Form of Government: Socialist republic
Area: 109 884 sq km
Population: 11 239 224 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 102.28 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 20° N; long. 85° - 74° W
Capital: Havana=La Habana (capital) 2 130 081 inhab. (2016);
Currency: Cuban peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.775 (rank: 68)
President and head of government: Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez (PCC), since 19 April 2018
Internet: www.one.cu (Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas)
Member of OAS, UN, WTO

Cuba

Cuba, República de Cuba
Useful information

International dialling code 0053
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cu

GMT  -5
DST  -4
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) L’Avana 25.1; Santiago de Cuba 25.4
Average temperature in January/July (°C) L’Avana 22/28; Santiago de Cuba 23/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) L’Avana 6/6; Santiago de Cuba 6/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) L’Avana 1225; Santiago de Cuba 1082
Days of rainfall (annual average) L’Avana 91; Santiago de Cuba 86

Politics and current affairs

On 19 April 2018, Miguel Díaz-Canel was elected President of Cuba by the National Assembly, replacing Raúl Castro, who remains at the helm of the Communist Party and, since June 2, the constitutional reform commission.

Geography.
The archipelago of Cuba is in the Greater Antilles, lying between the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The main island basically consists of a limestone plain fringed with low hills on the side facing the Gulf of Mexico, which spread into the central part of the island (Sierra de Escambray). In the south-east, the plain is dominated by the Sierra Maestra (Pico Turquino, 1972 m). The coast is mainly marshy and the shore is dotted with coral reefs and many small bays. More than 1600 islands lie off the country’s coasts.
The climate is hot and humid with two very distinct seasons. The USA still maintains a naval base at Guantánamo, on the south-east coast of the island, claimed by Cuba.

Government


A Spanish colony from the 16th century, the island came under American control in 1898 after the Spanish-American War and became independent in 1902, although America retained the “right to intervene in domestic affairs” (until 1934). Following the success of the revolution led by Fidel Castro (1 January 1959), the rule of the island gradually adapted to the Soviet political and institutional model, while the United States adopted rigid economic and trade embargos. The country’s leadership passed to Fidel’s brother Raúl Castro in 2008. During the presidency of B. Obama in the United States, there was a gradual reconciliation between the two countries (in 2015, the respective diplomatic headquarters were reopened) and the embargo was decreased, but rapports have weakened since D. Trump took office.
According to the Constitution of 24 February 1976, which was modified in 1992 and 2002, the government of the country is entrusted in institutional terms to the Communist Party (PCC) (in fact no other political parties are permitted). The National Assembly is made up of 605 members elected by the people for five-year terms from lists approved by the PCC (organized into Committees for the Defence of the Revolution) and meets twice a year; this elects the Council of State (31 members), which represents the assembly when it is not in session, and whose chairman is both Head of State and Head of the Government.


Defence.
There is compulsory conscription for two years. The armed forces also play an important role in the management of the economy.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Spanish and American law, with a large amount of Soviet input. The Supreme Court is based in Havana; the People’s Supreme Court has extensive powers. Cuba does not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force16.3%2015
Army77.6%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides4.2per 100 000 pop.2012
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Havana=La Habana2 130 081inhab.2016
Santiago de Cuba455 521inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.42016
Death rate8.82016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white64.1%2012
mestizo26.6%2012


