Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 42 947 sq km
Population: 5 840 045 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 135.98 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 58° - 55° N; long. 8° - 15° E
Capital: Copenhagen=København (capital) 638 117 inhab. (2021); Greater Copenhagen 1 336 982 inhab. (2021), urban agglomeration
Currency: Danish krone (100 øre)
Human development index: 0.94 (rank: 10)
Sovereign: Queen Margrethe II, since 15 January 1972
Prime Minister: Mette Frederiksen (Social Democrats), since 27 June 2019
Parliament: seats (June 2021 update): Social Democrats, 49; Venstre (Liberal Party), 39; DF (Danish People’s Party, far-right), 16; Danish Social Liberal Party, 16; SF (Socialist People’s Party), 15; Social Liberal Party, 14; Red-Green Alliance (ecologist, left), 13; DKF (Conservative People's Party), 13; The New Right, 4; Liberal Alliance, 3; elected in the Faroe Islands and in Greenland, 4; others, 9
Internet: www.dst.dk (Danmarks Statistik)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Denmark

Danmark, Kongeriget Danmark
Useful information

International license plate code DK
International dialling code 0045
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .dk

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Copenaghen 8.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Copenaghen 0/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Copenaghen 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Copenaghen 605
Days of rainfall (annual average) Copenaghen 130

Politics and current affairs

In 2021, Denmark was one of the first EU countries to suspend the use of Johnson&Johnson and AstraZeneca vaccines out of concern for rare side effects (thromboembolism).
In Spring 2021, the scandal regarding the Danish secret service came to light, reported to have helped the US spy on German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Geography.
Protruding towards Scandinavia, from which it is separated by some sea straits (Skagerrak, Kattegat, Øresund), Denmark comprises the peninsula of Jutland, the island of Sjælland, where the capital is located, and about 400 smaller islands. It borders the North Sea to the north and west, and the Baltic Sea to the east; it is bordered by Germany to the south. Denmark has flat rolling landscape, a jagged coastline to the west, and a low-lying sandy coast to the east. The climate is essentially oceanic, being subjected to mainly westerly winds from the Atlantic.

Government


Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Since 1950, there has been a series of alternating social-democrat and conservative governments.
According to the 1953 Constitution, the sovereign formally exercises legislative and executive powers through the single house of Parliament (Folketing, composed of 175 members elected for 4 years by direct suffrage, plus 2 from the Faroe Islands and 2 from Greenland) and the Council of Ministers (which must be approved by Parliament). New elections are scheduled in June 2019.


Defence.
In addition to the army, navy and air-force, there is a National Guard for which Danes enrol voluntarily. Military service, carried out mostly by volunteers, lasts for a minimum of 4 months.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental civil law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.3%2015
Army46.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes8 130.8per 100 000 pop.2020
Homicides0.8per 100 000 pop.2020
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Copenhagen=København638 117inhab.2021
Århus282 910inhab.2021
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Copenhagen1 336 982inhab.2021
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.52020
Death rate9.42020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total817 438units2021
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Danish86$%2021
other7.4%2021


