Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 1 064 063 sq km
Population: 102 403 196 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 96.24 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 3° N; long. 33° - 48° E
Capital: Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba (capital) 3 273 001 inhab. (2015);
Currency: birr (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.448 (rank: 174)
President: Mulatu Teshome Wirtu (Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization), since 7 October 2013
Prime Minister: Abiy Ahmed (EPRDF), since 2 April 2018
House of People's Representatives: seats based on the elections of 24 May 2015: EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front), 500; SPDP (Somali People’s Democratic Party), 24; BGDP (Benishangul-Gumuz People’s Democratic Front) 9; ANDP (Afar Revolutionary Democratic Front), 8; others, 5; not assigned, 1
Internet: www.csa.gov.et (Central Statistical Agency)
Member of AU, COMESA, UN, WTO observer

Ethiopia

Ītyop’iya, YeĪtyop’iya Fēdēralawī Dēmokrasīyawī Rīpeblīk
Useful information

International license plate code ETH
International dialling code 00251
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .et

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Addis Ababa 13.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Addis Ababa 14.5/15.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Addis Ababa 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Addis Ababa 1257
Days of rainfall (annual average) Addis Ababa 87

Politics and current affairs

Protests by the Oromo people against the government coincided with a conflict between the Oromo and Somali, which led to hundreds of deaths. Prime Minister H. Desalegn resigned on 15 February 2018 to allow for Abiy Ahmed, an ethnic Oromo, to be nominated. One of the first acts by the new prime minister was to re-establish contact with Eritrea, where he went on an official visit on 8 July.

Geography.
Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, by Djibouti to the north-east, by Somalia to the east and south-east, by Kenya to the south and by Sudan to the west. The country is made up of a vast plateau which is divided in two by the upper part of the Great Rift Valley and the Afar Depression. To the north-west are the Ethiopian Highlands (Ras Dejen, 4550 m) with their typical rugged landscape, crossed by various watercourses including the Blue Nile, the River Omo and the River Awash. Towards the south-east the plateau slopes down towards Somalia. Other rivers are the River Juba and the River Shebelle. The climate varies according to the altitude, temperate above 2000 m and hot and dry below 1500 m. The lowlands of the south are hot and humid.

