Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 1 064 063 sq km
Population: 90 078 005 inhab. (estimate 2015)
Density: 84.66 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 3° N; long. 33° - 48° E
Capital: Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba (capital) 3 273 001 inhab. (2015);
Currency: birr (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.448 (rank: 174)
President: Mulatu Teshome Wirtu (Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization), since 7 October 2013
Prime Minister: Hailemariam Desalegn (EPRDF), since 20 August 2012
House of People's Representatives: seats based on the elections of 24 May 2015: EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front), 500; SPDP (Somali People’s Democratic Party), 24; BGDP (Benishangul-Gumuz People’s Democratic Front) 9; ANDP (Afar Revolutionary Democratic Front), 8; others, 5; not assigned, 1
Internet: www.csa.gov.et (Central Statistical Agency)
Member of AU, COMESA, EU associated, UN, WTO observer

Ethiopia

Ītyop’iya, YeĪtyop’iya Fēdēralawī Dēmokrasīyawī Rīpeblīk
Useful information

International license plate code ETH
International dialling code 00251
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .et

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Addis Ababa 13.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Addis Ababa 14.5/15.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Addis Ababa 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Addis Ababa 1257
Days of rainfall (annual average) Addis Ababa 87

Geography.
Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, by Djibouti to the north-east, by Somalia to the east and south-east, by Kenya to the south and by Sudan to the west. The country is made up of a vast plateau which is divided in two by the upper part of the Great Rift Valley and the Afar Depression. To the north-west are the Ethiopian Highlands (Ras Dejen, 4550 m) with their typical rugged landscape, crossed by various watercourses including the Blue Nile, the River Omo and the River Awash. Towards the south-east the plateau slopes down towards Somalia. Other rivers are the River Juba and the River Shebelle. The climate varies according to the altitude, temperate above 2000 m and hot and dry below 1500 m. The lowlands of the south are hot and humid.

Government


The elderly Emperor, Haile Selassie, who had been in power since 1930, was deposed with a coup d’état (12 September 1974) and a republic was proclaimed on 21 March 1975.
In February 1977, Colonel Menghistu Haile Mariam imposed a Marxist-Leninist regime which lasted until May 1991 when it was overthrown by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which has since exercised strict political control. On 24 May 1993, Eritrea, a federal part of Ethiopia, declared independence after a long liberation struggle. Conflict with Ethiopia started up again in 1998 and finally ended in 2000, but without substantial changes being made to the borders. The UN peace-keeping mission, deployed since 2000 along the border between the two countries, has discouraged direct conflicts, but it was withdrawn in 2008. Ethiopia intervened in Somalia to support the government from 2006 to 2009 and in 2011-2012. There has been a long period of unrest involving the Amhara and Oromo ethnicities, who lament their political marginalization by the government, controlled by Tigrayans. Groups of rebels of the Oromo Liberation Front and the Ogaden National Liberation Front are active in the country. Attacks by armed forces come from South Sudan aimed at raiding the country.
According to the Constitution of 8 December 1994 (in force since 1995), Ethiopia is a federal democratic republic divided into 9 regional states on an ethnic basis. Power is mainly in the hands of the Prime Minister, while the President, elected for a six-year term by the House of People’s Representatives (547 members, elected for five-year terms by direct suffrage) has notable representative functions. There is also a Federal Council (108 members chosen from the state assemblies for five-year terms).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.2%2014
Army97.8%2014
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes235.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides8per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba3 273 001inhab.2015
Nazrēt323 999inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2016)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.92015
Death rate7.22015
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oromo (Galla)35.3%2012
Amhara26.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox43.1%2012
Muslim34.1%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amharic
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.7%2016
15-29 years27.8%2016


