Form of Government: Republic
Area: 256 370 sq km
Population: 17 023 408 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 66.40 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 2° N - 5° S; long. 81° - 75° W
Capital: Quito (capital) 1 822 397 inhab. (2018);
Currency: US dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.752 (rank: 86)
President and head of government: Lenín Moreno (MPAIS), elected 16 April 2017, in office since 24 May 2017
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 19 February 2017: PAIS Alliance (Proud and Sovereign Fatherland, centre-left), 74; CREO (Creating Opportunities, liberal), 34; PSC (Social Christian Party), 15; others, 14
Internet: www.ecuadorencifras.gob.ec (Instituto Nacional de Estadística)
Member of CAN, Mercosur associated, OAS, OPEC, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Ecuador

Ecuador, República del Ecuador
Useful information

International license plate code EC
International dialling code 00593
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended for some areas; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120/127
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ec

GMT Quito -5; Galapagos Islands -6
DST Quito not applied; Galapagos Islands not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Quito 16.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Quito 15/14.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Quito 6/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Quito 1235
Days of rainfall (annual average) Quito 145

Politics and current affairs

On 4 February 2018, a referendum reintroduced the limit of just one re-election for elected positions; this will ensure that the former president Rafael Correa cannot run again.

Geography.
Ecuador is bordered by Colombia to the north, and Peru to the east and south; the Pacific Ocean lies off its west coast. Two parallel chains of the Andes run north-south down the country: the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Real, including the cones of several majestic volcanoes (Chimborazo, 6263 m), many of which are still active. The archipelago of the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean, which lies 980 km off the coast, is also part of Ecuador. The climate on the coast is hot and humid in the north and dry in the south.

Government


Formerly a Spanish colony, Ecuador gained independence on 24 May 1822 when it became part of the federation of Gran Colombia, along with Colombia and Venezuela.
It withdrew from the federation in 1830. In the second half of the 20th century, military juntas seized power (1963-66, 1976-79). These were followed by civil governments such as that of President Aguilera Roldós, of the Popular Forces Concentration (CFP), who championed land reform.
When Roldós died in a plane crash in 1981, the Ecuadorian populist tradition was continued by the Roldosista Party (PRE). The election of Rafael Correa in 2006, the left-wing candidate, paved the way for greater collaboration with other Latin American countries led by similarly-aligned governments. This policy was gradually weakened by his successor and former vice president, Lenín Moreno.
For a long time, the border with Peru proved to be a source of conflict. The last armed clashes broke out in 1995, but peace was restored in 1998. The disputed area (80 km² of the Cordillera del Condor region) has become a national park and Ecuador has been guaranteed access to the valley of the River Amazon.
Ecuador is a presidential republic. According to the 2008 Constitution, amended several times, the President, who is also head of the government and has the power to dissolve Parliament, is elected through a direct election for a four-year term. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Assembly (currently made up of 137 members elected for four years).

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force15.9%2015
Army61.5%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes815.4per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Guayaquil2 278 691inhab.2010
Quito1 822 397inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate19.92017
Death rate5.12017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo71.9%2010
Amerindian14.4%2010


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic77%2017
Protestant14%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Quechua
Shuar
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years26.6%2018
15-29 years26.5%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)114.84index2016
Balance of trade-1 586.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population8 372 021units2018
Active population, Females41.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.9%2018
Unemployment rate, Females52.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses21 893.1M LCU2018
Revenues19 243.9M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture27.5%2018
industry18.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture10.2%2017
industry33.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation0.084BN LCU2018
International reserves2 158.7M US$2018
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Agriculture


Economic situation.
Since 2014, the country has felt the effects of the low price of oil, the exports of which are vital to the economy. In 2017-18, the growth rate was positive, but in the first trimester of 2019, the economy fell back into a recession. The government’s initiatives to tackle the crisis caused a considerable increase in the public debt; the country is also heavily conditioned by the trend of foreign loans, especially those coming from China. Since 2013, the negative trade budget has partially been lessened by measures limiting imports. In March 2019, an agreement was stipulated with the IMF to receive support in the launch of a reform plan aimed at stabilizing the economy.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.27%2015
forests50.52%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13.5131000 t2017
cereals, total2 538.2911000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava102.5261000 t2017
potatoes377.2431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus1.4481000 t2017
cabbages13.9991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry19.3831000 t2017
beans, green20.41000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes0.5171000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed3.0271000 t2017
groundnuts22.551000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits3 275.9931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts14.8041000 t2017
copra2.81000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa205.9551000 t2017
coffee7.5641000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet4.5561000 t2017
sugar cane9 030.0741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3.8241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.0581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal4.3841000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.2831000 t2017
apricots0.3761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits224.471000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes19.7581000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados20.9951000 t2017
bananas6 282.1051000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley11.2091000 ha2017
maize358.8221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava17.0751000 ha2017
potatoes29.5321000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.2541000 ha2017
carrots and turnips7.1061000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry30.131000 ha2017
beans, green17.4841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape0.0771000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
castor oil seed21000 ha2017
groundnuts18.3351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit260.2921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts2.3561000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa467.3271000 ha2017
coffee37.261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet0.7181000 ha2017
sugar cane110.6031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2.9271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sisal3.3351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.2111000 ha2017
apricots0.0751000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits37.6791000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes9.491000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados4.6531000 ha2017
bananas158.0571000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber21 063t2017
timber7 466 3462017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 190.6111000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes4 190.6111000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 115.4731000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep390.121000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats39.5831000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses49.7271000 heads2017
asses and mules129.8381000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
llamas and alpacas141000 heads1999
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds161 2991000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.8561000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter2.281000 t2014
cheese97.241000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs442 298t2017
freshwater fishes23 270t2017
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Minerals


