Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 1 010 408 sq km
Population: 101 478 581 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 100.43 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 32° - 22° N; long. 24° - 37° E
Capital: Cairo=Al-Qāhirah (capital) 9 513 330 inhab. (2020); Greater Cairo 21 148 000 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Egyptian pound (100 piastres)
Human development index: 0.707 (rank: 116)
President: Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (independent), elected 28 May 2014, in office since 8 June 2014, reconfirmed 26-28 March 2018
Prime Minister: Muṣṭafā Madbūlī (independent), since 7 June 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 24-25 October and 7-8 November 2020: Nation's Future Party (populist), 315; Republican People's Party, 50; New Wafd (nationalist-liberal), 26; Homeland Defenders Party, 23; Modern Egypt Party, 11; independents, 124; others, 47
Internet: www.capmas.gov.eg (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, EBRD, OAS observer, OIC, UN, WTO

Egypt

Mișr, Jumhūrīyat Mișr al-‘Arabīyah
Useful information

International license plate code ET
International dialling code 0020
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .eg

GMT  +2
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Cairo 21.3; Assuan 25.6; Hurghada 21.9; Luxor 24.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Cairo 14/28; Assuan 14.5/33.5; Hurghada 15.5/29.5; Luxor 14/32.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Cairo 11/7; Assuan 12/9.5; Hurghada 11.5/8; Luxor 12/9.5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Cairo 26; Assuan 0; Hurghada 5; Luxor 1
Days of rainfall (annual average) Cairo 6; Assuan 0; Hurghada 0; Luxor 0

Politics and current affairs

On 23 March 2021, a container ship ran aground in the Suez Canal, blocking the route until the vessel was refloated (29 March) and causing serious repercussion for global trade.

Geography.
Egypt is bordered by Israel and Gaza Strip to the north-east, by Sudan to the south, by Libya to the west; the Mediterranean Sea lies off its northern coast and the Red Sea off its east coast. The cultivated and inhabited area of the country lies along the valley of the River Nile. The section of the Nile to the north of the second cataract flows through Egypt. The valley itself and the area of the Nile Delta occupy a small part of the country, the rest of which is desert. The eastern part of Egypt comprises the Sinai Peninsula, situated between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. It has a desert climate with very high temperatures. The Ḥalā’ib Triangle, along the south-eastern border, is disputed with Sudan.

Government


Formerly a British protectorate, Egypt became a formally independent monarchy on 18 February 1922. On 18 June 1953, it was declared a republic and, in 1954, Colonel Gamal Abd el-Nasser seized power. In 1956, Nasser announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company. This led to armed intervention by France, the United Kingdom and Israel (the Suez Crisis). Israeli troops occupied the Gaza Strip (formerly part of Palestine and governed by Egypt from 1948-1949) and the Sinai Peninsula. Decisive action taken by the United Nations, with the consensus of the USA and USSR, forced Israel to withdraw. In 1967, a new war broke out with Israel (the “Six-Day War”), ending in Egypt’s defeat and the Israeli occupation of the Sinai and Gaza. In an effort to free Sinai, in 1973, Egypt re-opened hostilities with the “War of Yom Kippur”. In 1978, the Egyptian President, Anwar el-Sadat, and the Israeli Premier Menachem Begin signed the peace accord at Camp David which restored Sinai to Egypt but not Gaza (Gaza subsequently came under Palestinian administration). After the assassination of President Sadat (1981) by an Islamic extremist group, his Vice-President Hosni Mubarak, took his place. He held absolute power for 30 years until 11 February 2011, when he handed in his resignation when widespread demonstrations demanded that he should step down.
The first free presidential elections (16-17 June 2012) were won by Mohamed Morsi, the candidate backed by the Muslim Brotherhood Islamic party, who had also won by a landslide in the 2011-12 legislative elections. In 2013, after growing street protests, the army led by the minister of defence Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed President Morsi from office (on 3 July) and appointed in his stead Adly Mansour, head of the Supreme Constitutional Court, effectively taking control of the country. Supporters of the ousted President Morsi staged large demonstrations led by the Muslim Brotherhood (organization which was officially disbanded by a court in September 2013); the harsh repression by the police resulted in hundreds of victims.
In the presidential elections on 26/27 May 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi won a landslide majority, inaugurating a regime that has repressed dissent and limited civil liberties.
The country aspires to have a leading role in the fight against Islamic armed groups in its interior (Sinai) and in nearby countries, mainly in Libya, where Egypt has actively intervened since 2015.
According to the Constitution approved in 2014 and amended in 2019, the President, who holds executive powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a six-year term and can be re-elected only once. The Parliament is made up of a House of Representatives (596 members with a five-year mandate, of which 568 elected and 28 appointed by the President) and a Senate, re-established in 2019, consisting of 200 elected members and 100 appointed by the President.


