Form of Government: Republic
Area: 21 041 sq km
Population: 6 321 042 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 300.42 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 14° - 13° N; long. 90° - 88° W
Capital: San Salvador (capital) 316 090 inhab. (2007); San Salvador 1 693 186 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: US dollar (since January 1, 2001); bitcoin (since 7 September 2021); colón (out of circulation)
Human development index: 0.673 (rank: 124)
President: Nayib Bukele Ortez (GANA), elected 3 February 2019, in office since 1 June 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 28 February 2021: New Ideas (populist), 56; ARENA (Nationalist Republican Alliance, right-wing), 14; GANA (Grand Alliance for National Unity, centre-right), 5; FMLN (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, socialist), 4; others, 5
Internet: www.digestyc.gob.sv (Dirección General de Estadística)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

El Salvador

El Salvador, República de El Salvador
Useful information

International license plate code ES
International dialling code 00503
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (very low risk confined to some rural areas for which it is recommended or advised)
Electricity (Voltage) 115
Driving side rigth
Internet code .sv

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) San Salvador 22.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) San Salvador 22/23
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) San Salvador 6/9
Annual average precipitation (mm) San Salvador 1693
Days of rainfall (annual average) San Salvador 123

Politics and current affairs

At the legislative elections held on 28 February 2021, the New Ideas party of President N. Bukele received the absolute majority. On 1 May, the new parliament dismissed five members of the Supreme Court and the general prosecutor, who opposed some of the president’s decision.

Geography.
El Salvador is bordered by Honduras to the north-east and east (the River Goascarán marks the border) and by Guatemala to the north-west; the Pacific Ocean lies off its southern coasts. The climate is temperate in the mountains and hot and humid on the coast.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, it became independent in 1841. A bloody civil war which broke out in 1979 was brought to an end by the peace agreements of 16 January 1992 between the government and the rebels of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN).
According to the Constitution of 15 December 1983, amended several times, the President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly (84 members), elected by direct suffrage for three years.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force8.2%2015
Army83.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes749.4per 100 000 pop.2005
Homicides82.8per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
San Salvador316 090inhab.2007
Soyapango241 403inhab.2007
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
San Salvador1 693 186inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate18.0542019
Death rate7.072019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo86.5%2007
white12.8%2007


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic47.5%2017
Protestant35.1%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.8%2020
15-29 years28.3%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)111.49index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)99.61index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 917 617units2020
Active population, Females41.2%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7$%2020
Unemployment rate, Females39.4%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 163.8M LCU2020
Revenues4 894.3M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture16.3%2019
industry22.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.605%2019
industry28.277%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.002BN LCU2020
International reserves3 082.86M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
More than 90% of farmsteads are micro-farms which occupy about one-fifth of the total land area. The main export crops are coffee (departments of Usulután, San Miguel, San Salvador and San Vicente) and sugar-cane (departments of San Salvador, Sonsonate and San Vicente). The main products grown to feed the local population are maize, sorghum and dried beans. Cattle are reared on large farms on the coastal plain. The forests are a source of prized timber.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land41.216%2018
forests28.614%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total1 0151000 t2019
maize8701000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava29.1481000 t2019
potatoes9.6021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.7021000 t2019
chillies and peppers6.0711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry101.9191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives12.6911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0$1000 t2017
sesame seed2$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts101.5911000 t2019
copra2.41000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.3681000 t2019
coffee39.61000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane7 177.8031000 t2019
tobacco1.8961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.2181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.1691000 t2019
sisal1.7381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples64.9971000 t2019
fruits, total344.9991000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts0.5251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits86.541000 t2019
lemons18.7111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados31.3941000 t2019
bananas16.1561000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize315.9431000 ha2019
rice5.4561000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava1.7541000 ha2019
potatoes0.321000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.0811000 ha2019
chillies and peppers0.1781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry110.6791000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive6.0121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed0$1000 ha2017
sesame seed2$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.8551000 ha2019
coffee160.0281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane80.9721000 ha2019
tobacco0.891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.1141000 ha2019
sisal4.7111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples9.7491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cashew nuts0.7521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.3791000 ha2019
lemons1.4111000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.1881000 ha2019
bananas1.8091000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 797 0712019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle837.9181000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes837.9181000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs94.2761000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep5.3671000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats13.9491000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses3.2451000 heads2019
asses and mules27.3551000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds17 9661000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.6781000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.2031000 t2018
cheese2.9281000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs2 136t2019
freshwater fishes8 251t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
El Salvador is poor in mineral resources (gold and silver in Montecristo), and in 2017, a law was introduced prohibiting mining activity. Economic growth is sustained by exports (food products and clothing).
The main industries include sugar refineries, cigar factories, paper mills, cement factories (Metapán), electronic components and fertilizer plants. There are call center services on behalf of US companies.
With regard to the balance of payments, remittances from migrant workers are essential to the economy. Since 2001, the US dollar has replaced the Colón as the country’s legal currency and in 2021 it was joined by Bitcoin.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gypsum6$1000 t2010
salt30$1000 t2009
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
limestone1 2001000 t2011
pozzolan - cu m2001000 m³2009
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.2 136.32M kWh2019
- thermal1 712M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 0511000 kW2018
- other renew.794.41000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation5 290.32M kWh2019
total installed capacity2 319.831000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium2.51000 t2006
lead10$1000 t2009
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes18 000no.2004
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen31$1000 t2000
petrol119.71000 t2012
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
nitrogen fertilizers3.71000 t2004
phosphate fertilizers10$1000 t2008
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m2.8M m2004
cotton yarn11.31000 t2004
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley191.811000 t2018
coconut oil2.2241000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
newsprint14$1000 t2019
other paper101.2081000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 0001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production331M US$2004
food, beverages and tobacco production1 289M US$2004
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures75.699% of goods exports2019
food products18.974% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States2 176M US$2010
Guatemala628.9M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 130M US$2010
Guatemala802.5M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 030M US$ -
20195 943M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202010 594M US$ -
201912 018M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures537M US$2019
Number of arrivals1 766 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown28 900 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 609.91000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers76.668per 1000 pop.2018
Computers57.8per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.594years2018
Graduates23 935units2018
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level662 740units2018
Students, secondary level521 576units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending16.783% of total expenses2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians1.57per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.5% of adults2019
HIV, total0.4%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites4$units2008
Archaeological sites, visitors146 059units2008
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.165% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking89.1%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
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