Form of Government: Socialist republic
Area: 109 884 sq km
Population: 11 181 595 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 101.76 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 20° N; long. 85° - 74° W
Capital: Havana=La Habana (capital) 2 132 183 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Cuban peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.783 (rank: 70)
President: Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez (PCC), since 19 April 2018
Prime Minister: Manuel Marrero Cruz (PCC), since 21 December 2019
Internet: www.onei.gob.cu (Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas)
Member of OAS, UN, WTO

Cuba

Cuba, República de Cuba
Useful information

International dialling code 0053
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cu

GMT  -5
DST  -4
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) L’Avana 25.1; Santiago de Cuba 25.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) L’Avana 22/28; Santiago de Cuba 23/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) L’Avana 6/6; Santiago de Cuba 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) L’Avana 1225; Santiago de Cuba 1082
Days of rainfall (annual average) L’Avana 91; Santiago de Cuba 86

Politics and current affairs

On 19 April 2021, during the 8th PCC Congress, R. Castro left his role as party secretary to M. Díaz-Canel, who had already taken over as President in 2018. On 11 July, widespread protests began against the government, held responsible for the economic crisis and mismanagement of the pandemic.

Geography.
The archipelago of Cuba is in the Greater Antilles, lying between the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The main island basically consists of a limestone plain fringed with low hills on the side facing the Gulf of Mexico, which spread into the central part of the island (Sierra de Escambray). In the south-east, the plain is dominated by the Sierra Maestra (Pico Turquino, 1972 m). The coast is mainly marshy and the shore is dotted with coral reefs and many small bays. More than 1600 islands lie off the country’s coasts.
The climate is hot and humid with two very distinct seasons. The USA still maintains a naval base at Guantánamo, on the south-east coast of the island, claimed by Cuba.

Government


A Spanish colony from the 16th century, the island came under American control in 1898 after the Spanish-American War and became independent in 1902, although America retained the “right to intervene in domestic affairs” (until 1934). Following the success of the revolution led by Fidel Castro (1 January 1959), the rule of the island gradually adapted to the Soviet political and institutional model, while the United States adopted rigid economic and trade embargos. The country’s leadership passed to Fidel’s brother Raúl Castro in 2008, then to Miguel Díaz-Canel in 2018, while R. Castro remains the leader of the Communist Party (PCC). During the presidency of B. Obama in the United States, there was a gradual reconciliation between the two countries (in 2015, the respective diplomatic headquarters were reopened) and the embargo was decreased, but rapports have weakened since D. Trump took office.
According to the Constitution of 24 February 2019, the government of the country is entrusted in institutional terms to the Communist Party (in fact no other political parties are permitted). The National Assembly of People’s Power is made up of 605 members elected by direct suffrage (the voting age is 16 years) for five-year terms from lists approved by the PCC (organized into Committees for the Defence of the Revolution) and meets twice a year; this elects the Council of State (31 members), which represents the Assembly when it is not in session, and whose President is the head of state; the Prime Minister, who is the head of government, is proposed by the President and approved by the National Assembly.


