Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 1 064 063 sq km
Population: 108 108 470 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 101.6 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 3° N; long. 33° - 48° E
Capital: Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba (capital) 3 433 999 inhab. (2017);
Currency: birr (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.485 (rank: 173)
President: Sahle-Work Zewde (independent), since 25 October 2018
Prime Minister: Abiy Ahmed (Prosperity Party), since 2 April 2018
House of People's Representatives: seats based on the elections of 21 June 2021 (preliminary results): PB (Prosperity Party), 410; National Movement of Amhara, 5; Ethiopian Citizens for Social Justice, 4; Gedeo People’s Democratic Party, 2
Internet: www.statsethiopia.gov.et (Central Statistics Agency)
Member of AU, COMESA, UN, WTO observer

Ethiopia

Ītyop’iya, YeĪtyop’iya Fēdēralawī Dēmokrasīyawī Rīpeblīk
Useful information

International license plate code ETH
International dialling code 00251
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .et

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Addis Ababa 13.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Addis Ababa 14.5/15.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Addis Ababa 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Addis Ababa 1257
Days of rainfall (annual average) Addis Ababa 87

Politics and current affairs

Tensions were heightened after the Tigray held elections (9 September 2020), notwithstanding the ban by the central government, which had postponed them due to the pandemic. Prime Minister Abiy accused the Tigray of having attacked federal troops and started military operations on 4 November. On 28 November, the premier announced that the capital, Macallé, had been occupied. The clashes continued regardless and on 28 June 2021 the Tigray People’s Liberation Front reoccupied Macallé.

Geography.
Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, by Djibouti to the north-east, by Somalia to the east and south-east, by Kenya to the south and by Sudan to the west. The country is made up of a vast plateau which is divided in two by the upper part of the Great Rift Valley and the Afar Depression. To the north-west are the Ethiopian Highlands (Ras Dejen, 4550 m) with their typical rugged landscape, crossed by various watercourses including the Blue Nile, the River Omo and the River Awash. Towards the south-east the plateau slopes down towards Somalia. Other rivers are the River Juba and the River Shebelle. The climate varies according to the altitude, temperate above 2000 m and hot and dry below 1500 m. The lowlands of the south are hot and humid.

