Form of Government: Republic
Area: 121 100 sq km
Population: 6 088 682 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 50.28 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 12° N; long. 36° - 43° E
Capital: Asmara=Asmera (capital) 896 000 inhab. (2018);
Currency: nakfa (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.459 (rank: 180)
President and head of government: Isaias Afeworki (EPDJ), since 24 May 1993
Internet: www.shabait.com (Ministry of Information)
Member of AU, COMESA, UN

Eritrea

Iertra, Iritriyā, Hagere Iertra, Dawlat Iritriyā
Useful information

International license plate code ER
International dialling code 00291
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .er

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Asmara 18.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Asmara 15/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Asmara 6/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) Asmara 478
Days of rainfall (annual average) Asmara 60

Geography.
It is bordered to the SE by Djibouti, to the S by Ethiopia, to the W and NW by Sudan, while to the E and NE it faces the Red Sea. The landscape includes the Asmara plateau, the northernmost strip of the Ethiopian Highlands which reaches heights of up to 2200 m and slopes down to the east towards the coastal plains. There are numerous islands. The main rivers are the River Barka, the Mareb and the Tekezé. The climate is extremely hot on the coast and more temperate inland.

Government


The history of Eritrea was closely linked to the history of Ethiopia throughout the period of Italian colonisation (1899-1941). Following this period, the nation became a British trustee until 1952 when the country was federated with Ethiopia in what was declared a “united autonomy”.
In 1962, it was annexed by the Ethiopian government which led to long a war for independence led by the FPL (Popular Liberation Front). On 24 May 1993, after a referendum, Eritrea declared independence. However, the lack of agreement on the position of the border led to war in 1998-2000. A peace treaty was signed in Algiers on 12 December 2000 and a UN peace mission was deployed on the border, later withdrawn in 2008; the crisis was resolved in 2018, with the signing of an agreement in Jeddah (16 September). Political life is dominated by the EPDJ (The People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, heir to the FPL), which has abandoned the Marxist ideals of the original party to establish an authoritarian and personal regime. The Constitution of 1997, which calls for a head of state and an elected parliament, has not been enacted. A National Assembly has formally been in existence since 1992, but in reality all powers, including those of the judiciary, are in the hands of the President.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force0.2%2015
Army99.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides8$per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative division
RegionAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Anseba23 200 sq km581 000 inhab.2002
Centrale=Ma'kel1 300 sq km728 000 inhab.2002
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Asmara=Asmera896 000inhab.2018
Assab=Aseb104 075inhab.2013
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate29.7382019
Death rate7.0122019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tigray55$%2010
Tigré30$%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Coptic Orthodox57$%2010
Muslim36$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.2%2020
15-29 years28$%2020


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Economy


Agriculture is mostly for local consumption (cereals, potatoes and pulses); nomadic livestock (sheep, goats and camels) and fishing (with fish processing plants in Massawa and Assab), are also relevant. Shortfalls in food supply (caused by frequent droughts), are covered by international aid. Silver, gold, copper and zinc are extracted from the Bisha mine; the Colluli mine (Afar region) exploits a vast deposit of potash. A fairly significant amount of salt is also extracted at Massawa and Assab. There are petrochemical plants (Assab), mechanical and food processing plants (Asmara), textile and tanning factories (Debarwa), cement works (Massawa) as well as paper and tobacco factories. Since 2008, a free-trade zone has been operating in the port of Massawa.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)104.4index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.02index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 635 000units2020
Active population, Females46.1%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females44.4%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses23 204.1M LCU2016
Revenues11 686.6M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture61.2%2019
industry8.4%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.28%2019
industry31.319%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation17.9BN LCU2014
International reserves191.69M US$2019
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.851%2018
forests10.511%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley65$1000 t2019
cereals, total306.7591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.0811000 t2019
roots and tubers, total27.7061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1211000 t2019
broad beans, dry0.2171000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.2341000 t2019
sesame seed5.2111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total4.8491000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley45$1000 ha2019
maize20$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.1351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry2.2451000 ha2019
broad beans, dry0.361000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.0421000 ha2019
sesame seed32.231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.5181000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 023 0312019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 122.9451000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes2 122.9451000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 455.9741000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 815.821000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels388.1521000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 1271000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.6131000 t2018
cheese0.7171000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals96 000t2014
crustaceans and molluscs488.361t2019
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper16$1000 t2018
zinc121.31000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum18$1000 t2019
salt3201000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt36$1000 t2018
granite56.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 700kg2018
silver30 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal423.94M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation90.404%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2051000 kW2018
- other renew.13$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation468.94M kWh2018
total installed capacity216.171000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley18$1000 t2018
linseed oil0.0741000 t2018
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2801000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production72.6M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production1 229.8M US$2016
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Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020556M US$ -
2019768M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020965M US$ -
20191 147M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals142 000units2016
Receipts48$M US$2016
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Communications


The railway lines built by the Italians (1897-1911) have in part been re-established, linking the port of Massawa to Asmara.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried101.41000 units2019
Merchant fleet9$units2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.293per 1000 pop.2017
Computers10.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8.035years2015
Graduates2 575units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level349 753units2018
Students, secondary level260 421units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.06per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2019
HIV, total1.4%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking9.3%2019
Access to electricity50.386%2019
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