Form of Government: Federal republic
Area: 1 064 063 sq km
Population: 104 957 438 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 98.64 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 15° - 3° N; long. 33° - 48° E
Capital: Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba (capital) 3 273 001 inhab. (2015);
Currency: birr (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.463 (rank: 173)
President: Sahle-Work Zewde (independent), since 25 October 2018
Prime Minister: Abiy Ahmed (EPRDF), since 2 April 2018
House of People's Representatives: seats based on the elections of 24 May 2015: EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front), 500; SPDP (Somali People’s Democratic Party), 24; BGDP (Benishangul-Gumuz People’s Democratic Front) 9; ANDP (Afar Revolutionary Democratic Front), 8; others, 5; not assigned, 1
Internet: www.csa.gov.et (Central Statistical Agency)
Member of AU, COMESA, UN, WTO observer

Ethiopia

Ītyop’iya, YeĪtyop’iya Fēdēralawī Dēmokrasīyawī Rīpeblīk
Useful information

International license plate code ETH
International dialling code 00251
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .et

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Addis Ababa 13.1
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Addis Ababa 14.5/15.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Addis Ababa 5/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) Addis Ababa 1257
Days of rainfall (annual average) Addis Ababa 87

Politics and current affairs

In his first months as prime minister, Abiy Ahmed renewed relations with Eritrea, signing a peace agreement in Jeddah on 16 September 2018, freed thousands of political prisoners and welcomed the opposition. The situation remains unstable due to requests for regional autonomy and interethnic violence.

Geography.
Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, by Djibouti to the north-east, by Somalia to the east and south-east, by Kenya to the south and by Sudan to the west. The country is made up of a vast plateau which is divided in two by the upper part of the Great Rift Valley and the Afar Depression. To the north-west are the Ethiopian Highlands (Ras Dejen, 4550 m) with their typical rugged landscape, crossed by various watercourses including the Blue Nile, the River Omo and the River Awash. Towards the south-east the plateau slopes down towards Somalia. Other rivers are the River Juba and the River Shebelle. The climate varies according to the altitude, temperate above 2000 m and hot and dry below 1500 m. The lowlands of the south are hot and humid.

