Form of Government: Republic
Area: 121 100 sq km
Population: 5 352 000 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 44.20 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 18° - 12° N; long. 36° - 43° E
Capital: Asmara=Asmera (capital) 804 000 inhab. (2015);
Currency: nakfa (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.42 (rank: 179)
President and head of government: Isaias Afeworki (EPDJ), since 24 May 1993
Internet: www.shabait.com (Ministry of Information)
Member of AU, COMESA, UN

Eritrea

Iertra, Iritriyā, Hagere Iertra, Dawlat Iritriyā
Useful information

International license plate code ER
International dialling code 00291
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .er

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Asmara 18.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Asmara 15/18.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Asmara 6/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) Asmara 478
Days of rainfall (annual average) Asmara 60

Geography.
It is bordered to the SE by Djibouti, to the S by Ethiopia, to the W and NW by Sudan, while to the E and NE it faces the Red Sea. The landscape includes the Asmara plateau, the northernmost strip of the Ethiopian Highlands which reaches heights of up to 2200 m and slopes down to the east towards the coastal plains. There are numerous islands. The main rivers are the River Barka, the Mareb and the Tekezé. The climate is extremely hot on the coast and more temperate inland.

Government


The history of Eritrea was closely linked to the history of Ethiopia throughout the period of Italian colonisation (1899-1941). Following this period, the nation became a British trustee until 1952 when the country was federated with Ethiopia in what was declared a “united autonomy”.
In 1962, it was annexed by the Ethiopian government which led to long a war for independence led by the FPL (Popular Liberation Front). On 24 May 1993, after a referendum, Eritrea declared independence. However, the lack of agreement on the position of the border led to war in 1998-2000. A peace treaty was signed in Algiers on 12 December 2000 and a UN peace mission was deployed on the border, later withdrawn in 2008 without finding a solution to the crisis. Political life is dominated by the EPDJ (The People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, heir to the FPL), which has abandoned the Marxist ideals of the original party to establish an authoritarian and personal regime. The Constitution of 1997, which calls for a head of state and an elected parliament, has not been enacted. A National Assembly has formally been in existence since 1992, but in reality all powers, including those of the judiciary, are in the hands of the President.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force0.2%2015
Army99.1%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.5per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative division
RegionAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Anseba23 200 sq km581 000 inhab.2002
Centrale=Ma'kel1 300 sq km728 000 inhab.2002
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Asmara=Asmera804 000inhab.2015
Assab=Aseb104 075inhab.2013
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.22016
Death rate6.92016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Tigray55%2010
Tigré30%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Coptic Orthodox57%2010
Muslim36%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years40.2%2017
15-29 years27.1%2017


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Economy


The economy is based on agriculture (cereals, potatoes and pulses), nomadic livestock (sheep, goats and camels) and fishing, with fish processing plants in Massawa and Assab. Shortfalls in food supply (caused by frequent droughts), are covered by international aid.
The country’s mineral resources are in the process of being explored by foreign mining companies. Silver, gold, copper and zinc are extracted from the mine at Bisha. A fairly significant amount of salt is also extracted at Massawa and Assab. There are petrochemical plants (Assab), mechanical and food processing plants (Asmara), textile and tanning factories (Debarwa), cement works (Massawa) as well as paper and tobacco factories. Since 2008, a free-trade zone has been operating in the port of Massawa.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)104.4index2016
Balance of trade- 789M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 401 000units2017
Active population, Females46.9%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.4%2017
Unemployment rate, Females50.5%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses23 204.1M LCU2016
Revenues11 686.6M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture83.9%2017
industry7%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.3%2016
industry23.5%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation17.9BN LCU2014
International reserves114.8M US$2011
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land6.85%2015
forests14.95%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley67.0381000 t2016
cereals, total216.8431000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.1481000 t2016
roots and tubers, total71.9111000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1941000 t2016
broad beans, dry0.3151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts2.2891000 t2016
sesame seed5.2411000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.181000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total4.7881000 t2014
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley46.3351000 ha2016
maize19.0661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes0.1561000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.2791000 ha2016
broad beans, dry0.5071000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts3.1561000 ha2016
sesame seed27.8481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.7351000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 023 0312016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 119.0981000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes2 119.0981000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 405.6311000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 810.4051000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels373.7521000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds1 1201000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.4871000 t2014
cheese0.6611000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals96 000t2014
crustaceans and molluscs114t2016
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Minerals

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper61.61000 t2015
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum1.21000 t2015
salt3001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
basalt651000 t2015
granite301000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold1 390kg2015
silver70 330kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal379.76M kWh2015
non-renewable electricity generation98.957%2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1391000 kW2015
- other renew.21000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation383.76M kWh2015
total installed capacity1411000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley201000 t2014
sesame oil0.61000 t2014
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3301000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production290.8M US$2012
food, beverages and tobacco production1 520.7M US$2012
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Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017350.921M US$ -
2016341.925M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20171 140M US$ -
20161 050M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals142 000units2016
Receipts48M US$2016
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Communications


The railway lines built by the Italians (1897-1911) have in part been re-established, linking the port of Massawa to Asmara.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, passengers carried102.71000 units2017
Merchant fleet9units2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.121per 1000 pop.2016
Computers10.1per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling5.4years2015
Graduates2 575units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level8 524units2016
Teachers, secondary level6 435units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.7per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians0.05per 1000 pop.2004
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2016
HIV, total1.4%2001
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking16.32%2016
Access to electricity46.680%2016
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