Defence and justice.
In addition to the armed forces, there are two paramilitary corps: the Central Security Forces and the National Guard. The legal system combines features of British Common Law, the Napoleonic Codes and Islamic Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force25.1%2015
Army70.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes4.2per 100 000 pop.2008
Homicides2.5per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Cairo=Al-Qāhirah9 513 330inhab.2020
Alexandria=Al-Iskandarīyah5 221 826inhab.2020
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Cairo21 148 000inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate22.72020
Death rate6.42020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Egyptian99.6%2006
other0.4%2006


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim90$%2017
Coptic Orthodox9$%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
English
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years33.6%2020
15-29 years27$%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The shrinking growth rate caused by the COVID-19 pandemic was reduced in the second half of 2020 due to easing isolation measures and sizeable income support and credit contributions (the central bank considerably lowered interest rates). The worsening of the health situation in 2021, however, led to a new contraction, further impoverishing a society that was already experiencing high unemployment and uneven distribution of wealth. Public debt remains very high, despite the fact that up until 2020 the deficit in public accounts was being lowered.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)124.43index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)102.41index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population31 441 000units2020
Active population, Females23.7%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females48.6%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 574 600M LCU2019-20
Revenues1 134 400M LCU2019-20
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture23.8%2019
industry27.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture11.374%2019
industry36.677%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation650.679BN LCU2020
International reserves38 972.813M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
In Egypt agriculture is dependent on irrigation. Cultivated land is limited to the area of the Nile Delta and the Nile Valley. Since the land will yield as many as three crops a year, the crops are known by special names, depending on the season: shetwi are winter crops (wheat, forage, beans, barley, onions, linen), sefi are summer crops (cotton, rice, maize, sugar-cane, peanuts, sesame), nili are autumn crops (rice and maize). Cotton of the long-fibre variety is mainly grown in the Nile Delta.
In terms of value, the most important crops include: vegetables (especially tomatoes), rice, grapes, wheat, citrus fruit, sugar cane and dates. Fishing is practiced inland (tilapia, catfish, carp), in the Mediterranean (sardines, shrimp, mullet) and in the Red Sea (round scad, sardines, anchovy), and through farming industries (tilapia, mullet).

