Form of Government: Socialist republic
Area: 109 884 sq km
Population: 11 209 628 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 102.01 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 20° N; long. 85° - 74° W
Capital: Havana=La Habana (capital) 2 129 553 inhab. (2017);
Currency: Cuban peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.777 (rank: 73)
President and head of government: Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez (PCC), since 19 April 2018
Internet: www.one.cu (Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas)
Member of OAS, UN, WTO

Cuba

Cuba, República de Cuba
Useful information

International dialling code 0053
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cu

GMT  -5
DST  -4
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) L’Avana 25.1; Santiago de Cuba 25.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) L’Avana 22/28; Santiago de Cuba 23/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) L’Avana 6/6; Santiago de Cuba 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) L’Avana 1225; Santiago de Cuba 1082
Days of rainfall (annual average) L’Avana 91; Santiago de Cuba 86

Politics and current affairs

On 24 February 2019, a referendum approved the new constitution. The socialist leanings of the government was upheld though private property was recognized. The president’s time in office is limited to two mandates and will be integrated with the role of the head of state.

Geography.
The archipelago of Cuba is in the Greater Antilles, lying between the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The main island basically consists of a limestone plain fringed with low hills on the side facing the Gulf of Mexico, which spread into the central part of the island (Sierra de Escambray). In the south-east, the plain is dominated by the Sierra Maestra (Pico Turquino, 1972 m). The coast is mainly marshy and the shore is dotted with coral reefs and many small bays. More than 1600 islands lie off the country’s coasts.
The climate is hot and humid with two very distinct seasons. The USA still maintains a naval base at Guantánamo, on the south-east coast of the island, claimed by Cuba.

Government


A Spanish colony from the 16th century, the island came under American control in 1898 after the Spanish-American War and became independent in 1902, although America retained the “right to intervene in domestic affairs” (until 1934). Following the success of the revolution led by Fidel Castro (1 January 1959), the rule of the island gradually adapted to the Soviet political and institutional model, while the United States adopted rigid economic and trade embargos. The country’s leadership passed to Fidel’s brother Raúl Castro in 2008, then to Miguel Díaz-Canel in 2018, while R. Castro remains the leader of the Communist Party (PCC). During the presidency of B. Obama in the United States, there was a gradual reconciliation between the two countries (in 2015, the respective diplomatic headquarters were reopened) and the embargo was decreased, but rapports have weakened since D. Trump took office.
According to the Constitution of 24 February 2019, the government of the country is entrusted in institutional terms to the Communist Party (in fact no other political parties are permitted). The National Assembly of People’s Power is made up of 605 members elected by direct suffrage for five-year terms from lists approved by the PCC (organized into Committees for the Defence of the Revolution) and meets twice a year; this elects the Council of State (31 members), which represents the Assembly when it is not in session, and whose President is the head of state; the Prime Minister, who is the head of government, is proposed by the President and approved by the National Assembly.


