Form of Government: Republic
Area: 45 339 sq km
Population: 1 315 635 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 29.02 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 60° - 58° N; long. 22° - 28° E
Capital: Tallinn (capital) 426 538 inhab. (2017);
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.865 (rank: 30)
President: Kersti Kaljulaid (IRL), since 10 October 2016
Prime Minister: Jüri Ratas (Estonian Centre Party), since 23 November 2016
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 1 March 2015: Reformierakond (Estonian Reform Party, liberal), 30; KESK (Estonian Centre Party), 27; SDE (Social Democratic Party), 15; IRL (Pro Patria and Res Publica Union, conservative), 14; Vabaerakond (Estonian Free Party, conservative), 8; EKRE (Conservative People's Party, nationalist eurosceptic), 7
Internet: www.stat.ee (Statistics Estonia)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Estonia

Eesti, Eesti Vabariik
Useful information

International license plate code EST
International dialling code 00372
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ee

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Tallinn 5.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Tallinn -5/16.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Tallinn 11/0.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Tallinn 665
Days of rainfall (annual average) Tallinn 123

Politics and current affairs

Tensions continue with its neighbour Russia: the country is pushing for greater support from its NATO and EU allies. The government coalition headed by Jüri Ratas, comprising the parties KESK, SDE and IRL, is leading the country to new elections, planned for spring 2019.

Geography.
Estonia is bordered by the Russia to the east and Latvia to the south; the Baltic Sea lies off its north and west coasts. The landscape is fairly flat and is criss-crossed by many rivers. The coast has an Atlantic climate while inland the climate is continental.

Government


Having gained its independence in 1918, Estonia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. After a long period of German occupation (1941-44), the USSR promoted an intensive plan of Russian immigration. Having proclaimed its independence in 1990, it became fully independent in 1991. On 1 May 2004, the country joined the EU. According to the 1992 Constitution, the Parliament (101 members elected for a four-year mandate) elects the President of the Republic for a five-year mandate; the government must have the confidence of Parliament.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force4.3%2015
Army92.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 202.7per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides2.4per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tallinn426 538inhab.2017
Tartu93 124inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.32017
Death rate11.82017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total196 344units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Estonian68.8%2017
Russian25.1%2017


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nonreligious/atheist54.1%2011
other18%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Estonian (official)
Russian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.2%2017
15-29 years15.9%2017


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Economy


Economic growth, though still strong, is slowing compared to its peak at 4.9% in 2017, having stopped around 3.5% in 2018 due to internal consumption and the exportation of business services, particularly in the ICT industry.
The Estonian company Taxify aims to rival Uber in Europe and Africa with the help of new investments.
The banking sector, on the other hand, has been hit by accusations of international money laundering. Timber production is very important, also livestock farming, especially cattle and pigs. The most highly developed industries are food products, engineering, chemicals and electronic components for the telephone industry.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)127.69index2016
Balance of trade-2 166M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population698 800units2017
Active population, Females48.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.8%2017
Unemployment rate, Females45%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 896.9M LCU2017
Revenues7 829.5M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.5%2017
industry29.9%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.8%2017
industry27.2%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation3BN LCU2017
International reserves345M US$2017
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land15.94%2015
forests52.65%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley357.3871000 t2016
cereals, total934.0511000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes89.8421000 t2016
roots and tubers, total89.9811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages18.9771000 t2016
carrots and turnips16.7931000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry37.1121000 t2016
peas, dry72.2411000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed102.4811000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2016
linseed0.0851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples5.4971000 t2016
cherries0.1111000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.0511000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley135.3421000 ha2016
oats29.3091000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5.6431000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.4461000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.461000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry16.5251000 ha2016
peas, dry38.8661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed70.1031000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 ha2016
linseed0.1171000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples2.4821000 ha2016
cherries0.2061000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 735 0922016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle256.21000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes256.21000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs304.51000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep85.91000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats51000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total6.3141000 heads2016
horses6.3141000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 1261000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.1541000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.51000 t2014
cheese40.51000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs6 962.683t2016
freshwater fishes3 214.55t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal, total18 7341000 t2011
lignite18 7341000 t2011
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay581000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone486.61000 t2015
silicates221000 t2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal8 259.78M kWh2015
- other renew.1 603M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1651000 kW2015
- other renew.6931000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation9 889.78M kWh2015
total installed capacity2 8641000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.371000 t2015
lead8.31000 t2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
computers10 186no.2015
ovens119 000no.2015
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia351000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers53.51000 t2013
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets2 863.91000 m²2015
cotton fabrics0.823M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear723 600pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley163.21000 t2014
fish, frozen34.91000 t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp238.0991000 t2016
other paper71.351000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3901000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production134.9M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production507.2M US$2014
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures68.162% of goods exports2016
food products9.681% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Finland2 338M US$2017
Sweden1 954M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Finland1 849M US$2017
Germany1 782M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201714 471.682M US$ -
201613 169.121M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201716 637.656M US$ -
201614 935.512M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 297M US$2016
Number of arrivals3 147 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown8 100 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried346.31000 units2016
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers309.004per 1000 pop.2017
Computers255.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.1years2015
Gradautes, percentage38.8%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level6 578units2013
Teachers, secondary level9 983units2013
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending32.1% of total expenses2015
Social protection spending16.4% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.8per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.5per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.3% of adults2013
Tuberculosis16per 100 000 pop.2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums256units2015
Museums, visitors3 255 000units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.28% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.89%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.8%2016
education0.5%2016
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