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.854%2018
forests0.045%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley100.4361000 t2019
cereals, total24 125.511000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5 078.3741000 t2019
roots and tubers, total5 659.9851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes296.8991000 t2019
cabbages482.9831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry132.131000 t2019
beans, green288.631000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes1 626.2591000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives1 080.0911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts231.2231000 t2019
sesame seed38$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet10 525.1381000 t2019
sugar cane16 316.1341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow7.5251000 t2019
linseed10$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute2.2371000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples726.7941000 t2019
apricots98.2951000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts24.0131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits4 638.981000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes6.2791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas1 359.2971000 t2019
dates1 603.7621000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley30.471000 ha2019
maize994.8181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes175.1611000 ha2019
sweet potatoes14.1651000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes16.5461000 ha2019
cabbages15.8761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry28.461000 ha2019
beans, green27.9341000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape73.3511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive89.9421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts66$1000 ha2019
sesame seed28$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet207.5271000 ha2019
sugar cane140.9691000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1001000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow8.9821000 ha2019
linseed7$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.8961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples28.6311000 ha2019
apricots6.0181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts4.6181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits191.2981000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.4521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas30.3891000 ha2019
dates48.0311000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber18 129 4312019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 898.8931000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes8 375.2891000 heads2019
Livestock - Buffaloes
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
buffaloes3 476.3961000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs8.2481000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep5 132.1061000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats3 462.741000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses871.4471000 heads2019
asses and mules874.5151000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels119.8851000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds185 1791000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey5.5851000 t2019
Livestock - Silk farming
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silk, raw0.0011000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter109.6471000 t2018
cheese607.2021000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs33 299t2019
freshwater fishes1 535 814t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Egypt’s main mineral resources are hydrocarbons: its petroleum deposits lie in the area of the Red Sea, Sinai (Abū Zanīmah, Abū Rudays, Alma and Wādī Fayrān), the Gulf of Suez (Balā’im Barrī, Morgan, Garra, July, Amal, Ra’s Badrān, Ramaḍān) and El Alamein (Abū al Gharādīq, Umm Barakah, Māliḥah); there are natural gas fields at Abū Māḍī, Abū Qīr, Abū al Gharādīq and Obayed, off Port Said (Zohr).
The main oil pipelines run from Suez to Cairo, and from Suez to Alexandria via Cairo (320 km). There are also deposits of phosphates, manganese, iron ore and coal. There are working saltpans along the Mediterranean coast.
Energy and industry.
The largest thermoelectric power plants are at Cairo, Alexandria, Banī Suwayf, Damietta, Port Said and Suez. Most of the hydroelectric power produced is generated by the facilities at Aswan. The main iron and steel centres are Ḥulwān and Ad Dukhaylah; aluminium is produced at Naj’Ḥammādī. Oil refineries are located at Alexandria, Asyūṭ, Cairo (Mostorod), Suez and Ṭanṭā; two natural gas liquefaction plants operate in Damietta and Idku, on the Mediterranean coast.
The main products of the chemical industry are fertilizers and superphosphates (at Aswan, Kafr-az-Zayyāt, Suez, Alexandria and Ḥulwān). The textile industry is important, with numerous cotton factories (in Alexandria, Cairo, Al-Maḥallah al-Kubrā, Kafr ad-Dawwār, Damietta, Port Said and Az-Zaqāzīq), silk factories (at Damietta and Cairo), wool and jute factories (Shubrā al-Khaymah, Bilbays), and rayon-processing factories (at Misr and Kafr ad-Dawwār).
Other important activities include tobacco-processing, sugar production (at Kawm Umbū, Armant, Naj’Ḥammādī, Abū Qurqāṣ, Ash Shaykh Faḍl and Al-Ḥawāmidīyah), paper (at Alexandria) and cement (Al-‘Arish, Alexandria, Aswān, Asyūṭ, Cairo, Banī Suwayf, Ḥulwān, Qinā, Samālūt and Suez).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal44$1000 t2015
coal, total44$1000 t2015
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ilmenite20$1000 t2015
iron ore5001000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite7.51000 t2019
bentonite40$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dolomite20$1000 t2018
kaolin2301000 t2019
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold14 680kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal167 570.98M kWh2018
- hydro12 770.01M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal51 2241000 kW2018
- other renew.3 1221000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation184 515.84M kWh2018
total installed capacity56 0371000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium3001000 t2019
coke, metall.290.91000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cars23 754no.2020
commercial vehicles52 100no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 065 000no.2017
computers12 343no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen6331000 t2018
petrol4 673.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia4 5001000 t2020
artificial tow3.41000 t2001
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets16.51000 m²2017
cotton fabrics10.3M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 087 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1201000 t2018
cottonseed oil18.41000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes57 000M units2017
cigars and cigarettes57 000M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp41$1000 t2019
other paper6701000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement50 0001000 t2020
sheet glass - t166.41000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production5 000.748M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production6 509.346M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) crude oil and petroleum products 4 623, fruit and vegetables 2 336, gold 2 107, electrical and electronic equipment 1 728, plastics 1 507, apparel and accessories 1 377


Finance and banking.
The Central Bank of Egypt carries out the functions of the country’s central bank. The stock exchanges are located in Cairo and Alexandria.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures45.171% of goods exports2019
fuels26.49% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United Arab Emirates2 863M US$2020
Saudi Arabia1 703M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China9 051M US$2020
United States4 026M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202026 118M US$ -
201928 993M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202060 701M US$ -
201970 919M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism is one of the main sources of foreign currency, but it is sensitive to the country’s political situation. The most popular destinations, apart from the capital, are the archaeological sites along the Nile (Abu Simbel, Luxor, Thebes, Memphis and Giza) and the Red Sea coastal resorts (Sharm el-Sheikh, Hurghada and Marsa Alam).

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures3 718M US$2019
Number of arrivals13 026 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The road and railway networks have been developed almost exclusively in the Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. The River Nile and its many canals are used intensively by shipping.
Suez Canal.
Opened on 17 November 1869 and nationalized on 26 July 1956, the canal is managed by the Suez Canal Authority. On 6 August 2014, the doubling with a new 72 km waterway was inaugurated. Total length: 193 km; width at 11 m deep: 205-225 m; depth: 24 m; maximum draught allowed: 20 m; time to travel: approximately 11 hours; full capacity: about 97 ships/day.


Media and telecommunication.
Egypt is one of the principal centres of radio, television and film production in Africa.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown68 700 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried12 959.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers75.696per 1000 pop.2019
Computers39.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.

Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 6 and 14; primary schooling lasts for six years, while secondary schooling is divided into two cycles of 3 years. The Al-Azhar University in Cairo is the Arab world’s leading university.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling13.605years2018
Graduates428 629units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level12 643 289units2018
Students, secondary level9 136 789units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending29$% of total expenses2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.3per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians0.9per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
HIV, total0.01%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Archaeological sites141units2019
Archaeological sites, visitors8 815 000units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.724% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking99.9%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.7%2018
education4.4%2018
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