Government


The elderly Emperor, Haile Selassie, who had been in power since 1930, was deposed with a coup d’état (12 September 1974) and a republic was proclaimed on 21 March 1975.
In February 1977, Colonel Menghistu Haile Mariam imposed a Marxist-Leninist regime which lasted until May 1991 when it was overthrown by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which has since exercised strict political control. On 24 May 1993, Eritrea, a federal part of Ethiopia, declared independence after a long liberation struggle. Conflict with Ethiopia started up again in 1998 and finally ended in 2000, but without substantial changes being made to the borders. After a long landstill, a peace agreement was signed in Jeddah on 16 September 2018. Ethiopia intervened in Somalia to support the government from 2006 to 2009 and in 2011-2012. There has been a long period of unrest involving the Amhara and Oromo ethnicities, who lament their political marginalization by the government, controlled by Tigrayans; this led, in 2018, to the appointment as Prime Minister of Abiy Ahmed, of the Oromo ethnic group, who tried to overcome the management of power on an ethnic basis (he dissolved the EPRDF in 2019), however exacerbating the requests for regional autonomy and interethnic violence. Groups of rebels of the Oromo Liberation Front and the Ogaden National Liberation Front are active in the country. Attacks by armed forces come from South Sudan aimed at raiding the country.
According to the Constitution of 8 December 1994 (in force since 1995), Ethiopia is a federal democratic republic divided into 9 regional states on an ethnic basis. Power is mainly in the hands of the Prime Minister, while the President, elected for a six-year term by the House of People’s Representatives (up to 550 members, elected for five-year terms by direct suffrage) has notable representative functions. There is also a House of Federation (153 members chosen from the state assemblies for five-year terms).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.2%2015
Army97.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes235.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides7.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba3 433 999inhab.2017
Mek'elē358 529inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.8962019
Death rate6.4182019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oromo (Galla)35.3%2012
Amhara26.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox43.1%2012
Muslim34.1%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amharic
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.8%2020
15-29 years27.4%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)163.52index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)108.42index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population54 994 000units2020
Active population, Females46.5%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females61.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses413 105.7M LCU2018-19
Revenues344 936.5M LCU2018-19
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture66.1%2019
industry10.2%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture35.473%2019
industry25.933%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation308.9BN LCU2018-19
International reserves3 046.114M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The land belongs to the state, which rents it out. The development of commercial crops is favoured. In the lower regions, where the climate is hot and humid (quollá), maize and cotton are grown. In the plateaus between 1800 m and 2400 m (the woina dega), the most populated and fertile regions, cereals (barley, sorghum and a variety of millet known as teff) and sesame are grown for domestic consumption and coffee is grown for exportation. Most of the coffee comes from Harar, Kaffa, Sidamo, Jimma and Welega. Sugar cane and Qat, which is also exported, are grown in large measure. Pastures are found at a higher altitudes (the dega). The number of animals reared for food is significant. Vast estates have been rented by foreign agricultural companies.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land15.853%2018
forests15.244%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 378.011000 t2019
cereals, total29 672.6471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes924.5281000 t2019
roots and tubers, total4 386.7071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages435.8631000 t2019
carrots and turnips18.2251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry485.5471000 t2019
beans, green8.0171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes4.2491000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed11.1571000 t2019
groundnuts156.5331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee482.5611000 t2019
ginger11.7411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops44.3421000 t2019
sugar cane1 499.1341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton154.6221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed79.6951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.5561000 t2014
sisal0.7561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 027.9551000 t2019
peaches0.191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits48.8671000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes2.0961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados104.4921000 t2019
bananas539.4431000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley950.7421000 ha2019
maize2 274.3061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes70.3621000 ha2019
sweet potatoes52.4061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages42.4991000 ha2019
carrots and turnips4.0741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry281.0831000 ha2019
beans, green1.9421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape4.2651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed6.5871000 ha2019
groundnuts87.9251000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee758.5231000 ha2019
ginger4.161000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops33.7021000 ha2019
sugar cane32.0691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1501000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed69.151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.9241000 ha2014
sisal1.0471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peaches0.0341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits9.4681000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.2741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados20.9081000 ha2019
bananas67.3871000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber116 082 2772019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle63 284.1771000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes63 284.1771000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs36.5351000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep31 849.0031000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats34 045.2161000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8 740.1741000 heads2019
asses and mules9 047.9941000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 281.4681000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds64 4551000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey53.7821000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter15.11000 t2018
cheese5.0331000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes59 242t2019
total catch59 432t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Many of the mineral resources are unexplored or under exploited. There are platinum reserves (in Oromīya), gold (Lega Dembi mine, in southern Ethiopia), niobium and tantalum (mine near Borena) and opals (Wegel Tena mine, NW of Desē). Coal is extracted near Jimma. Most industrial plants are found in or around the capital. There are steelworks in Bishoftu (Debre Zeyit) and ‘Alem Gena, cement plants in Dirē Dawa, Mek’elē and around Addis Ababa, textile plants in Addis Ababa, Akaki, Debre Birhan, Dirē Dawa and Bahir Dar), sugar plants (especially in Awash Valley), breweries in Harar, and a cigarette factory in Addis Abada. The hydroelectric potential is noteworthy: the largest plant is on the Omo river (1.9 GW); a new hydroelectric power station (GERD, 6.5 GW) is being activated on the Blue Nile, which is disputed by other countries in the Nile basin.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total2.81000 t2018
lignite2.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
columbite0.0261000 t2018
tantalite0.061000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar0.61000 t2018
gypsum2501000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt959.71000 t2018
diatomite5$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
emeralds - kg2 650kg2018
gold3 495kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro12 887.82M kWh2018
- other renew.582.6M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro3 8201000 kW2019
- other renew.632.31000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation13 475.42M kWh2018
total installed capacity4 553.31000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude6901000 t2017
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artificial yarn2.821000 t2016
soap117.51000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets46.51000 m²2014
cotton fabrics7.5M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear38 390 723pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 426.3221000 t2018
cottonseed oil7$1000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 655.3M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint13$1000 t2019
other paper65.41000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement9 3001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production302.174M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production1 041.764M US$2015
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2013) coffee 568, oil seeds 454, plants and 
flowers 257, fruit and vegetables 156, leather 71, apparel and accessories 59

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products88.516% of goods exports2018
manufactures5.628% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Somalia294M US$2020
United States259M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China4 170M US$2020
India1 489M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 476M US$ -
20192 788M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202014 135M US$ -
201914 554M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures613M US$2018
Number of arrivals812 000units2019
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Communications


Being left a landlocked country, the nation depends on the ports of Djibouti (linked to the capital by a new railway line) and Berbera (in Somalia). The road between Metema and Gedaref (Sudan) allows access to the Red Sea ports.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown41 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried12 631.21000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.592per 1000 pop.2017
Computers7$per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.4years2012
Graduates110 692units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level16 198 047units2015
Students, secondary level5 028 678units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.9% of total expenses2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.33per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians0.08per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.9% of adults2019
HIV, total3.3%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums8$units2013-14
Museums, visitors311 952units2013-14
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.274% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking6.6%2019
Access to electricity48.272%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2010-11
education0.4%2010-11
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