Form of Government: Republic
Area: 300 000 sq km
Population: 104 918 090 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 349.73 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 21° - 4° N; long. 116° - 127° E
Capital: Manila (capital) 1 780 148 inhab. (2015); Metro Manila 12 877 253 inhab. (2015), metropolitan area
Currency: Philippine peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.699 (rank: 113)
President and head of government: Rodrigo Duterte (PDP-Laban), elected 9 May 2016, in office since 30 June 2016
House of Representatives: first-past-the-post seats based on the elections of 13 May 2019: PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power), 82; NP (Nationalist Party), 42; NPC (Nationalist People’s Coalition), 36; NUP (National Unity Party, conservative), 25; LP (Liberal Party, centre-left), 18; Lakas-CMD (Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats, populist ), 11; others, 27; not assigned, 4
Internet: https://psa.gov.ph (Philippine Statistics Authority)
Member of APEC, ASEAN, OAS observer, UN, WTO

Philippines

Philippines, Pilipinas, Republic of the Philippines, Republika ng Pilipinas
Useful information

International license plate code RP
International dialling code 0063
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 110/220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ph

GMT  +8
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Manila 27.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Manila 25.5/28.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Manila 7/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Manila 1748
Days of rainfall (annual average) Manila 109

Politics and current affairs

On 21 January 2019, a referendum in Mindanao approved the creation of the autonomous region of Bangsamoro in the Muslim-majority areas. Despite this, armed groups of Islamic fundamentalists remain active (a bombing on 27 January in Jolo caused 20 deaths).
In the legislative elections on 13 May 2019, the parties close to President R. Duterte obtained a wide majority.

Geography.
The Philippines is an archipelago situated between the Pacific Ocean, the Celebes Sea and the South China Sea. The 11 largest islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol and Masbate) alone make up 92% of the country. The islands are generally mountainous (Mount Apo, 2954 m, on the island of Mindanao). The only extensive plains lie within the mountain ranges on Luzon and Mindanao.
The climate is hot and humid. The Philippines lay claim to some of the Spratly Islands, in the South China Sea.

Government


The archipelago became a Spanish colony in the 16th century, was ceded to the United States in 1898, and has been an independent republic since 12 June 1946. After 20 years of dictatorship under Ferdinando Marcos, democracy was restored by Corazón (Cory) Aquino (the widow of Senator Benigno Aquino, who was assassinated on 23 August 1983). Corazón Aquino was President of the Republic from 1986 to 1992. Since 1969, the Maoist rebels of the NPA (New People’s Army) have been campaigning for agricultural reform and the removal of the American military presence. Guerrilla movements are endemic on the island of Mindanao, which, over time, have become radicalized and have tightened ties with international Islamic fundamentalism. In 1996 a peace agreement was signed with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and in 2014 with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). Extremist Islamic groups such as Abu Sayyaf and minor militias are active.
According to the 1987 Constitution, the President, who is also head of the government, is elected directly for a six-year term and cannot be re-elected; the vice-President is elected in a separate but similar procedure.
The Parliament is bicameral: at present the House of Representatives consists of 306 members (245 elected for three years on a first-past-the-post basis, plus 61 representatives of minor parties), the Senate has 24 members who remain in office for a six-year term, half of whom are renewed every three years. Since 2003, voting has also been extended to many Filipinos residing abroad.