Government


The elderly Emperor, Haile Selassie, who had been in power since 1930, was deposed with a coup d’état (12 September 1974) and a republic was proclaimed on 21 March 1975.
In February 1977, Colonel Menghistu Haile Mariam imposed a Marxist-Leninist regime which lasted until May 1991 when it was overthrown by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which has since exercised strict political control. On 24 May 1993, Eritrea, a federal part of Ethiopia, declared independence after a long liberation struggle. Conflict with Ethiopia started up again in 1998 and finally ended in 2000, but without substantial changes being made to the borders. The UN peace-keeping mission, deployed since 2000 along the border between the two countries, has discouraged direct conflicts, but it was withdrawn in 2008. Ethiopia intervened in Somalia to support the government from 2006 to 2009 and in 2011-2012. There has been a long period of unrest involving the Amhara and Oromo ethnicities, who lament their political marginalization by the government, controlled by Tigrayans; this led, in 2018, to the appointment as Prime Minister of Abiy Ahmed, of the Oromo ethnic group. Groups of rebels of the Oromo Liberation Front and the Ogaden National Liberation Front are active in the country. Attacks by armed forces come from South Sudan aimed at raiding the country.
According to the Constitution of 8 December 1994 (in force since 1995), Ethiopia is a federal democratic republic divided into 9 regional states on an ethnic basis. Power is mainly in the hands of the Prime Minister, while the President, elected for a six-year term by the House of People’s Representatives (up to 550 members, elected for five-year terms by direct suffrage) has notable representative functions. There is also a House of Federation (153 members chosen from the state assemblies for five-year terms).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.2%2015
Army97.8%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes235.5per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides7.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Addis Ababa=Ādīs Ābeba3 273 001inhab.2015
Nazrēt323 999inhab.2015
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.32017
Death rate6.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Oromo (Galla)35.3%2012
Amhara26.2%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox43.1%2012
Muslim34.1%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amharic
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years43.2%2018
15-29 years27.9%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)163.52index2016
Balance of trade-12 391.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population51 815 840units2018
Active population, Females46.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.2%2017
Unemployment rate, Females62.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses329 658M LCU2017
Revenues269 151M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture66.2%2018
industry12%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture36.2%2017
industry24.4%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation369.7BN LCU2015
International reserves3 987.5M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The land belongs to the state, which rents it out. The development of commercial crops is favoured. In the lower regions, where the climate is hot and humid (quollá), maize and cotton are grown. In the plateaus between 1800 m and 2400 m (the woina dega), the most populated and fertile regions, cereals (barley, sorghum and a variety of millet known as teff) and sesame are grown for domestic consumption and coffee is grown for exportation. Most of the coffee comes from Harar, Kaffa, Sidamo, Jimma and Welega. Sugar cane and Qat, which is also exported, are grown in large measure. Pastures are found at a higher altitudes (the dega). The number of animals reared for food is significant. Vast estates have been rented by foreign agricultural companies.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.26%2015
forests12.5%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley2 031.6611000 t2017
cereals, total26 276.8671000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes932.7011000 t2017
roots and tubers, total9 989.2991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages406.1481000 t2017
carrots and turnips11.2581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry543.9841000 t2017
beans, green7.3841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes5.2771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed9.2871000 t2017
groundnuts141.1261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee471.2471000 t2017
ginger10.7711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops38.4181000 t2017
sugar cane1 384.2071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton32.2541000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed96.8631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.5561000 t2014
sisal0.6771000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total905.0891000 t2014
peaches0.1791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits40.6711000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes3.3841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados57.121000 t2017
bananas563.3951000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley955.0291000 ha2017
maize2 173.5431000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes67.5911000 ha2017
sweet potatoes246.5031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages43.4631000 ha2017
carrots and turnips3.171000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry329.8241000 ha2017
beans, green1.8011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2.6191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed5.7591000 ha2017
groundnuts81.4281000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coffee694.3321000 ha2017
ginger3.5351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops30.6461000 ha2017
sugar cane33.3541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton42.611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed92.3051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.9241000 ha2014
sisal0.931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
peaches0.0321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits7.4041000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.4821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados17.3851000 ha2017
bananas64.0331000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber113 557 2652017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle60 926.9131000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes60 926.9131000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs35.3791000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep31 836.7011000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats30 719.3821000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8 778.751000 heads2017
asses and mules9 184.9241000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels1 210.6631000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds59 4891000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey451000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter181000 t2014
cheese61000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes56 123t2017
total catch56 127t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Many of the mineral resources are unexplored or under exploited. There are platinum reserves (in Oromīya), gold (Lega Dembi mine, in southern Ethiopia), niobium and tantalum (mine near Borena) and opals (Wegel Tena mine, NW of Desē). Coal is extracted near Jimma. Most industrial plants are found in or around the capital. There are steelworks in Bishoftu (Debre Zeyit) and ‘Alem Gena, cement plants in Dirē Dawa, Mek’elē and around Addis Ababa, textile plants in Addis Ababa, Akaki, Debre Birhan, Dirē Dawa and Bahir Dar), sugar plants (especially in Awash Valley), breweries in Harar, and a cigarette factory in Addis Abada. The hydroelectric potential is noteworthy: the largest plant is on the Omo river (1.9 GW); a new hydroelectric power station (6.5 GW) is being built on the Blue Nile, which is disputed by other countries in the Nile basin.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total28.51000 t2016
lignite28.51000 t2016
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
columbite0.0171000 t2015
tantalite0.071000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar0.61000 t2016
gypsum3201000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt2101000 t2015
diatomite51000 t2017
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold11 000kg2016
opal64 000kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro10 302M kWh2016
- other renew.841.1M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 1601000 kW2016
- other renew.484.31000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 146.86M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 784.31000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude6901000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artificial yarn2.821000 t2016
soap117.51000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets46.51000 m²2014
cotton fabrics7.5M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear38 390 723pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley562.51000 t2014
cottonseed oil6.21000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes4 655.3M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint131000 t2017
other paper65.41000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement8 3001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production301.6M US$2015
food, beverages and tobacco production1 039.8M US$2015
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2013) coffee 568, oil seeds 454, plants and 
flowers 257, fruit and vegetables 156, leather 71, apparel and accessories 59

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products83.822% of goods exports2016
manufactures12.532% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China288M US$2017
Somalia244M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China4 858M US$2017
United States1 211M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 803M US$ -
20173 163M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201815 195M US$ -
201716 008M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures364M US$2017
Number of arrivals933 000units2017
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Communications


Being left a landlocked country, the nation depends on the ports of Djibouti (linked to the capital by a new railway line) and Berbera (in Somalia). The road between Metema and Gedaref (Sudan) allows access to the Red Sea ports. Considerable investments are underway to enhance the country’s transportation infrastructure.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown41 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried9 566.41000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers5.527per 1000 pop.2017
Computers7per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.4years2012
Graduates110 692units2014
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level244 789units2014
Teachers, secondary level122 147units2012
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending23.9% of total expenses2002
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.3per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians0.02per 1000 pop.2010
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.9% of adults2017
HIV, total3.3%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums8units2013-14
Museums, visitors311 952units2013-14
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.6% of GDP2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.51%2016
Access to electricity44.3%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.5%2010-11
education0.4%2010-11
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