Form of Government: Republic
Area: 256 370 sq km
Population: 16 776 977 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 65.44 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 2° N - 5° S; long. 81° - 75° W
Capital: Quito (capital) 1 607 734 inhab. (2010);
Currency: US dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.739 (rank: 89)
President and head of government: Lenín Moreno (MPAIS), elected 16 April 2017, in office since 24 May 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 19 February 2017: PAIS Alliance (Proud and Sovereign Fatherland, centre-left), 74; CREO (Creating Opportunities, liberal), 34; PSC (Social Christian Party), 15; others, 14
Internet: www.inec.gob.ec (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of CAN, Mercosur associated, OAS, OPEC, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Ecuador

Ecuador, República del Ecuador
Useful information

International license plate code EC
International dialling code 00593
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120/127
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ec

GMT Quito -5; Galapagos Islands -6
DST Quito not applied; Galapagos Islands not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Quito 16.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Quito 15/14.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Quito 6/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Quito 1235
Days of rainfall (annual average) Quito 145

Politics and current affairs

On 4 February 2018, a referendum reintroduced the limit of just one re-election for elected positions; this will ensure that the former president Rafael Correa cannot run again.

Geography.
Ecuador is bordered by Colombia to the north, and Peru to the east and south; the Pacific Ocean lies off its west coast. Two parallel chains of the Andes run north-south down the country: the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Real, including the cones of several majestic volcanoes (Chimborazo, 6263 m), many of which are still active. The archipelago of the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean, which lies 980 km off the coast, is also part of Ecuador. The climate on the coast is hot and humid in the north and dry in the south.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Ecuador gained independence on 24 May 1822 when it became part of the federation of Gran Colombia, along with Colombia and Venezuela.
It withdrew from the federation in 1830. In the second half of the 20th century, military juntas seized power (1963-66, 1976-79). These were followed by civil governments such as that of President Aguilera Roldós, of the Popular Forces Concentration (CFP), who championed land reform.
When Roldós died in a plane crash in 1981, the Ecuadorian populist tradition was continued by the Roldosista Party (PRE). The election (26 November 2006) of Rafael Correa, the left-wing candidate, marked a political turning-point in the country’s politics, which aims at greater collaboration with other Latin American countries. For a long time, the border with Peru proved to be a source of conflict. The last armed clashes broke out in 1995, but peace was restored in 1998. The disputed area (80 km² of the Cordillera del Condor region) has become a national park and Ecuador has been guaranteed access to the valley of the River Amazon.
Ecuador is a presidential republic. According to the 2008 Constitution, amended several times, the President, who is also head of the government and has the power to dissolve Parliament, is elected through a direct election for a four-year term. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly (currently made up of 137 members elected for four years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force15.9%2015
Army61.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes815.4per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides8.2per 100 000 pop.2014
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guayaquil2 278 691inhab.2010
Quito1 607 734inhab.2010
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate15.92016
Death rate42016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo71.9%2010
Amerindian14.4%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic80%2012
Protestant11%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Quechua
Shuar
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years27.1%2017
15-29 years26.7%2017


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)114.84index2016
Balance of trade- 887M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 119 940units2017
Active population, Females41%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.9%2017
Unemployment rate, Females52.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses26 239.5M LCU2014
Revenues18 927.3M LCU2014
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture26.9%2017
industry18.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.4%2016
industry33.5%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.094BN LCU2017
International reserves2 169.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Economic situation.
After the 2016 recession, caused by the effects of a major earthquake, along with a drop in the price of oil, which the country is heavily dependent upon, in 2017-18, growth was registered once again and unemployment began to drop. However, the government’s initiatives to tackle the crisis caused a considerable increase in the public debt; the country is also heavily conditioned by the trend of foreign loans, especially those coming from China. Since 2013, the negative trade budget has partially been lessened by measures limiting imports. After a long period of steady decline, unemployment began to rise again in 2015.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.27%2015
forests50.52%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley25.4141000 t2016
cereals, total2 784.3971000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava90.7261000 t2016
potatoes422.5891000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus1.421000 t2016
cabbages13.6721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry10.6721000 t2016
beans, green26.5491000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.5061000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed31000 t2016
groundnuts21.8961000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits3 124.0691000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.731000 t2016
copra2.81000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa177.5511000 t2016
coffee3.9051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4.4441000 t2016
sugar cane8 661.6091000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.3741000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0571000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal4.3111000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.031000 t2016
apricots0.3681000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits155.6331000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes19.9851000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados16.1181000 t2016
bananas6 529.6761000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley17.321000 ha2016
maize378.3351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava18.0451000 ha2016
potatoes29.6351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.371000 ha2016
carrots and turnips6.3561000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry18.7671000 ha2016
beans, green18.3721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.0761000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed21000 ha2016
groundnuts17.9661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit263.8391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.5361000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa454.2571000 ha2016
coffee29.8721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.7041000 ha2016
sugar cane104.6611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.5431000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1611000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.2391000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.1241000 ha2016
apricots0.0741000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits33.1871000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes8.2921000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.6151000 ha2016
bananas180.3371000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber20 308t2016
timber7 455 6572016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 127.3111000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes4 127.3111000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 141.2441000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep478.4861000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats36.3791000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.961000 heads2016
asses and mules129.2471000 heads2016
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas141000 heads1999
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds177 2661000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.8561000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.281000 t2014
cheese97.241000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs426 707.6t2016
freshwater fishes22 811.4t2016
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Minerals


