Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 42 938 sq km
Population: 5 806 081 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 135.22 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 58° - 55° N; long. 8° - 15° E
Capital: Copenhagen=København (capital) 623 404 inhab. (2019); Greater Copenhagen 1 320 629 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: Danish krone (100 øre)
Human development index: 0.929 (rank: 11)
Sovereign: Queen Margrethe II, since 15 January 1972
Prime Minister: Mette Frederiksen (Social Democrats), since 27 June 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 5 June 2019: Social Democrats, 48; Venstre (Liberal Party), 43; DF (Danish People’s Party, far-right), 16; Danish Social Liberal Party, 16; SF (Socialist People’s Party), 14; Red-Green Alliance (ecologist, left), 13; DKF (Conservative People's Party), 12; The Alternative (greens), 5; The New Right, 4; Liberal Alliance, 4; elected in the Faroe Islands and in Greenland, 4
Internet: www.dst.dk (Danmarks Statistik)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code DK
International dialling code 0045
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .dk
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Copenaghen 8.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Copenaghen 0/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Copenaghen 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Copenaghen 605
Days of rainfall (annual average) Copenaghen 130
Politics and current affairs
Elections were held on 5 June 2019, which were won by the social democrats with 25.9% of the votes, followed by the Venstre, led by the outgoing prime minister, Rasmussen, with 23.4% of the votes. Public approval of the far-right recorded a drop, with the Danish People’s Party taking 8.7%. In a fragmented Parliament, the social democratic leader, Mette Frederiksen, launched a minority government, in power since 27 June 2019 and supported externally by other parties.
Protruding towards Scandinavia, from which it is separated by some sea straits (Skagerrak, Kattegat, Øresund), Denmark comprises the peninsula of Jutland, the island of Sjælland, where the capital is located, and about 400 smaller islands. It borders the North Sea to the north and west, and the Baltic Sea to the east; it is bordered by Germany to the south. Denmark has flat rolling landscape, a jagged coastline to the west, and a low-lying sandy coast to the east. The climate is essentially oceanic, being subjected to mainly westerly winds from the Atlantic.
Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Since 1950, there has been a series of alternating social-democrat and conservative governments. According to the 1953 Constitution, the sovereign formally exercises legislative and executive powers through the single house of Parliament (Folketing, composed of 175 members elected for 4 years by direct suffrage, plus 2 from the Faroe Islands and 2 from Greenland) and the Council of Ministers (which must be approved by Parliament). New elections are scheduled in June 2019.
In addition to the army, navy and air-force, there is a National Guard for which Danes enrol voluntarily. Military service, carried out mostly by volunteers, lasts for a minimum of 4 months.
The legal system is based on continental civil law.
|Greater Copenhagen||1 320 629||inhab.||2019|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2018)|
|Foreigners, total||525 898||units||2019|
The economy grew moderately in 2018, around 1.2% thanks to the expansion of consumption and investments. Unemployment fell to 5%. The economy should remain stable thanks to a certain resilience to foreign uncertainties.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||101.42||index||2016|
|Balance of trade||6 760.8||M US$||2018|
|Active population||3 018 100||units||2018|
|Active population, Females||47.3||%||2018|
|Unemployment rate, Females||49.3||%||2018|
|Expenses||838 484||M LCU||2018|
|Revenues||849 791||M LCU||2018|
|Currency in circulation||70.79||BN LCU||2018|
|International reserves||70 942.1||M US$||2018|
Agriculture and livestock.
Much of the arable land is used for cereal crops (barley and wheat). Other important crops include sugar beet and vegetables. Livestock farming is highly specialized and its products (milk and milk-derivatives, ham, bacon and lard) represent a significant share of Danish exports. Denmark is the world’s leading producer of mink.
Fishing is in constant decline, whereas fish farming (mostly trout) is highly developed.
|barley||3 992.3||1000 t||2017|
|cereals, total||10 027.261||1000 t||2017|
|potatoes||2 171||1000 t||2017|
|roots and tubers, total||2 171||1000 t||2017|
|beans, green||0||1000 t||2017|
|peas, dry||24.1||1000 t||2017|
|mustard seed||0.03||1000 t||2017|
|sugar beet||2 454.6||1000 t||2017|
|carrots and turnips||2.194||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, green||0||1000 ha||2017|
|peas, dry||5.4||1000 ha||2017|
|mustard seed||0.031||1000 ha||2017|
|sugar beet||34.4||1000 ha||2017|
|timber||3 842 100||m³||2017|
|cattle||1 545.417||1000 heads||2017|
|cattle and buffaloes||1 545.417||1000 heads||2017|
|pigs||12 307.667||1000 heads||2017|
|equines, total||51.586||1000 heads||2017|
|birds||21 215||1000 heads||2017|
|crustaceans and molluscs||65 270||t||2017|
Denmark’s main resources are oil and natural gas from the North Sea, exported via pipelines. Denmark has withheld permission for the passage of Nord Stream 2 pipeline (from Russia to Germany) through its territorial waters.
