Form of Government: Republic
Area: 256 370 sq km
Population: 17 510 643 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 68.3 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 2° N - 5° S; long. 81° - 75° W
Capital: Quito (capital) 1 822 397 inhab. (2018);
Currency: US dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.759 (rank: 86)
President and head of government: Guillermo Lasso Mendoza (CREO), elected 11 April 2021, in office since 24 May 2021
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 7 February 2021: Union for Hope (left-wing coalition), 49; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement – New Country (indigenist), 27; ID (Democratic Left), 18; PSC (Social Christian Party), 18; CREO (Creating Opportunities, liberal), 12; others, 13
Internet: www.ecuadorencifras.gob.ec (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of CAN, Mercosur associated, OAS, PROSUR, UN, WTO

Ecuador

Ecuador, República del Ecuador
Useful information

International license plate code EC
International dialling code 00593
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120/127
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ec

GMT Quito -5; Galapagos Islands -6
DST Quito not applied; Galapagos Islands not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Quito 16.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Quito 15/14.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Quito 6/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Quito 1235
Days of rainfall (annual average) Quito 145

Politics and current affairs

The centre-right candidate Guillermo Lasso was elected in the second round of the presidential elections (11 April 2021), beating the candidate supported by former president R. Correa, who is in exile to escape a sentence for corruption.

Geography.
Ecuador is bordered by Colombia to the north, and Peru to the east and south; the Pacific Ocean lies off its west coast. Two parallel chains of the Andes run north-south down the country: the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Real, including the cones of several majestic volcanoes (Chimborazo, 6263 m), many of which are still active. The archipelago of the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean, which lies 980 km off the coast, is also part of Ecuador. The climate on the coast is hot and humid in the north and dry in the south.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Ecuador gained independence on 24 May 1822 when it became part of the federation of Gran Colombia, along with Colombia and Venezuela. It withdrew from the federation in 1830. In the second half of the 20th century, military juntas seized power (1963-66, 1976-79). These were followed by civil governments such as that of President Aguilera Roldós, of the Popular Forces Concentration (CFP), who championed land reform. When Roldós died in a plane crash in 1981, the Ecuadorian populist tradition was continued by the Roldosista Party (PRE). The election of Rafael Correa in 2006, the left-wing candidate, paved the way for greater collaboration with other Latin American countries led by similarly-aligned governments. This policy was gradually weakened by his successor and former vice president, Lenín Moreno.
For a long time, the border with Peru proved to be a source of conflict (the last armed clashes broke out in 1995), but peace was restored in 1998: the disputed area (80 km² of the Cordillera del Condor region) has become a national park and Ecuador has been guaranteed access to the valley of the River Amazon. Ecuador is a presidential republic.
According to the 2008 Constitution, amended several times, the President, who is also head of the government and has the power to dissolve Parliament, is elected through a direct election for a four-year term. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly (currently made up of 137 members elected for four years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force15.9%2015
Army61.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes815.4per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guayaquil2 278 691inhab.2010
Quito1 822 397inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.462019
Death rate5.1212019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo71.9%2010
Amerindian14.4%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic77$%2017
Protestant14$%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Quechua
Shuar
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years25.7%2020
15-29 years26.2%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)114.84index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)97.53index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 019 060units2020
Active population, Females40.9%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate6.2%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses19 800.8M LCU2020
Revenues14 345.3M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture31.771%2020
industry15.881%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.662%2019
industry34.652%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.08BN LCU2020
International reserves6 569.461M US$2020
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Agriculture


Economic situation.
Since 2014, the country has felt the effects of the low price of oil, the exports of which are vital to the economy. In 2020-21, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prices and economic activities, often informal, exacerbated the crisis. The government’s initiatives to tackle the crisis weighed down on the already huge public debt. The country is also heavily conditioned by the trend of foreign loans, especially those coming from China. Since 2013, the negative trade budget has partially been lessened by measures limiting imports. The agreement stipulated with the IMF in March 2019 to receive support called for spending cuts that caused serious civil unrest.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land9.478%2018
forests50.839%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13.451000 t2019
cereals, total2 617.8381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava69.8631000 t2019
potatoes275.3461000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus1.4741000 t2019
cabbages11.0071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry14.7431000 t2019
beans, green12.7481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.5221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed2.71000 t2019
groundnuts24.8231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 275.9481000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts13.2411000 t2019
copra2.81000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa283.681000 t2019
coffee8.1411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4.681000 t2019
sugar cane9 257.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.3051000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal4.5281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.6581000 t2019
apricots0.3581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits201.7981000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes17.5221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados26.4081000 t2019
bananas6 583.4771000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley9.1981000 ha2019
maize322.8461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava13.6011000 ha2019
potatoes19.6751000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.0591000 ha2019
carrots and turnips6.8871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry24.0061000 ha2019
beans, green7.0181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.0781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed1.7441000 ha2019
groundnuts19.5831000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit200.9081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.2091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa525.4351000 ha2019
coffee36.0471000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.7541000 ha2019
sugar cane121.8121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.5261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.2151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.8691000 ha2019
apricots0.0681000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits39.2471000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes9.1081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.4151000 ha2019
bananas183.3471000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber21 720t2019
timber7 488 7382019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 306.2441000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes4 306.2441000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 162.6851000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep464.6441000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats28.3911000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses61.1551000 heads2019
asses and mules144.1631000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds161 9341000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.8721000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.7531000 t2018
cheese74.3111000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs696 277.197t2019
freshwater fishes11 207.6t2019
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Minerals


