Form of Government: Republic
Area: 56 594 sq km
Population: 4 065 253 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 71.83 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 42° N; long. 13° - 19° E
Capital: Zagreb (capital) 685 587 inhab. (2018); Zagabria=Zagreb 807 254 inhab. (2019), urban agglomeration
Currency: kuna (100 lipa)
Human development index: 0.851 (rank: 43)
President: Zoran Milanović (SDP), since 18 February 2020
Prime Minister: Andrej Plenković (HDZ), since 19 October 2016, re-elected 23 July 2020
Assembly: groups and seats (July 2021 update): Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ, centre-right), 62; Social Democratic Party (SDP, centre-left), 32; Homeland Movement (DP, conservative), 10; Bridge (“Most”, liberal-centrist), 6; We Can! (“Možemo!”, eco-socialist), 5; others, 28; representing ethnic minorities, 8
Internet: www.dzs.hr (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Croatia

Hrvatska, Republika Hrvatska
Useful information

International license plate code HR
International dialling code 00385
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .hr

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Zagreb 11.6; Dubrovnik 16.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Zagreb 0.5/22; Dubrovnik 9/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Zagreb 8/2; Dubrovnik 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Zagreb 865; Dubrovnik 1305
Days of rainfall (annual average) Zagreb 96; Dubrovnik 84

Politics and current affairs

Between late 2020 and the first half of 2021, the country faced two new waves of COVID-19. The new left wing, green party, Možemo!, came to the forefront during the pandemic; founder Tomislav Tomašević was elected mayor of Zagreb on 30 May 2021.