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)158.09index2014
Balance of trade-11 976.840M US$2016
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population50 245 685units2016
Active population, Females46.9%2016
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.7%2016
Unemployment rate, Females66.7%2014
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses280 893M LCU2016
Revenues244 819M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture72.7%2013
industry7.4%2013
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture40.5%2015
industry16%2015
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation369.7BN LCU2015
International reserves3 021.8M US$2016
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The land belongs to the state, which rents it out. The development of commercial crops is favoured. In the lower regions, where the climate is hot and humid (quollá), maize and cotton are grown. In the plateaus between 1800 m and 2400 m (the woina dega), the most populated and fertile regions, cereals (barley, sorghum and a variety of millet known as teff) and sesame are grown for domestic consumption and coffee is grown for exportation. Most of the coffee comes from Harar, Kaffa, Sidamo, Jīma and Welega. Qat is grown in large measure, which is also exported. Pastures are found at a higher altitudes (the dega). The number of animals reared for food is significant. Vast estates have been rented by foreign agricultural companies.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.26%2014
forests12.46%2014
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 953.3851000 t2014
cereals, total23 607.6621000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes921.8321000 t2014
roots and tubers, total10 402.1491000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages355.681000 t2014
carrots and turnips14.2971000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry513.7251000 t2014
beans, green6.4861000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes5.1181000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed111000 t2014
groundnuts103.7061000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee419.981000 t2014
ginger9.8061000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops32.2711000 t2014
sugar cane2 816.6911000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1171000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed83.1311000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.5561000 t2014
sisal0.6521000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total905.0891000 t2014
peaches0.1551000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits51.8881000 t2014
citrus fruits, nes3.5391000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados53.6981000 t2014
bananas478.2511000 t2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley993.941000 ha2014
maize2 114.8761000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes67.3621000 ha2014
sweet potatoes59.3981000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages35.9261000 ha2014
carrots and turnips3.6971000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry323.3261000 ha2014
beans, green1.5761000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.5441000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed5.491000 ha2014
groundnuts64.6491000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee561.7621000 ha2014
ginger3.2441000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops28.3861000 ha2014
sugar cane30.1761000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1231000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed82.3251000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.9241000 ha2014
sisal0.9031000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peaches0.0261000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.7991000 ha2014
citrus fruits, nes0.4851000 ha2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados13.7981000 ha2014
bananas53.9561000 ha2014
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber111 108 8722015
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle56 706.3891000 heads2014
cattle and buffaloes56 706.3891000 heads2014
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs341000 heads2014
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep29 332.3821000 heads2014
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats29 112.9631000 heads2014
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses7 428.0371000 heads2014
asses and mules7 828.3661000 heads2014
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 164.11000 heads2014
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds56 8671000 heads2014
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey451000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter181000 t2014
cheese61000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes45 607t2015
total catch45 610t2015
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Many of the mineral resources are unexplored or under exploited. There are platinum reserves (in Oromīya), gold (Lega Dembi mine, in southern Ethiopia), niobium and tantalum (mine near Borena) and opals (Wegel Tena mine, NW of Dessié). Coal is extracted near Jīma. Most industrial plants are found in or around the capital. There is a steelworks (in Akaki), a cement plant (in Dire Dawa), textile plants (in Addis Ababa, Akaki, Debre Birhan, Dire Dawa and Bahir Dar), sugar plants (in Wenjī and Adana), breweries in Harar, and a cigarette factory in Addis Abada. A 6000 MW hydroelectric power station is being built on the Blue Nile, which is disputed by other countries in the Nile basin.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total301000 t2014
lignite301000 t2014
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
columbite0.0011000 t2014
tantalite0.031000 t2014
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar0.511000 t2014
gypsum531000 t2014
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt4 2501000 t2014
diatomite4.61000 t2014
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold11 600kg2014
opal32 000kg2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro9 103M kWh2014
- other renew.409M kWh2014
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1501000 kW2015
- other renew.327.31000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation9 520.46M kWh2014
total installed capacity2 381.31000 kW2014
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1301000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artificial yarn31.41000 t2014
soap911000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets46.51000 m²2014
cotton fabrics34.6M m²2014
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear21 917 200pairs2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley562.51000 t2014
cottonseed oil6.21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 112M units2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint131000 t2015
other paper65.41000 t2015
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 4001000 t2014
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production235.9M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production813.2M US$2014
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2013) coffee 568, oil seeds 454, plants and 
flowers 257, fruit and vegetables 156, leather 71, apparel and accessories 59

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products71.728% of goods exports2015
agricultural raw materials18.898% of goods exports2015
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kuwait876.2M US$2016
United States169M US$2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China6 096M US$2016
United States1 682M US$2016
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20164 611.553M US$ -
20155 027.546M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201616 588.393M US$ -
201516 913.548M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures181M US$2012
Number of arrivals864 000units2015
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Communications


Being left a landlocked country, the nation depends on the ports of Djibouti (linked to the capital by a new railway line) and Berbera (in Somalia). The road between Metema and Gedaref (Sudan) allows access to the Red Sea ports. Considerable investments are underway to enhance the country’s transportation infrastructure.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown41 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried8 242.11000 units2016
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers5.512per 1000 pop.2016
Computers7per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.4years2012
Graduates110 692units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level244 789units2014
Teachers, secondary level122 147units2012
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.9% of total expenses2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.3per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.02per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.2% of adults2014
HIV, total3.3%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums8units2013-14
Museums, visitors311 952units2013-14
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.6% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to improved drinking-water source57.3%2015
Access to improved sanitation28.021%2015
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2010-11
education0.4%2010-11
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