Primary sector.
The flat strip along the Pacific (the Costa) is used to grow tropical crops: bananas and other fruit, cocoa, tagua nut (from the Phytelephas macrocarpa, with the tagua nut, also known as “palm ivory” or corozo, being used to make buttons. In the highlands (Sierra) the main crops are rice and maize.
The rainforests (in the Oriente) provide timber and rubber. Ecuador is one of the world’s largest producers of balsa wood. Fishing (tuna) and aquaculture (prawns) are very profitable and fuel exports.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas697M m³2017
oil, crude25 799.91000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper401000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
feldspar132.41000 t2016
salt751000 t2011
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin551000 t2016
limestone4 5321000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold6 761kg2016
silver934kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro15 675M kWh2016
- thermal10 215.92M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro4 4201000 kW2016
- thermal3 5861000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation26 503.92M kWh2016
total installed capacity8 1921000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
steel, crude5831000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes5 529no.2016
commercial vehicles2 700no.2017
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners12 932no.2015
fridges155 509no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3651000 t2014
petrol1 646.61000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda9.61000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers381000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics - m25.64M m2016
cotton yarn11000 t2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear4 156 260pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6001000 t2014
coconut oil2.11000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes102.1M units2016
tobacco2 622.4t2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemi-mechanical pulp21000 t2017
mechanical pulp21000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 6001000 t2016
sheet glass53.11000 m²2013
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production996.3M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production5 064.5M US$2016
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Trade


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The main mineral resource, oil, is extracted by the state-owned company Petroecuador and by foreign companies. One of the largest oilfields is at Ancón, in the Santa Elena peninsula, which is linked to La Libertad by an oil pipeline. The Transandino oil pipeline supplies Ecuadorian oil to the port of Tumaco, in Colombia. Other important oilfields are found at Lago Agrio, Shushufindi and Sacha, in the east of the Amazonian rainforest of the Oriente (two oil-pipelines connect the region to Esmeraldas). Other important fields include the Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha field (ITT), in the north-east, near the Peruvian border, and another in the valley of the River Pungarayacu, in the heart of the jungle.
As well as hydrocarbons, other underground deposits include gold (mines at Portovelo), copper (at Macuchi and Sigsig) and sulfur (at Tufino). There are vast silver and gold deposits in the Province of Zamora Chinchipe (Los Encuentros).
In 2018, a referendum limited mining activity in protected areas.
There are oil refineries (Esmeraldas, La Libertad, Shushufindi), chemical plants (La Libertad), cement factories (Azogues, Cuenca, Guayaquil, Latacunga, Otavalo and Riobamba), paper mills (Latacunga), and companies producing textiles (Quito, Cuenca, Riobamba, Ambato and Atuntaqui), footwear (Guayaquil), food products (Quito, Guayaquil, Cuenca, Riobamba and Ambato), rubber and tobacco.
The Banco Central del Ecuador acts as Ecuador’s central bank. Ecuador’s main trading partners are the USA, Chile, China, Colombia and Peru. In Quito is active a securities exchange. In 2007, Ecuador was one of the founder members, in Buenos Aires, of the Banco del Sur, a development bank to finance economic and social development projects in Latin America.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products46.781% of goods exports2018
fuels41.094% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States6 672M US$2018
Peru1 615M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States5 011M US$2018
China4 353M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201821 606M US$ -
201719 123M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201823 193M US$ -
201720 010M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Ecuador’s main tourist destination is the Galápagos Islands which have been a National Park since 1959.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 087M US$2017
Number of arrivals1 608 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown35 300 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 121.21000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers101.281per 1000 pop.2017
Computers130per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2015
Gradautes, percentage12.7%1990
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level77 749units2016
Teachers, secondary level87 924units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians1.8per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.3% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.44% of GDP2014
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.58%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.9%2011-12
education4.4%2011-12
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