Defence and justice.
There is compulsory conscription for two years. The armed forces also play an important role in the management of the economy. The legal system is based on Spanish and American law, with a large amount of Soviet input. The People’s Supreme Court is based in Havana and has extensive powers. Cuba does not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Spanish and American law, with a large amount of Soviet input. The Supreme Court is based in Havana; the People’s Supreme Court has extensive powers. Cuba does not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.3%2015
Army77.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides5per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Havana=La Habana2 129 553inhab.2017
Santiago de Cuba454 906inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.22017
Death rate9.52017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white64.1%2012
mestizo26.6%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic51.7%2010
nonreligious/atheist23%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.4%2018
15-29 years19%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2018-19, the economy felt the effects of the low price of sugar, the inefficiency of the agricultural sector and Cuban doctors being recalled from Brazil, with the cessation of their remittances. The regime is trying to reconcile grip over tight political control over the country with updating the economy. Measures have been taken to reduce the number of employees in the inefficient state machine, to encourage the growth of private enterprise and to prompt the flow of foreign capital, previously subject to tight restrictions. The development of local production is linked also to the need to reduce considerable reliance on imports. A double currency system is in force in the country, consisting of the peso (used to pay pensions and salaries) and the convertible (equivalent to the dollar and used in imports and by the tourism market), whose reform has been announced several times. Despite the favourable prospects of extracting hydrocarbons in the near future, the energy sector is dependent on low-cost power imported from Venezuela, whose economic crisis threatens the island’s supplies, and to a lesser extent from Russia.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)102.58index2016
Balance of trade-7 290M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 182 223units2018
Active population, Females37.5%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females41.9%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses39 234.5M LCU2018
Revenues27 012.5M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.3%2018
industry16.8%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.8%2017
industry24.6%2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The amount of land owned by co-operatives and private individuals has increased. The co-operatives are authorized to sell a small part of their production – over and above the amount which must be handed over to the state – on the open market. The main crops are still tobacco and sugar cane (whose plantations are far fewer than they were in the past). A certain amount of coffee is also grown (in the east of the island, for example), as well as fruit and vegetables. Maize and rice are widely grown, as are potatoes, sweet potatoes and cassava for local consumption. Most of the forests lie in the eastern provinces, in Pinar del Río, on the Sierra de Escambray and the Isla de la Juventud.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land33.81%2015
forests30.76%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total791.6681000 t2017
maize373.871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava686.6191000 t2017
potatoes147.0441000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages130.1631000 t2017
chillies and peppers100.3311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry132.1741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes21.941000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts6.9611000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts59.0091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.2311000 t2017
coffee6.3061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane16 070.7291000 t2017
tobacco30.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11.21000 t2014
kenaf101000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 702.5711000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits103.5991000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes2.3811000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados2.9371000 t2017
bananas295.5261000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize157.8131000 ha2017
rice112.3561000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava83.9921000 ha2017
potatoes6.7651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.7511000 ha2017
chillies and peppers8.651000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry118.411000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.6891000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts6.6121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts13.1841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2.5351000 ha2017
coffee19.8671000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane387.7041000 ha2017
tobacco19.4231000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.81000 ha2014
kenaf101000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits14.391000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.4511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.2241000 ha2017
bananas24.0461000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 752 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle3 865.51000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes3 865.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 069.41000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 567.21000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 157.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses16.91000 heads2017
asses and mules38.51000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds25 6351000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.91000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.41000 t2014
cheese14.21000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs12 783t2017
freshwater fishes26 272t2017
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The production of hydrocarbons (from the reserves at Motembo, Jarahueca, Cristales, Jatibonico and Santa Cruz del Norte) is still not sufficient to cover domestic requirements, even though Cuban reserves appear to be huge. Nickel (Sierra del Cristal) and cobalt mining (Moa) is important. The metalworking industry consists mainly of two steelworks near Havana and Las Tunas; nickel- and cobalt-refining plants are present in Holguín province. There are oil refineries at Havana, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. There is a well-developed chemical and pharmaceutical industry (Havana) and a cement industry (at Mariel, Artemisa, Nuevitas, Cienfuegos and Siguaney). The textile industry is based at Matanzas, Ariguanabo, Alquízar and Gibara. The sugar-refining industry is being modernized. Havana and Pinar del Río are important tobacco-processing centres. There is an important research centre for biotechnology near Havana.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 185M m³2017
oil, crude2 493.81000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite251000 t2008
cobalt4.91000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural61.31000 t2015
bentonite0.631000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin2.71000 t2018
limestone2 1001000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal18 469.12M kWh2016
- other renew.747M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 3881000 kW2016
- other renew.5441000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 279.12M kWh2016
total installed capacity6 9981000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.81000 t2012
nickel13.31000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes19 100no.2018
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners546no.2018
computers54 862no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen57.61000 t2017
petrol1 064.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia281000 t2018
caustic soda8.91000 t2018
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics14.7M m²2018
cotton yarn11000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear820 200pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley257.11000 t2014
fish, frozen13.51000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes15 546.5M units2018
cigars280.3M units2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper15.61000 t2017
paper15.61000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 590.21000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production13 075M US$2017
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The main financial institution is the Banco Central de Cuba; new banks have been created, but foreign banks are banned. Cuba exports sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish and citrus fruits and pharmaceuticals; it imports oil, foodstuffs, machinery and chemical products. The main trading partners are Spain, China and Venezuela. The port of Mariel has been modernized thanks to Brazilian funding.

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China903M US$2008
Canada843M US$2008
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 353M US$2008
Spain923M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20182 740M US$ -
20172 970M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201810 030M US$ -
201710 120M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism provides employment for 200 000 people and accounts for 40% of the country’s revenues. Most of the tourists who visit Cuba come from Canada, UK, Spain and Italy. Connections with the US resumed in 2015 and were then interrupted in 2019, by decision of the Trump administration.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals4 594 000units2017
Receipts3 302M US$2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown22 200 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried942.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.920per 1000 pop.2017
Computers56.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and health.
Education is free. School is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15. There are 21 universities or university institutes. The public health system has achieved a great deal, and infant mortality has reached a level on a par with that of developed countries.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.4years2017
Graduates61 601units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level83 125units2017
Teachers, secondary level86 096units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.2per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians8.5per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums230units2018
Museums, visitors3 214 900units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking79.44%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
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