Energy and industry.
Denmark generates enough electrical energy to be self-sufficient; the main source of power is thermo-electric power plants, although wind energy covers over 40% of the national energy requirement. The construction of an electrical connection with the Netherlands is underway; another connection with the United Kingdom is being planned (Viking Link). Wind turbines are also manufactured for export. The fertilizer industry is highly developed, mainly used in agriculture; cement production is widespread. There are large shipyards at Copenhagen, Helsingør, Nakskov, Odense, Svendborg, Aalborg and Frederikshavn. Refineries are located in Kalundborg and Fredericia. Finally Denmark produces farm and industrial machinery. The foodstuffs segment includes sugar refineries and some famous breweries, including Carlsberg and Tuborg, both concentrated at Copenhagen. The tobacco industry is based on imported raw materials. Denmark’s famous ceramics from the workshops at Rønne are made with kaolin from the island of Bornholm.
|natural gas||4 836||M m³||2017|
|oil, crude||5 745.5||1000 t||2018|
|- other renew.||19 149||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||10 672.76||M kWh||2016|
|- other renew.||7 570||1000 kW||2016|
|- thermal||6 757||1000 kW||2016|
|total net generation||29 840.76||M kWh||2016|
|total installed capacity||14 336||1000 kW||2016|
|steel, crude||516||1000 t||2004|
|watches and clocks||24 490||no.||2015|
|air conditioners||61 299||no.||2016|
|petrol||2 549.1||1000 t||2014|
|caustic soda||31.2||1000 t||2016|
|carpets||9 823||1000 m²||2016|
|cotton fabrics||0.176||M m²||2016|
|beer of barley||610.7||1000 t||2014|
|coconut oil||0.05||1000 t||2014|
|cigarettes||11 407||M units||2010|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||4.83||1000 t||2017|
|mechanical pulp||4.83||1000 t||2017|
|cement||1 900||1000 t||2016|
|chemicals production||10 758.1||M US$||2016|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||5 765.7||M US$||2016|
Denmark has a positive balance of trade. Its main trading partners are Germany and Sweden.
Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 14 125, pharmaceuticals 12 943, electrical and electronic equipment 8 767, apparel and accessories 4 285, fresh and preserved meat 4 201, optical and electro-medical appliances 4 075, iron and steel 4 000, crude oil and petroleum products 3 606, fresh and preserved fish 3 443, chemicals 3 235, furniture and accessories 2 927, vehicles and parts thereof 2 859, cheese and dairy products 2 682, plastics and articles thereof 2 528, food preparations 2 472, live animals 1 482, enzymes 1 241, furs 1 133, residues and wastes of food industry 1 057
Finance and banking
. The Danmarks Nationalbank acts as the country’s central bank. The Copenhagen stock exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX Group. New anti-money laundering measures and controls on the banking system were introduced after the scandal that hit Danske Bank, one of the most relevant groups.
|manufactures||68.919||% of goods exports||2018|
|food products||19.539||% of goods exports||2018|
|Germany||15 626||M US$||2018|
|Sweden||11 272||M US$||2018|
|Germany||22 742||M US$||2018|
|Sweden||11 922||M US$||2018|
Tourism. Tourism, especially the capital Copenhagen, attracts many visitors from Germany and Scandinavia.
|Expenditures||9 640||M US$||2017|
|Number of arrivals||11 743 000||units||2017|
|Civil aviation, km flown||81 600 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||8 451.4||1000 units||2011|
|Broadband subscribers||431.736||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Computers||549.3||per 1000 pop.||2008|
Social and welfare
Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the age of 7 and 16, with one year of pre-school activities and an optional tenth year at the end. Afterwards students can choose to attend professional training courses or one of the four different types of secondary school, which lead to university entrance qualifications.
Social security and health.
The Danish welfare system is on the cutting edge of social wellbeing and covers illness, accidents at work, unemployment, invalidity and allowances for dependents; retirement pensions are guaranteed for all (generally at 65 years of age), medical care is free and there is a comprehensive social welfare system.
|Expected years of schooling||19.1||years||2016|
|Teachers, primary level||43 538||units||2014|
|Teachers, secondary level||49 050||units||2014|
|Social protection spending||43.6||% of total expenses||2016|
|Social protection spending||28||% of GDP||2018|
|Hospital beds||2.2||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Physicians||3.7||per 1000 pop.||2015|
|HIV||0.1||% of adults||2017|
|Museums, visitors||15 131 999||units||2018|
|Research and development spending||3.05||% of GDP||2017|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||100||%||2016|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2017|