Primary sector.
The flat strip along the Pacific (the Costa) is used to grow tropical crops: bananas and other fruit, cocoa, tagua nut (from the Phytelephas macrocarpa, with the tagua nut, also known as “palm ivory” or corozo, being used to make buttons. In the highlands (Sierra) the main crops are rice and maize. The rainforests (in the Oriente) provide timber and rubber. Ecuador is one of the world’s largest producers of balsa wood. Fishing (tuna) and aquaculture (prawns) are very profitable and fuel exports.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas665M m³2019
oil, crude23 908.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
antimony0.0011000 t2020
copper42$1000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar43.21000 t2018
salt75$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin40$1000 t2019
limestone3 0271000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold8 213kg2018
silver1 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro24 418.35M kWh2019
- thermal6 681.52M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 0431000 kW2019
- thermal2 9371000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation31 678.87M kWh2019
total installed capacity7 862.711000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude4771000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes5 529no.2016
commercial vehicles2 700no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners12 932no.2015
fridges155 509no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3651000 t2014
petrol1 646.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda9.61000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers38$1000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m25.64M m2016
cotton yarn1$1000 t2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear4 156 260pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6321000 t2018
coconut oil1.4911000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes102.1M units2016
tobacco2 622.4t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp2$1000 t2017
newsprint43.6541000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 8001000 t2018
sheet glass53.11000 m²2013
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production1 284.923M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production7 337.445M US$2018
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Trade


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The main mineral resource, oil, is extracted by the state-owned company Petroecuador and by foreign companies. One of the largest oilfields is at Ancón, in the Santa Elena peninsula, which is linked to La Libertad by an oil pipeline. The Transandino oil pipeline supplies Ecuadorian oil to the port of Tumaco, in Colombia. Other important oilfields are found at Lago Agrio, Shushufindi and Sacha, in the east of the Amazonian rainforest of the Oriente (two oil-pipelines connect the region to Esmeraldas). Other important fields include the Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha field (ITT), in the north-east, near the Peruvian border, and another in the valley of the River Pungarayacu, in the heart of the jungle. As well as hydrocarbons, other underground deposits include gold (mines at Portovelo), copper (at Macuchi and Sigsig) and sulfur (at Tufino). There are vast silver and gold deposits in the Province of Zamora Chinchipe (Los Encuentros). In 2018, a referendum limited mining activity in protected areas.
There are oil refineries (Esmeraldas, La Libertad, Shushufindi), chemical plants (La Libertad), cement factories (Azogues, Cuenca, Guayaquil, Latacunga, Otavalo and Riobamba), paper mills (Latacunga), and companies producing textiles (Quito, Cuenca, Riobamba, Ambato and Atuntaqui), footwear (Guayaquil), food products (Quito, Guayaquil, Cuenca, Riobamba and Ambato), rubber and tobacco.
The Banco Central del Ecuador acts as Ecuador’s central bank. Ecuador’s main trading partners are the USA, Chile, China, Colombia and Peru. In Quito is active a securities exchange.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products48.054% of goods exports2019
fuels39.17% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States4 786M US$2020
China3 194M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 978M US$2020
China3 947M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202020 227M US$ -
201922 329M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202017 959M US$ -
201922 564M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Ecuador’s main tourist destination is the Galápagos Islands which have been a National Park since 1959.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 650M US$2019
Number of arrivals2 108 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown35 300 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried4 8281000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers120.439per 1000 pop.2019
Computers130per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.833years2018
Gradautes, percentage12.7%1990
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level1 932 261units2018
Students, secondary level1 891 648units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.3per 1000 pop.2020
Physicians2.3per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2019
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.443% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking93.9%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.9%2011-12
education4.4%2011-12
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