Form of Government: Republic
Area: 45 339 sq km
Population: 1 319 133 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 29.10 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 60° - 58° N; long. 22° - 28° E
Capital: Tallinn (capital) 430 805 inhab. (2018);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.871 (rank: 30)
President: Kersti Kaljulaid (IRL), since 10 October 2016
Prime Minister: Jüri Ratas (Estonian Centre Party), since 23 November 2016, re-elected 29 April 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 3 March 2019: Reformierakond (Estonian Reform Party, liberal), 34; KESK (Estonian Centre Party), 26; EKRE (Conservative People's Party, nationalist Eurosceptic), 19; Pro Patria (conservative), 12; SDE (Social Democratic Party), 10
Internet: www.stat.ee (Statistics Estonia)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Estonia

Eesti, Eesti Vabariik
Useful information

International license plate code EST
International dialling code 00372
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ee

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Tallinn 5.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tallinn -5/16.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tallinn 11/0.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tallinn 665
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tallinn 123

Politics and current affairs

Despite the Reform Party winning the elections on 3 March 2019 with 28.9% of the votes, the outgoing Prime Minister Jüri Ratas has blocked their rise to power, instead forming a surprise coalition between his Centre Party (23.1%), the Eurosceptic EKRE (17.8) and, for the first time in the government, the conservatives of Pro Patria (11.4%).

Geography.
Estonia is bordered by the Russia to the east and Latvia to the south; the Baltic Sea lies off its north and west coasts. The landscape is fairly flat and is criss-crossed by many rivers. The coast has an Atlantic climate while inland the climate is continental.

Government


Having gained its independence in 1918, Estonia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. After a long period of German occupation (1941-44), the USSR promoted an intensive plan of Russian immigration. Having proclaimed its independence in 1990, it became fully independent in 1991. On 1 May 2004, the country joined the EU. According to the 1992 Constitution, the Parliament (101 members elected for a four-year mandate) elects the President of the Republic for a five-year mandate; the government must have the confidence of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force4.3%2015
Army92.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 046.8per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides2.2per 100 000 pop.2017
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tallinn430 805inhab.2018
Tartu93 715inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.92018
Death rate11.92018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total197 160units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Estonian68.7%2018
Russian24.9%2018


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist54.1%2011
other18%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Estonian (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.3%2018
15-29 years15.2%2018


TOP

Economy


After an important rise to 3.9% in 2018, growth is expected to slow to 2.8% in 2019 and 2.4% in 2020, with full employment almost achieved. The country must tackle, however, the consequences of a scandal that involved the Estonian branch of the Danske Bank, which was accused of laundering. Timber production is very important, also livestock farming, especially cattle and pigs. The most highly developed industries are food products, engineering, chemicals and electronic components for the telephone industry. Work to lay a gas pipeline under the Baltic Sea to connect Estonia and Finland has been completed.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)127.69index2016
Balance of trade-2 125.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population702 400units2018
Active population, Females48.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females47.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 819.3M LCU2018
Revenues8 561M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.3%2018
industry29.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.6%2018
industry28.5%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3.158BN LCU2018
International reserves755M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land15.94%2015
forests52.65%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley425.6831000 t2017
cereals, total1 311.8931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes91.1821000 t2017
roots and tubers, total91.1821000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages16.551000 t2017
carrots and turnips11.8591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry25.4651000 t2017
peas, dry49.8611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed165.271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2017
linseed0.0791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3.6481000 t2017
cherries0.0791000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0511000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley102.4871000 ha2017
oats33.6491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5.3881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.461000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.4911000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry26.7581000 ha2017
peas, dry38.751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed73.7861000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 ha2017
linseed0.0881000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.5221000 ha2017
cherries0.2091000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 947 7282017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle248.2361000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes248.2361000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs265.9141000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep85.521000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5.11000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total6.31000 heads2017
horses6.31000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 0811000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.1541000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.51000 t2014
cheese40.51000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs7 414.821t2017
freshwater fishes3 078.43t2017
TOP

Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total18 7341000 t2011
lignite18 7341000 t2011
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay46.61000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone617.31000 t2016
silicates56.91000 t2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal9 901.02M kWh2016
- other renew.1 618M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 8651000 kW2016
- other renew.7071000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 554.02M kWh2016
total installed capacity2 5781000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.42.31000 t2016
lead8.31000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mopeds40no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners210 400no.2016
computers6 103no.2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia351000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers49.81000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 776.41000 m²2018
cotton fabrics1.02M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear791 100pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley163.21000 t2014
fish, frozen29.81000 t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp2361000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp2361000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement527.41000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production128.1M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production465.1M US$2016
TOP

Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures68.646% of goods exports2018
fuels10.807% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Finland2 696M US$2018
Sweden1 854M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany1 976M US$2018
Russia1 937M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201817 006M US$ -
201714 541M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201819 132M US$ -
201716 632M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 398M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 245 000units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried346.31000 units2016
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers309.004per 1000 pop.2017
Computers255.1per 1000 pop.2008
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.1years2016
Gradautes, percentage39.7%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level7 351units2016
Teachers, secondary level9 133units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending33.4% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending18.4% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.8per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.5per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.7% of adults2017
Tuberculosis15per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums249units2018
Museums, visitors2 558 700units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.29% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.89%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7%2017
education0.4%2017
TOP