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic51.7%2010
nonreligious/atheist23%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years16.6%2017
15-29 years19.4%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
The regime is trying to reconcile grip over tight political control over the country with updating the economy. Measures have been taken to reduce the number of employees in the inefficient state machine, to encourage the growth of private enterprise and to prompt the flow of foreign capital, previously subject to tight restrictions. The development of local production is linked also to the need to reduce considerable reliance on imports. A double currency system is in force in the country, consisting of the peso (used to pay pensions and salaries) and the convertible (equivalent to the dollar and used in imports and by the tourism market), whose reform has been announced several times. Despite the favourable prospects of extracting hydrocarbons in the near future, the energy sector is dependent on low-cost power imported from Venezuela, whose economic crisis threatens the island’s supplies, and to a lesser extent from Russia. The success of hi-tech research programmes in the field of biotechnology has led to the creation of a joint-venture with European pharmaceutical companies.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)102.58index2016
Balance of trade-8 300M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 240 357units2017
Active population, Females38.3%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.6%2017
Unemployment rate, Females44.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses29 322M LCU2014
Revenues31 191M LCU2014
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture18.6%2017
industry16.5%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.9%2016
industry22.9%2016
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The amount of land owned by co-operatives and private individuals has increased. The co-operatives are authorized to sell a small part of their production – over and above the amount which must be handed over to the state – on the open market. The main crops are still tobacco and sugar cane (whose plantations are far fewer than they were in the past). A certain amount of coffee is also grown (in the east of the island, for example), as well as fruit and vegetables. Maize and rice are widely grown, as are potatoes, sweet potatoes and cassava for local consumption. Most of the forests lie in the eastern provinces, in Pinar del Río, on the Sierra de Escambray and the Isla de la Juventud.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land33.81%2015
forests30.76%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total930.9681000 t2016
maize404.4671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava815.0711000 t2016
potatoes95.6631000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages124.8561000 t2016
chillies and peppers70.9561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry136.571000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes21.7831000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts6.8171000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts59.8151000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2.0581000 t2016
coffee6.8671000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane18 890.9721000 t2016
tobacco19.71000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute11.21000 t2014
kenaf101000 t2005
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total1 702.5711000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits121.9281000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes2.4341000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.1641000 t2016
bananas298.0811000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize170.4181000 ha2016
rice140.0161000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava91.551000 ha2016
potatoes4.4031000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages6.21000 ha2016
chillies and peppers6.1111000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry122.5451000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape1.6891000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts6.4921000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts13.1861000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa4.1721000 ha2016
coffee21.7061000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane442.3071000 ha2016
tobacco12.2921000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute1.81000 ha2014
kenaf101000 ha2005
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits16.5531000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.4481000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.2441000 ha2016
bananas24.5481000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber1 702 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4 013.91000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes4 013.91000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 929.91000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep1 652.91000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats1 185.41000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses16.41000 heads2016
asses and mules37.81000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds31 3361000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.91000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter1.41000 t2014
cheese14.21000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs12 847t2016
freshwater fishes24 745t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector.
The production of hydrocarbons (from the reserves at Motembo, Jarahueca, Cristales, Jatibonico and Santa Cruz del Norte) is still not sufficient to cover domestic requirements, even though Cuban reserves appear to be huge. Nickel (Sierra del Cristal) and cobalt mining (Moa) is important. The metalworking industry consists mainly of two steelworks near Havana and Las Tunas; nickel- and cobalt-refining plants are present in Holguín province. There are oil refineries at Havana, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. There is a well-developed chemical and pharmaceutical industry (Havana) and a cement industry (at Mariel, Artemisa, Nuevitas, Cienfuegos and Siguaney). The textile industry is based at Matanzas, Ariguanabo, Alquízar and Gibara. The sugar-refining industry is being modernized; exports are mostly to Canada, Venezuela and China. Havana and Pinar del Río are important tobacco-processing centres. There is an important research centre for biotechnology near Havana.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 185M m³2017
oil, crude2 493.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chromite251000 t2008
cobalt4.21000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asphalt, natural61.31000 t2015
bentonite0.51000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
kaolin1.51000 t2015
limestone1 9001000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold500kg2006
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal18 317.78M kWh2015
- other renew.753M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal6 0851000 kW2015
- other renew.5661000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation19 118.78M kWh2015
total installed capacity6 7111000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.81000 t2012
nickel68.81000 t2011
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes30 400no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners192no.2015
fridges1 370no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen64.11000 t2015
petrol1 064.81000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia591000 t2016
caustic soda16.11000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics32.4M m²2015
cotton yarn1.11000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear5 484 900pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley257.11000 t2014
fish, frozen13.51000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes15 309.6M units2015
cigars412.1M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper291000 t2016
paper291000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 517.81000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production12 369.3M US$2015
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Trade


Tertiary sector.
The main financial institution is the Banco Central de Cuba; new banks have been created, but foreign banks are banned. Cuba exports sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish and citrus fruits and pharmaceuticals; it imports oil, foodstuffs, machinery and chemical products. The port of Mariel is undergoing development thanks to Brazilian funding.

International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China903M US$2008
Canada843M US$2008
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China1 353M US$2008
Spain923M US$2007
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20172 600M US$ -
20162 400M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201710 900M US$ -
201610 250M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. Tourism provides employment for 200 000 people and accounts for 40% of the country’s revenues. Most of the tourists who visit Cuba come from Canada, UK, Spain and Italy. Connections with the US resumed in 2015.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Number of arrivals3 968 000units2016
Receipts3 069M US$2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown22 200 000km flown2006
Civil aviation, passengers carried942.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.920per 1000 pop.2017
Computers56.2per 1000 pop.2008
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Social and welfare


Education and health.
Education is free. School is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15. There are 21 universities or university institutes. The public health system has achieved a great deal, and infant mortality has reached a level on a par with that of developed countries.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14years2015
Graduates61 601units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level83 798units2015
Teachers, secondary level91 289units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds4.1per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians7.8per 1000 pop.2015
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2016
HIV, total0.02%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums285units2015
Museums, visitors5 031 900units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.34% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking79.44%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
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