Primary sector.
The flat strip along the Pacific (the Costa) is used to grow tropical crops: bananas and other fruit, cocoa, tagua nut (from the Phytelephas macrocarpa, with the tagua nut, also known as “palm ivory” or corozo, being used to make buttons. In the highlands (Sierra) the main crops are rice and maize.
The rainforests (in the Oriente) provide timber and rubber. Ecuador is one of the world’s largest producers of balsa wood. Fishing (tuna) and aquaculture (prawns) are very profitable and fuel exports.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas697M m³2017
oil, crude26 499.91000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper0.1311000 t2014
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barite3.51000 t2006
feldspar247.21000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin63.81000 t2015
limestone3 8621000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold7 723kg2015
silver1 494kg2015
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro12 965M kWh2015
- thermal11 459.54M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 4061000 kW2015
- hydro2 3901000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation24 972.54M kWh2015
total installed capacity5 9861000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude5611000 t2017
sulfur, rec.31000 t2007
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes3 806no.2015
commercial vehicles2 700no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners12 932no.2015
fridges230 356no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3651000 t2014
petrol1 646.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda10.21000 t2015
nitrogen fertilizers48.21000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m34.98M m2015
cotton yarn41000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear4 018 840pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6001000 t2014
coconut oil2.11000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes103.5M units2015
tobacco1 987.8t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemi-mechanical pulp21000 t2016
mechanical pulp21000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement6 2001000 t2015
sheet glass53.11000 m²2013
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production424.4M US$2008
food, beverages and tobacco production3 014.3M US$2008
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Trade


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The main mineral resource, oil, is extracted by the state-owned company Petroecuador and by foreign companies. One of the largest oilfields is at Ancón, in the Santa Elena peninsula, which is linked to La Libertad by an oil pipeline. The Transandino oil pipeline supplies Ecuadorian oil to the port of Tumaco, in Colombia. Other important oilfields are found at Lago Agrio, Shushufindi and Sacha, in the east of the Amazonian rainforest of the Oriente (two oil-pipelines connect the region to Esmeraldas). Other important fields include the Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha field (ITT), in the north-east, near the Peruvian border, and another in the valley of the River Pungarayacu, in the heart of the jungle.
As well as hydrocarbons, other underground deposits include gold (mines at Portovelo), copper (at Macuchi and Sigsig) and sulfur (at Tufino). There are vast silver and gold deposits in the Province of Zamora Chinchipe (Los Encuentros).
In 2018, a referendum limited mining activity in protected areas. There are oil refineries (Esmeraldas, La Libertad, Shushufindi), chemical plants (La Libertad), cement factories (Guayaquil and Riobamba), paper mills (Latacunga), and companies producing textiles (Quito, Cuenca, Riobamba, Ambato and Atuntaqui), footwear (Guayaquil), food products (Quito, Guayaquil, Cuenca, Riobamba and Ambato), rubber and tobacco. The Banco Central del Ecuador acts as Ecuador’s central bank. Ecuador’s main trading partners are the USA, Chile, China, Colombia and Peru. In Quito is active a securities exchange. In 2007, Ecuador was one of the founder members, in Buenos Aires, of the Banco del Sur, a development bank to finance economic and social development projects in Latin America.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products52.224% of goods exports2016
fuels33.097% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States6 057M US$2017
Vietnam1 458M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States3 960M US$2017
China3 685M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201719 122.453M US$ -
201616 797.665M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201720 009.701M US$ -
201616 324.205M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Ecuador’s main tourist destination is the Galápagos Islands which have been a National Park since 1959.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 034M US$2016
Number of arrivals1 418 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown35 300 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 121.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers101.281per 1000 pop.2017
Computers130per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.8years2015
Gradautes, percentage12.7%1990
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level77 749units2017
Teachers, secondary level87 924units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.6per 1000 pop.2011
Physicians1.7per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2016
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.44% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.58%2016
Access to electricity99.936%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.9%2011-12
education4.4%2011-12
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