Form of Government: Republic
Area: 45 336 sq km
Population: 1 330 068 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 29.34 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 60° - 58° N; long. 22° - 28° E
Capital: Tallinn (capital) 438 341 inhab. (2021);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.892 (rank: 29)
President: Alar Karis (independent), since 11 October 2021
Prime Minister: Kaja Kallas (Reform Party), since 26 January 2021
Parliament: seats (August 2021 update): Estonian Reform Party (liberal), 34; KESK (Estonian Centre Party), 25; EKRE (Conservative People's Party, nationalist Eurosceptic), 19; Isamaa (Fatherland, conservative), 12; SDE (Social Democratic Party), 10; independents, 1
Internet: www.stat.ee (Statistics Estonia)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Estonia

Eesti, Eesti Vabariik
Useful information

International license plate code EST
International dialling code 00372
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ee

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Tallinn 5.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tallinn -5/16.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tallinn 11/0.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tallinn 665
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tallinn 123

Politics and current affairs

After former prime minister Jüri Ratas tendered his resignation (under investigation for corruption), the country’s first woman prime minister, Kaja Kallas (Reform Party) was elected. On 31 August 2021, Alar Karis was elected president, independent and former director of the Estonian National Museum.

Geography.
Estonia is bordered by the Russia to the east and Latvia to the south; the Baltic Sea lies off its north and west coasts. The landscape is fairly flat and is criss-crossed by many rivers. The coast has an Atlantic climate while inland the climate is continental.

Government


Having gained its independence in 1918, Estonia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. After a long period of German occupation (1941-44), the USSR promoted an intensive plan of Russian immigration. Having proclaimed its independence in 1990, it became fully independent in 1991. On 1 May 2004, the country joined the EU. According to the 1992 Constitution, the Parliament (101 members elected for a four-year mandate) elects the President of the Republic for a five-year mandate; the government must have the confidence of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force4.3%2015
Army92.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 942.6per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides1.9per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tallinn438 341inhab.2021
Tartu95 430inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.92020
Death rate11.82020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total199 674units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Estonian68.4%2020
Russian24.7%2020


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist54.1%2011
other18$%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Estonian (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.2%2020
15-29 years14.2%2020


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Economy


The economic crisis caused by the pandemic caused the GDP to fall by 2.9% in 2020. It is expected to bounce back in 2021 (+3.4%) and growth is predicted to accelerate in 2022 (+4.2%). Estonia suffered slight deflation in 2020 (price index at -0.6%), caused by falling fuel prices and gasoline tax cuts introduced by the government. Timber production is very important, also livestock farming, especially cattle and pigs. The most highly developed industries are food products, engineering, chemicals and electronic components for the telephone industry.
A bidirectional gas pipeline between Estonia and Finland has entered into operation.
The construction of a new regasification plant in Paldiski is being proposed.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)127.69index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)106.68index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population704 500units2020
Active population, Females48.4%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.8%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.9%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses10 450.6M LCU2020
Revenues9 437.7M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.97%2020
industry29.135%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.209%2020
industry24.957%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.782BN LCU2020
International reserves1 996.893M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land15.919%2018
forests56.094%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley523.141000 t2019
cereals, total1 624.581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes80.131000 t2019
roots and tubers, total80.131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages9.631000 t2018
carrots and turnips16.471000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry17.2491000 t2018
broad beans, dry29.181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed191.371000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0$1000 t2017
linseed0.051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.851000 t2019
cherries0.1191000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0511000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley123.381000 ha2019
oats37.261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.161000 ha2018
carrots and turnips0.351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry17.0791000 ha2018
broad beans, dry11.061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed72.411000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.2011000 ha2018
linseed0.051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.571000 ha2019
cherries0.2141000 ha2018
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber10 883 0302019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2541000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2541000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs301.61000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep70.81000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4.71000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total5.71000 heads2018
horses5.71000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 0801000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.2881000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.81000 t2018
cheese44.81000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs9 796.931t2019
freshwater fishes4 470.67t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total18 7341000 t2011
lignite18 7341000 t2011
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay56.71000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone7631000 t2018
silicates41$1000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal5 092.92M kWh2019
- other renew.2 169.13M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 085.651000 kW2018
- other renew.8111000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation7 280.86M kWh2019
total installed capacity2 818.651000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.14.31000 t2018
lead7.41000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mopeds40$no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners210 400no.2016
computers5 377no.2020
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia35$1000 t2018
nitrogen fertilizers0.31000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets1 611.81000 m²2020
cotton fabrics1.02M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear605 900pairs2020
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1001000 t2018
fish, frozen29.81000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp55$1000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp221.9811000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement255.31000 t2020
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production144.82M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production525.747M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures65.919% of goods exports2018
food products34.071% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Finland2 564M US$2020
Sweden1 698M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany1 735M US$2020
China1 647M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202016 375M US$ -
201916 111M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202017 335M US$ -
201918 022M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 818M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 345 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried0.91000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers325.313per 1000 pop.2019
Computers255.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.91years2018
Gradautes, percentage41.368%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level88 107units2018
Students, secondary level84 017.25units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending33.932% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending17.688% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.57per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.48per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.9% of adults2018
Tuberculosis13$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums227units2020
Museums, visitors1 734 000units2020
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.61% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.3%2019
education0.5%2019
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