Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy
Area: 42 938 sq km
Population: 5 806 081 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 135.22 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 58° - 55° N; long. 8° - 15° E
Capital: Copenhagen=København (capital) 623 404 inhab. (2019); Greater Copenhagen 1 320 629 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: Danish krone (100 øre)
Human development index: 0.929 (rank: 11)
Sovereign: Queen Margrethe II, since 15 January 1972
Prime Minister: Mette Frederiksen (Social Democrats), since 27 June 2019
Parliament: seats based on the elections of 5 June 2019: Social Democrats, 48; Venstre (Liberal Party), 43; DF (Danish People’s Party, far-right), 16; Danish Social Liberal Party, 16; SF (Socialist People’s Party), 14; Red-Green Alliance (ecologist, left), 13; DKF (Conservative People's Party), 12; The Alternative (greens), 5; The New Right, 4; Liberal Alliance, 4; elected in the Faroe Islands and in Greenland, 4
Internet: www.dst.dk (Danmarks Statistik)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, Nordic Council, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Denmark

Danmark, Kongeriget Danmark
Useful information

International license plate code DK
International dialling code 0045
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .dk

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Copenaghen 8.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Copenaghen 0/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Copenaghen 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Copenaghen 605
Days of rainfall (annual average) Copenaghen 130

Politics and current affairs

Elections were held on 5 June 2019, which were won by the social democrats with 25.9% of the votes, followed by the Venstre, led by the outgoing prime minister, Rasmussen, with 23.4% of the votes. Public approval of the far-right recorded a drop, with the Danish People’s Party taking 8.7%. In a fragmented Parliament, the social democratic leader, Mette Frederiksen, launched a minority government, in power since 27 June 2019 and supported externally by other parties.

Geography.
Protruding towards Scandinavia, from which it is separated by some sea straits (Skagerrak, Kattegat, Øresund), Denmark comprises the peninsula of Jutland, the island of Sjælland, where the capital is located, and about 400 smaller islands. It borders the North Sea to the north and west, and the Baltic Sea to the east; it is bordered by Germany to the south. Denmark has flat rolling landscape, a jagged coastline to the west, and a low-lying sandy coast to the east. The climate is essentially oceanic, being subjected to mainly westerly winds from the Atlantic.

Government


Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. Since 1950, there has been a series of alternating social-democrat and conservative governments. According to the 1953 Constitution, the sovereign formally exercises legislative and executive powers through the single house of Parliament (Folketing, composed of 175 members elected for 4 years by direct suffrage, plus 2 from the Faroe Islands and 2 from Greenland) and the Council of Ministers (which must be approved by Parliament). New elections are scheduled in June 2019.


Defence.
In addition to the army, navy and air-force, there is a National Guard for which Danes enrol voluntarily. Military service, carried out mostly by volunteers, lasts for a minimum of 4 months.


Justice.
The legal system is based on continental civil law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force18.3%2015
Army46.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes8 231.4per 100 000 pop.2018
Homicides0.9per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Copenhagen=København623 404inhab.2019
Århus277 086inhab.2019
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greater Copenhagen1 320 629inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.62018
Death rate9.62018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total525 898units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Danish86.3%2019
other7.2%2019