Defence.
There are some American military bases in the country.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Spanish Law and British Common Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force12%2015
Army68.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes715.5per 100 000 pop.2014
Homicides11per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Quezon City2 936 116inhab.2015
Manila1 780 148inhab.2015
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Metro Manila (metropolitan area)12 877 253inhab.2015
Cebu City2 849 213inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The annual growth rate, once among the highest in Asia, is in constant decline. About ten million Filipinos live abroad.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate232017
Death rate6.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other26.3%2010
Tagalog24.4%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic79.5%2015
other9.5%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
English (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33.1%2018
15-29 years27.4%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Since 2012, economic growth has remained strong, driven by the government’s expansionary policy to finance infrastructure investments, and by domestic consumption, even though exports have weakened due to the slowdown in global trade. Unemployment is undergoing slow but constant decline. Serious underemployment and unequal distribution of income are still issues, but the percentage of the population under the poverty threshold is in gradual decline, especially in urban areas. Remittances from Filipinos living abroad remain crucial.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.44index2016
Balance of trade-47 250.4M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population43 675 290units2018
Active population, Females38.3%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females39.7%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses2 595 796M LCU2018
Revenues2 834 529M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture25.2%2018
industry18.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.7%2017
industry30.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 490.2BN LCU2018
International reserves79 195.6M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
The ongoing agricultural reform has created many small plots of land, though large estates are still the norm. The main crops grown for domestic consumption are rice, maize and cassava; thanks to extensive irrigation, the most productive area is the flat plain north of Manila. The crops bound for export include coconut palms, sugar-cane, bananas, pineapples (Mindanao). One of Manila’s traditional crops is Manila hemp (from the abacà plant). A great deal of tobacco is grown, with most (and the highest quality) tobacco coming from the northern Philippines (in particular from the valley of the River Cagayan on Luzon).
Forests.
Mahogany from the Philippines is greatly prized; the country is one of the largest producers of natural rubber.
Livestock and fishing.
Most of the livestock farming is practised on large estates on Mindanao and Masbate. Fishing is widespread (especially tuna, sardines, herrings and anchovies), but is limited on account of polluted coastal waters and destructive methods of exploitation. Fish-farming is relevant (especially seaweeds, shellfish, Chanos chanos, tilapia, and molluscs).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land36.7%2015
forests26.96%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total27 191.8361000 t2017
maize7 914.9091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava2 807.6711000 t2017
potatoes117.6371000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus1.9041000 t2017
cabbages122.4741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry35.3411000 t2017
beans, green14.1511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.2131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0391000 t2017
groundnuts29.3741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits474.7921000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts14 049.1311000 t2017
copra2 2001000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa7.0091000 t2017
coffee62.0781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane29 286.8931000 t2017
tobacco51.0241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.9871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total16 579.81000 t2017
strawberries0.8191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts222.5411000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits160.4351000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes116.6651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados19.441000 t2017
bananas6 041.3691000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.6331000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize2 552.5921000 ha2017
rice4 811.8081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava234.541000 ha2017
potatoes7.7931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages7.9121000 ha2017
carrots and turnips5.4531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry41.9331000 ha2017
beans, green3.1371000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.4391000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0.0641000 ha2017
groundnuts23.7741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit60.0691000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts3 612.3041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa18.2641000 ha2017
coffee112.8431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane437.4711000 ha2017
tobacco30.8291000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.0091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.9971000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
strawberries0.1341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts28.6311000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits35.2761000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes19.7881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados5.181000 ha2017
bananas446.7641000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber406 984t2017
timber15 373 4952017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 547.6141000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes5 429.5081000 heads2017
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes2 881.8941000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs12 427.791000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep301000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 710.3481000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total248.9091000 heads2017
horses248.9091000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds187 1451000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs537.8381000 t2017
hides and skins35.6551000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs301 062.6t2017
freshwater fishes362 167.1t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
There are sizeable nickel deposits (on Palawan Island and in the regions of Caraga and Central Luzon), silver and gold (in the north and south-east of Luzon), coal (at Cebu City), copper (on the Zamboanga Peninsula, in northern Luzon and on the Bicol Peninsula), chromite (in the eastern part of Samar Island, on Dinagat Island and in the province of Zambales). Oil and natural gas are extracted from the deep-sea field of Malampaya.
Industry.
Industry has reached a reasonable level of diversification and is highly developed. The most important sectors are the food-processing sector (oil, sugar, wood, paper and tobacco), electronics, petrochemicals and textiles. There are important iron and steel plants at Iligan, petrochemical plants at Limay, Batangas and Tabangao, and nitrogenous fertilizer plants at Limay, Cebu City, Malabon, Rizal and Taguig. Vehicle manufacturing is significant. Production of electrical and electronic components is located at the former US military bases of Subic Bay and Clark. Craft activities include straw hats, embroidery, reed-matting and ceramics.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal12 0871000 t2016
coal, total12 0871000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite29.11000 t2016
cobalt4.61000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite3.51000 t2016
feldspar46.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite3 073.71000 t2015
kaolin8.21000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold23 053kg2016
silver34 000kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal64 688.92M kWh2016
- other renew.13 868M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal14 4661000 kW2016
- hydro3 6181000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation86 586.92M kWh2016
total installed capacity22 1271000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper1531000 t2015
lead281000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars45 853no.2017
commercial vehicles71 015no.2017
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol2 344.51000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers44.61000 t2017
phosphate fertilizers7.31000 t2017
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 0331000 t2014
coconut oil1 109.11000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint531000 t2017
other paper8911000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement25 0001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production4 485.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production19 348.5M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
electrical and electronic equipment 18 552, electronic integrated circuits 13 982, computers and accessories 5 814, machinery 3 312, optical and electro-medical appliances 2 488, refined copper 2 051, ships and boats 1 680, copper oil 1 520, timber 1 411, gold 1 236, vehicles and parts thereof 1 183, bananas 1 128, apparel and accessories 1 067, fresh and preserved fish and crustaceans 1 046


Finance and banking.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas acts as the central bank of the Philippines. The banking system is relatively underdeveloped compared with the country’s economy, while foreign banks are becoming more numerous. There is a stock exchange at Manila.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures83.803% of goods exports2018
food products8.824% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States10 550M US$2018
Hong Kong9 554M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China22 579M US$2018
Korea, South11 503M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201867 488M US$ -
201768 713M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018114 738M US$ -
2017101 901M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures12 786M US$2017
Number of arrivals6 621 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown81 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried44 087.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers32.399per 1000 pop.2017
Computers72.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education.
Education is completely free; primary school is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13; secondary education lasts for five years. Lessons are taught in Filipino and English at primary level and English at secondary level and thereafter.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.7years2014
Gradautes, percentage14%2003
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level493 084units2016
Teachers, secondary level314 482units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.97per 1000 pop.2014
Physicians0.03per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.01%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.14% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking43.22%2016
Access to electricity93%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear2.4%2015
education3.8%2015
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