Government


The elderly Emperor, Haile Selassie, who had been in power since 1930, was deposed with a coup d’état (12 September 1974) and a republic was proclaimed on 21 March 1975.
In February 1977, Colonel Menghistu Haile Mariam imposed a Marxist-Leninist regime which lasted until May 1991 when it was overthrown by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which has since exercised strict political control. On 24 May 1993, Eritrea, a federal part of Ethiopia, declared independence after a long liberation struggle. Conflict with Ethiopia started up again in 1998 and finally ended in 2000, but without substantial changes being made to the borders. The UN peace-keeping mission, deployed since 2000 along the border between the two countries, has discouraged direct conflicts, but it was withdrawn in 2008. Ethiopia intervened in Somalia to support the government from 2006 to 2009 and in 2011-2012. There has been a long period of unrest involving the Amhara and Oromo ethnicities, who lament their political marginalization by the government, controlled by Tigrayans. Groups of rebels of the Oromo Liberation Front and the Ogaden National Liberation Front are active in the country. Attacks by armed forces come from South Sudan aimed at raiding the country.
According to the Constitution of 8 December 1994 (in force since 1995), Ethiopia is a federal democratic republic divided into 9 regional states on an ethnic basis. Power is mainly in the hands of the Prime Minister, while the President, elected for a six-year term by the House of People’s Representatives (up to 550 members, elected for five-year terms by direct suffrage) has notable representative functions. There is also a House of Federation (153 members chosen from the state assemblies for five-year terms).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.2%2015
Army97.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes235.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides7.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba3 273 001inhab.2015
Nazrēt323 999inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.82016
Death rate6.82016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oromo (Galla)35.3%2012
Amhara26.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox43.1%2012
Muslim34.1%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amharic
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.5%2017
15-29 years27.8%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)163.52index2016
Balance of trade-13 119M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population51 449 891units2017
Active population, Females47.3%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.2%2017
Unemployment rate, Females68.6%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses337 906M LCU2017
Revenues270 214M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture68.2%2017
industry9.4%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.8%2016
industry21%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation369.7BN LCU2015
International reserves3 030.9M US$2016
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The land belongs to the state, which rents it out. The development of commercial crops is favoured. In the lower regions, where the climate is hot and humid (quollá), maize and cotton are grown. In the plateaus between 1800 m and 2400 m (the woina dega), the most populated and fertile regions, cereals (barley, sorghum and a variety of millet known as teff) and sesame are grown for domestic consumption and coffee is grown for exportation. Most of the coffee comes from Harar, Kaffa, Sidamo, Jīma and Welega. Sugar cane and Qat, which is also exported, are grown in large measure. Pastures are found at a higher altitudes (the dega). The number of animals reared for food is significant. Vast estates have been rented by foreign agricultural companies.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.26%2015
forests12.5%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 024.9221000 t2016
cereals, total25 384.7251000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes921.4031000 t2016
roots and tubers, total8 476.8471000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages391.5781000 t2016
carrots and turnips9.0341000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry483.9231000 t2016
beans, green7.1871000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes5.4071000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed101000 t2016
groundnuts129.6361000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee469.0911000 t2016
ginger10.8921000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops40.0741000 t2016
sugar cane1 410.3121000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton50.0931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed87.9121000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.5561000 t2014
sisal0.671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total905.0891000 t2014
peaches0.1721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits40.9751000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes3.3811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados64.9821000 t2016
bananas538.3021000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley959.2731000 ha2016
maize2 135.5721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes66.9231000 ha2016
sweet potatoes1301000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages42.2791000 ha2016
carrots and turnips2.5781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry290.2021000 ha2016
beans, green1.7491000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.5121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed6.7071000 ha2016
groundnuts74.8611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee700.4751000 ha2016
ginger3.5671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops31.3671000 ha2016
sugar cane31.2371000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed80.3541000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.9241000 ha2014
sisal0.9241000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peaches0.0311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.3511000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.4891000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados17.8351000 ha2016
bananas63.2131000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber112 323 6712016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle59 486.6671000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes59 486.6671000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs34.9751000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30 697.9421000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats30 200.2261000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8 439.221000 heads2016
asses and mules8 849.0971000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 209.3211000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds59 4951000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey451000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter181000 t2014
cheese61000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes45 592t2016
total catch45 595t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Many of the mineral resources are unexplored or under exploited. There are platinum reserves (in Oromīya), gold (Lega Dembi mine, in southern Ethiopia), niobium and tantalum (mine near Borena) and opals (Wegel Tena mine, NW of Dessié). Coal is extracted near Jīma. Most industrial plants are found in or around the capital. There is a steelworks (in Akaki), a cement plant (in Dire Dawa), textile plants (in Addis Ababa, Akaki, Debre Birhan, Dire Dawa and Bahir Dar), sugar plants (especially in Awash Valley), breweries in Harar, and a cigarette factory in Addis Abada. A 6000 MW hydroelectric power station is being built on the Blue Nile, which is disputed by other countries in the Nile basin.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total301000 t2015
lignite301000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
columbite0.0171000 t2015
tantalite0.061000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar0.61000 t2015
gypsum2901000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt2101000 t2015
diatomite51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold10 600kg2015
opal64 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro9 577M kWh2015
- other renew.760.1M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1501000 kW2015
- other renew.350.31000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 340.86M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 704.31000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude1301000 t2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artificial yarn31.41000 t2014
soap911000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets46.51000 m²2014
cotton fabrics34.6M m²2014
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear21 917 200pairs2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley562.51000 t2014
cottonseed oil6.21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 112M units2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint131000 t2016
other paper65.41000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement7 8001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production235.9M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production813.2M US$2014
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2013) coffee 568, oil seeds 454, plants and 
flowers 257, fruit and vegetables 156, leather 71, apparel and accessories 59

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products83.822% of goods exports2016
manufactures12.532% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China288M US$2017
Somalia244M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China4 858M US$2017
United States1 211M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20173 170.211M US$ -
20162 918.700M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201716 288.762M US$ -
201616 965.763M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures461M US$2016
Number of arrivals871 000units2016
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Communications


Being left a landlocked country, the nation depends on the ports of Djibouti (linked to the capital by a new railway line) and Berbera (in Somalia). The road between Metema and Gedaref (Sudan) allows access to the Red Sea ports. Considerable investments are underway to enhance the country’s transportation infrastructure.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown41 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 566.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers5.527per 1000 pop.2017
Computers7per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.4years2012
Graduates110 692units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level244 789units2014
Teachers, secondary level122 147units2012
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.9% of total expenses2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.3per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.02per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.1% of adults2016
HIV, total3.3%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums8units2013-14
Museums, visitors311 952units2013-14
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.6% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.51%2016
Access to electricity42.9%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2010-11
education0.4%2010-11
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