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant60%2015
other15.1%2015


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Danish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.6%2018
15-29 years19.3%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy grew moderately in 2018, around 1.2% thanks to the expansion of consumption and investments. Unemployment fell to 5%. The economy should remain stable thanks to a certain resilience to foreign uncertainties.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)101.42index2016
Balance of trade6 760.8M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population3 018 100units2018
Active population, Females47.3%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females49.3%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses838 484M LCU2018
Revenues849 791M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2018
industry18.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture1.1%2018
industry23.8%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation70.79BN LCU2018
International reserves70 942.1M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and livestock.
Much of the arable land is used for cereal crops (barley and wheat). Other important crops include sugar beet and vegetables. Livestock farming is highly specialized and its products (milk and milk-derivatives, ham, bacon and lard) represent a significant share of Danish exports. Denmark is the world’s leading producer of mink.
Fishing.
Fishing is in constant decline, whereas fish farming (mostly trout) is highly developed.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land56.11%2015
forests14.58%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley3 992.31000 t2017
cereals, total10 027.2611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes2 1711000 t2017
roots and tubers, total2 1711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.3731000 t2017
cabbages46.6631000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green01000 t2017
peas, dry24.11000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed742.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.031000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet2 454.61000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.1561000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples20.4961000 t2017
blueberries0.041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.0041000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms41000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley665.41000 ha2017
maize5.11000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes49.71000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.2531000 ha2017
carrots and turnips2.1941000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green01000 ha2017
peas, dry5.41000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed177.61000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed0.0311000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet34.41000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0.5041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.2811000 ha2017
blueberries0.0591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.0051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms01000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber3 842 1002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 545.4171000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 545.4171000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs12 307.6671000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep154.1291000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total51.5861000 heads2017
horses51.5861000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds21 2151000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.51000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter42.91000 t2014
cheese369.11000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs65 270t2017
freshwater fishes283t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Denmark’s main resources are oil and natural gas from the North Sea, exported via pipelines. Denmark has withheld permission for the passage of Nord Stream 2 pipeline (from Russia to Germany) through its territorial waters.
Energy and industry.
Denmark generates enough electrical energy to be self-sufficient; the main source of power is thermo-electric power plants, although wind energy covers over 40% of the national energy requirement. The construction of an electrical connection with the Netherlands is underway; another connection with the United Kingdom is being planned (Viking Link). Wind turbines are also manufactured for export. The fertilizer industry is highly developed, mainly used in agriculture; cement production is widespread. There are large shipyards at Copenhagen, Helsingør, Nakskov, Odense, Svendborg, Aalborg and Frederikshavn. Refineries are located in Kalundborg and Fredericia. Finally Denmark produces farm and industrial machinery. The foodstuffs segment includes sugar refineries and some famous breweries, including Carlsberg and Tuborg, both concentrated at Copenhagen. The tobacco industry is based on imported raw materials. Denmark’s famous ceramics from the workshops at Rønne are made with kaolin from the island of Bornholm.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas4 836M m³2017
oil, crude5 745.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite67.51000 t2016
salt6001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite4401000 t2018
kaolin2.51000 t2011
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.19 149M kWh2016
- thermal10 672.76M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- other renew.7 5701000 kW2016
- thermal6 7571000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation29 840.76M kWh2016
total installed capacity14 3361000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium261000 t2015
steel, crude5161000 t2004
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes2 038no.2016
mopeds1 660no.2016
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks24 490no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners61 299no.2016
computers5 965no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol2 549.11000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1.61000 t2011
caustic soda31.21000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets9 8231000 m²2016
cotton fabrics0.176M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear47 121pairs2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley610.71000 t2014
coconut oil0.051000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes11 407M units2010
cigars236M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemi-mechanical pulp4.831000 t2017
mechanical pulp4.831000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production10 758.1M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production5 765.7M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Denmark has a positive balance of trade. Its main trading partners are Germany and Sweden.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 14 125, pharmaceuticals 12 943, electrical and electronic equipment 8 767, apparel and accessories 4 285, fresh and preserved meat 4 201, optical and electro-medical appliances 4 075, iron and steel 4 000, crude oil and petroleum products 3 606, fresh and preserved fish 3 443, chemicals 3 235, furniture and accessories 2 927, vehicles and parts thereof 2 859, cheese and dairy products 2 682, plastics and articles thereof 2 528, food preparations 2 472, live animals 1 482, enzymes 1 241, furs 1 133, residues and wastes of food industry 1 057


Finance and banking
. The Danmarks Nationalbank acts as the country’s central bank. The Copenhagen stock exchange is part of the NASDAQ OMX Group. New anti-money laundering measures and controls on the banking system were introduced after the scandal that hit Danske Bank, one of the most relevant groups.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures68.919% of goods exports2018
food products19.539% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany15 626M US$2018
Sweden11 272M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany22 742M US$2018
Sweden11 922M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018108 972M US$ -
2017102 559M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018102 211M US$ -
201793 314M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism, especially the capital Copenhagen, attracts many visitors from Germany and Scandinavia.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures9 640M US$2017
Number of arrivals11 743 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown81 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried8 451.41000 units2011
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers431.736per 1000 pop.2017
Computers549.3per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, culture & research.
Education is compulsory between the age of 7 and 16, with one year of pre-school activities and an optional tenth year at the end. Afterwards students can choose to attend professional training courses or one of the four different types of secondary school, which lead to university entrance qualifications.


Social security and health.
The Danish welfare system is on the cutting edge of social wellbeing and covers illness, accidents at work, unemployment, invalidity and allowances for dependents; retirement pensions are guaranteed for all (generally at 65 years of age), medical care is free and there is a comprehensive social welfare system.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling19.1years2016
Gradautes, percentage39.2%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level43 538units2014
Teachers, secondary level49 050units2014
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending43.6% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending28% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3.7per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.07%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums216units2018
Museums, visitors15 131 999units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending3.05% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.1%2017
education0.8%2017
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