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant62.9%2018
other17.7%2018


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Danish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.4%2020
15-29 years19.2%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The country’s GDP fell by 3.3% in 2020, due to the strict containment of the pandemic. A moderate recovery is expected in 2021 (+2.8%). The low levels of public debt enable the government to intervene with a substantial stimulus package.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)101.42index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)100.53index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 022 700units2020
Active population, Females47.1%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females50$%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses937 302M LCU2020
Revenues908 050M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.107%2020
industry18.83%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.566%2020
industry23.879%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation74.523BN LCU2020
International reserves72 823.351M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
Much of the arable land is used for cereal crops (barley and wheat). Other important crops include sugar beet and vegetables. Livestock farming is highly specialized and its products (milk and milk-derivatives, ham, bacon and lard) represent a significant share of Danish exports. Denmark is the world’s leading producer of mink.
Fishing.
Fishing is in constant decline, whereas fish farming (mostly trout) is highly developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land60.485%2018
forests15.66%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 624.561000 t2019
cereals, total9 517.831000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2 408.71000 t2019
roots and tubers, total2 408.71000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.351000 t2019
cabbages37.921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0$1000 t2017
broad beans, dry63.551000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed7291000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0281000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet2 339.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.161000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples25.211000 t2019
blueberries0.131000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.0041000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms4$1000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley583.21000 ha2019
maize5.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes56.71000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.151000 ha2019
carrots and turnips2.251000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0$1000 ha2017
broad beans, dry17$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed165.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0291000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet29$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.7331000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.391000 ha2019
blueberries0.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.0051000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0$1000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber3 842 1002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 5001000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 5001000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs12 7281000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep146.9551000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total41.861000 heads2019
horses41.861000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds22 6961000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.51000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter62.61000 t2019
cheese333.41000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs67 384.62t2019
freshwater fishes430.85t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country’s main resources are oil and natural gas from the North Sea, exported via pipelines to the Netherlands. Denmark granted on 30 October 2019 permission for the passage of Nord Stream 2 pipeline (from Russia to Germany) through its territorial waters, while Italian Saipem will build a gas pipeline to Poland.
Energy and industry.
Denmark generates enough electrical energy to be self-sufficient; in 2020, wind power covered 50% of the national energy requirement. The construction electrical connections with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom is underway (Viking Link). Investments in wind power are on the increase and wind turbines are also manufactured for export.
The fertilizer industry is highly developed, mainly used in agriculture; cement production is widespread. There are large shipyards at Copenhagen, Helsingør, Nakskov, Odense, Svendborg, Aalborg and Frederikshavn. Refineries are located in Kalundborg and Fredericia. Finally Denmark produces farm and industrial machinery.
The foodstuffs segment includes sugar refineries and some famous breweries, including Carlsberg and Tuborg, both concentrated at Copenhagen. The tobacco industry is based on imported raw materials. Denmark’s famous ceramics from the workshops at Rønne are made with kaolin from the island of Bornholm.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 314.6M m³2020
oil, crude3 561.71000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite4291000 t2018
salt6001000 t2017
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite3601000 t2020
granite4961000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.23 989.7M kWh2019
- thermal5 014.9M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.9 1741000 kW2019
- thermal5 966.841000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation29 020.44M kWh2019
total installed capacity15 072.841000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium26$1000 t2015
steel, crude5161000 t2004
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes4 731no.2019
mopeds1 660no.2016
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks6 729no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners61 299no.2016
computers5 965no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol2 549.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1.61000 t2011
caustic soda31.21000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets12 3331000 m²2019
cotton fabrics0.176M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear523 641pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6101000 t2018
coconut oil0.051000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes11 407M units2010
cigars58.5M units2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp4.831000 t2019
other paper1521000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 3431000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production12 169.331M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production6 163.051M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Denmark has a positive balance of trade. Its main trading partners are Germany and Sweden.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 14 125, pharmaceuticals 12 943, electrical and electronic equipment 8 767, apparel and accessories 4 285, fresh and preserved meat 4 201, optical and electro-medical appliances 4 075, iron and steel 4 000, crude oil and petroleum products 3 606, fresh and preserved fish 3 443, chemicals 3 235, furniture and accessories 2 927, vehicles and parts thereof 2 859, cheese and dairy products 2 682, plastics and articles thereof 2 528, food preparations 2 472, live animals 1 482, enzymes 1 241, furs 1 133, residues and wastes of food industry 1 057


Finance and banking
. The Danmarks Nationalbank acts as the country’s central bank. The Copenhagen stock exchange is part of the multinational corporation Nasdaq, Inc. New controls on the banking system were introduced after the scandal that hit Danske Bank, one of the most relevant groups.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures72.324% of goods exports2019
food products17.66% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany13 542M US$2020
Sweden9 341M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany21 203M US$2020
Sweden12 173M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020108 074M US$ -
2019110 779M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202096 782M US$ -
201997 824M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism, especially the capital Copenhagen, attracts many visitors from Germany and Scandinavia.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures10 355M US$2019
Number of arrivals13 285 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown81 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried8 451.41000 units2011
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers439.46per 1000 pop.2019
Computers549.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the age of 7 and 16, with one year of pre-school activities and an optional tenth year at the end. Afterwards students can choose to attend professional training courses or one of the four different types of secondary school, which lead to university entrance qualifications.


Social security and health.
The Danish welfare system is on the cutting edge of social wellbeing and covers illness, accidents at work, unemployment, invalidity and allowances for dependents; retirement pensions are guaranteed for all (generally at 65 years of age), medical care is free and there is a comprehensive social welfare system.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling18.794years2018
Gradautes, percentage40.354%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level468 362units2018
Students, secondary level531 247units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending43.517% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending28.299% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.6per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians4.19per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.07%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums216units2020
Museums, visitors10 306 293units2020
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending2.91% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4$%2019
education0.8%2019
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