh||2019|
|total installed capacity||24 500||1000 kW||2018|
|commercial vehicles||30 156||no.||2020|
|petrol||2 344.5||1000 t||2014|
|nitrogen fertilizers||26.5||1000 t||2019|
|beer of barley||2 220||1000 t||2018|
|coconut oil||1 341||1000 t||2018|
|other paper||970||1000 t||2019|
|cement||26 000||1000 t||2018|
|chemicals production||3 996.616||M US$||2018|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||23 566.423||M US$||2018|
(M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic equipment 18 552, electronic integrated circuits 13 982, computers and accessories 5 814, machinery 3 312, optical and electro-medical appliances 2 488, refined copper 2 051, ships and boats 1 680, copper oil 1 520, timber 1 411, gold 1 236, vehicles and parts thereof 1 183, bananas 1 128, apparel and accessories 1 067, fresh and preserved fish and crustaceans 1 046
Finance and banking.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas acts as the central bank of the Philippines. Financial and insurance services are developing rapidly; foreign banks are becoming more numerous. There is a stock exchange at Manila.
|manufactures||81.147||% of goods exports||2019|
|food products||9.061||% of goods exports||2019|
|Japan||9 924||M US$||2020|
|United States||9 724||M US$||2020|
|China||20 959||M US$||2020|
|Japan||8 717||M US$||2020|
|Expenditures||12 852||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||8 261 000||units||2019|
|Civil aviation, km flown||81 700 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||47 776.9||1000 units||2019|
|Broadband subscribers||54.757||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|Computers||72.3||per 1000 pop.||2008|
Social and welfare
Education is completely free; primary school is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13; secondary education lasts for five years. Lessons are taught in Filipino and English at primary level and English at secondary level and thereafter.
|Expected years of schooling||13.148||years||2017|
|Students, primary level||14 039 867||units||2017|
|Students, secondary level||9 007 148||units||2017|
|Hospital beds||0.99||per 1000 pop.||2014|
|Physicians||0.6||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|HIV||0.2||% of adults||2019|
|Research and development spending||0.157||% of GDP||2015|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||47.4||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||95.629||%||2019|