Defence and justice.
There is compulsory conscription for two years. The armed forces also play an important role in the management of the economy. The legal system is based on Spanish and American law, with a large amount of Soviet input. The People’s Supreme Court is based in Havana and has extensive powers. Cuba does not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.3%2015
Army77.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides5$per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Havana=La Habana2 132 183inhab.2020
Santiago de Cuba454 615inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate9.82019
Death rate9.72019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white64.1%2012
mestizo26.6%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic51.7%2010
nonreligious/atheist23$%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.3%2020
15-29 years18$%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
Although the country reacted well to the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation had a negative impact on tourism, resulting in a deep recession and reduced dollar inflows, which caused difficulties in the supply of essential goods. To tackle the crisis, self-managed activities have been increased and on 1 January 2021 the process of monetary reunification began between the peso (used to pay pensions and salaries) and the convertible (equivalent to the dollar and used in imports and by the tourism market). The regime’s long-term strategy aims to conciliate tight political control and an updated economic system. Measures have been taken to reduce the number of employees in the inefficient state machine, to encourage the growth of private enterprise and to prompt the flow of foreign capital, previously subject to tight restrictions. The development of local production is linked also to the need to reduce considerable reliance on imports. Despite the favourable prospects of extracting hydrocarbons in the near future, the energy sector is dependent on low-cost power imported from Venezuela, whose economic crisis threatens the island’s supplies, and to a lesser extent from Russia.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)102.58index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)88.06index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population4 790 069units2020
Active population, Females38.5%2019
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.9%2020
Unemployment rate, Females41.8%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses37 015.2M LCU2019
Revenues31 627M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture17.5%2019
industry16.9%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.883%2019
industry24.323%2019
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The amount of land owned by co-operatives and private individuals has increased. The co-operatives are authorized to sell a small part of their production – over and above the amount which must be handed over to the state – on the open market. The main crops are still tobacco and sugar cane (whose plantations are far fewer than they were in the past). A certain amount of coffee is also grown (in the east of the island, for example), as well as fruit and vegetables. Maize and rice are widely grown, as are potatoes, sweet potatoes and cassava for local consumption. Most of the forests lie in the eastern provinces, in Pinar del Río, on the Sierra de Escambray and the Isla de la Juventud.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land34.312%2018
forests31.233%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total689.7961000 t2019
maize3071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava795.7481000 t2019
potatoes129.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages105.4631000 t2019
chillies and peppers77.041000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry169.91000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes22.0191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts5.1261000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts57.7621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa1$1000 t2019
coffee5.3641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane8 725.0321000 t2019
tobacco27.331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11.21000 t2014
kenaf10$1000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total2 002.6921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits62.9271000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes2.111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.7051000 t2019
bananas259.9751000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize125.8041000 ha2019
rice108.4021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava132.7781000 ha2019
potatoes5.881000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages4.2211000 ha2019
chillies and peppers7.0261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry157.7121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.6761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4.8381000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts12.2671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2.9471000 ha2019
coffee16.5811000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane209.4191000 ha2019
tobacco16.2741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.81000 ha2014
kenaf10$1000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits9.0891000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.3871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.1941000 ha2019
bananas22.3231000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 752 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 749.5021000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes3 749.5021000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 369.4591000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 478.3911000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 191.4941000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses17.9261000 heads2019
asses and mules39.7311000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds26 7041000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey8.021000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.5421000 t2019
cheese12.41000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs12 829.5t2019
freshwater fishes21 024.6t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The production of hydrocarbons (from the reserves at Motembo, Jarahueca, Cristales, Jatibonico and Santa Cruz del Norte) is still not sufficient to cover domestic requirements, even though Cuban reserves appear to be huge. Nickel (Sierra del Cristal) and cobalt mining (Moa) is important. The metalworking industry consists mainly of two steelworks near Havana and Las Tunas; nickel- and cobalt-refining plants are present in Holguín province. There are oil refineries at Havana, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. There is a well-developed chemical and pharmaceutical industry (Havana) and a cement industry (at Mariel, Artemisa, Nuevitas, Cienfuegos and Siguaney). The textile industry is based at Matanzas, Ariguanabo, Alquízar and Gibara. The sugar-refining industry is being modernized. Havana and Pinar del Río are important tobacco-processing centres. There is an important research centre for biotechnology near Havana.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas970M m³2019
oil, crude2 048.81000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt3.61000 t2020
nickel49$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural61.31000 t2015
bentonite0.51000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2.11000 t2019
limestone8001000 t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal18 874.26M kWh2018
- other renew.612M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 4581000 kW2018
- other renew.725.361000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 631.26M kWh2018
total installed capacity7 218.451000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.8$1000 t2012
nickel16$1000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes1 500no.2019
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners546no.2018
computers54 862no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen63$1000 t2018
petrol1 064.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia18.41000 t2019
caustic soda10.11000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics21.5M m²2019
cotton yarn1.51000 t2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 411 800pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley264.681000 t2018
fish, frozen0.5781000 t2019
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes13 319.1M units2019
cigars284.5M units2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper15.61000 t2019
paper15.61000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 406.91000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production13 052M US$2018
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Trade


Tertiary sector.

The main financial institution is the Banco Central de Cuba; new banks have been created, but foreign banks are banned. Cuba exports sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish and citrus fruits and pharmaceuticals; it imports oil, foodstuffs, machinery and chemical products.
The main trading partners are China, Spain and Venezuela. The port of Mariel has been modernized thanks to Brazilian funding.

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China903M US$2008
Canada843M US$2008
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 353M US$2008
Spain923M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 183M US$ -
20192 062M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 040M US$ -
20199 901M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism provides employment for 200 000 people and accounted for 40% of the country’s revenues before the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the tourists who visit Cuba come from Canada, the European Union, Russia, Mexico and the United Kingdom. Connections with the US resumed in 2015 and were then interrupted in 2019, by decision of the Trump administration.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals4 276 000units2019
Receipts2 645M US$2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown22 200 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried457.71000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers16.123per 1000 pop.2019
Computers56.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education, research & health.
Education is free. School is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15. There are 21 universities or university institutes. The public health system has achieved a great deal, and infant mortality has reached a level on a par with that of developed countries.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.281years2018
Graduates61 601units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level741 269units2018
Students, secondary level795 057units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.5per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians8.7per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2019
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums247units2019
Museums, visitors6 664 200units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.537% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking79.44%2016
Access to electricity99.8%2019
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