Geography.
Croatia is bordered by Slovenia and Hungary to the north, by Serbia to the east, by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south; its west coast lies on the Adriatic Sea. In the east, between the Drava and Sava rivers, its territory comprises the southernmost tip of the Pannonian lowlands (Slavonia, Podravina and Posavina), while, in the west lie the limestone mountains of the Dinaric Alps with extensive karst plateaux that drop down steeply towards the sea and stretch away inland creating a series of shelves. Along the coast, Istria and almost all of Dalmatia belong to Croatia, along with the islands stretching as far as the Bay of Kotor. Croatia ends in southern Dalmatia with the town of Neum and its hinterland, which belong to Bosnia and Herzegovina. From 2022, territorial continuity will be ensured by the Pelješac Bridge, which is currently under construction. Much of the territory drains into the River Danube through the Drava and Sava rivers. It has a Mediterranean climate, although inland the climate is more continental.
Border disputes with Slovenia remain unresolved. The Croatian government withdrew from the international arbitration in 2015, accusing Slovenia of having broken the rules. In 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration recognized the sovereignty of Slovenia over the Gulf of Piran, but Croatia refuted the decision. In 2018, Slovenia turned to the EU Court of Justice, which however ruled that it had no jurisdiction in the matter.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991 and on 8 October 1991 was recognised by the international community. This gave rise to a bitter conflict with the Serb minority which demanded autonomy from Zagreb and was supported at first by the Yugoslav Federal army and then directly by Serbia. This conflict took place mainly in Krajina and Slavonia. Between 1992 and 1995 Croatia participated in the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina; in the summer of 1995 Croatian troops re-conquered Krajina, and on 15 January 1998 regained control of eastern Slavonia. The death (on 11 December, 1999) of President Franjo Tudjman, in power since 1991, paved the way for political change, in a less nationalistic and more democratic direction. On 9 December 2011, Croatia signed the European Union accession treaty, which led to the country’s accession to the EU on 1 July 2013.
According to the 1990 Constitution, which was amended several times, the Head of State, whose powers are extensive, is elected by direct vote for five years; the single-chamber Assembly (or Sabor) comprises a minimum of 100 up to a maximum of 160 members, elected for four years (currently there are 151, eight of whom represent ethnic minorities and four representing citizens resident abroad); the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President of the Republic, must be approved by Parliament. Croatia’s legal system is based on the continental European system. On 13 April 2018, the Parliament approved the ratification of the Istanbul Convention against domestic violence.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.2%2015
Army68$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 691.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides0.6per 100 000 pop.2018
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Zagreb685 587inhab.2018
Split167 121inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Zagabria=Zagreb807 254inhab.2019
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The war created a demographic shake-up, reducing the number of Serbs to about 4% (compared with 12.2% in 1991). There are about 17 800 Italians living in Croatia (2012); the Italian community was granted a certain amount of autonomy in the Treaty of Zagreb of 6 November 1996.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.92019
Death rate12.72019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total86 765units2020
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Croat90.4%2011
Serb4.4%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic86.3%2011
Orthodox4.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Croatian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.2%2020
15-29 years16.6%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
In 2020, the GDP fell by 9% due to the global financial crisis caused by the pandemic and restrictions on tourism. The economy is expected to grow in 2021 (+4.7%). Initial steps have been taken to adopt the euro.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.73index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)80.5index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 791 900units2020
Active population, Females45.7%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.9%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses133 239.1M LCU2020
Revenues109 279.6M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.45%2020
industry28.159%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.91%2020
industry25.711%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation41.793BN LCU2020
International reserves23 253.815M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is concentrated in the northern plains; the main crops are maize, wheat, potatoes and sugar beet; vines and olives are grown along the coast. Croatia’s forests (which cover 34.3% of the territory) produce considerable amounts of timber, much of which is exported.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.059%2018
forests35.456%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley278.61000 t2019
cereals, total3 513.321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes173.151000 t2019
roots and tubers, total173.151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages34.281000 t2019
carrots and turnips11.911000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.7371000 t2018
beans, green2.721000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes108.31000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives33.221000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed103.91000 t2019
soybeans244.281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet708.581000 t2019
tobacco7.881000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples68.351000 t2019
apricots0.711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.251000 t2019
hazelnuts1.961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits52.781000 t2019
lemons0.211000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley53.661000 ha2019
maize255.891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.671000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.4031000 ha2018
beans, green0.421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape19.821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive18.611000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed41.361000 ha2019
soybeans78.331000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet11.581000 ha2019
tobacco3.941000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.951000 ha2019
apricots0.261000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.621000 ha2019
hazelnuts5.531000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.21000 ha2019
lemons0.041000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 619 7222019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4201000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes4201000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 0221000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep6581000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats82$1000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.0471000 heads2018
asses and mules2.0471000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds12 7421000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.441000 t2018
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter4.3331000 t2018
cheese31.6051000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals0.775t2019
crustaceans and molluscs3 077t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Croatia has some reserves of natural gas and oil. The Adria oil pipeline starts from the port of Omišalj, then veers off towards Bratislava and Budapest; refineries are located in Rijeka and Sisak; there is a gas pipeline to Hungary, with another one from Albania nearing completion. A new regasification plant on the island of Krk, also built with funds from the EU, went into operation in January 2021: it will help to reduce the dependency on Russia for energy. The shipbuilding industry in Rijeka and Split is significant, while the Pula shipyards declared bankruptcy in 2019.
Other sectors include steel and metal-working, chemicals and petro-chemicals, mechanics, the food and textile industries.
Croatia’s main trading partners are Italy and Germany.
The country’s two top private banks are controlled by Italian banks. Tourism has a great strategic importance.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas851M m³2020
oil, crude591.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite32.71000 t2014
gypsum1701000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pumice20$1000 t2016
quartzite1411000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 872.68M kWh2019
- thermal4 042.94M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1421000 kW2018
- hydro1 9131000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation12 195.62M kWh2019
total installed capacity5 127.41000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium alloys3.61000 t2018
steel, crude47$1000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes31 890no.2016
mopeds348no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 086no.2016
computers10 287no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1$1000 t2018
petrol1 053.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3951000 t2019
caustic soda0.0051000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets5.481000 m²2016
cotton fabrics11.3M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 890 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley3451000 t2018
fish, frozen14.71000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes7 871M units2016
cigars and cigarettes7 871M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp38.7671000 t2019
other paper339.8071000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 7301000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production545.206M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production1 632.31M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 1 356, electrical and electronic equipment 1 351, pharmaceuticals 1 266, petroleum products 1 068, timber 859, apparel and accessories 756, iron and steel 670, vehicles and parts thereof 607, furniture and accessories 520, aluminium 479, electric energy 474, plastics 421, technical and electro-medical appliances 289

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures67.341% of goods exports2019
food products14.168% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany2 167M US$2020
Italy2 119M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany3 965M US$2020
Italy3 186M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202017 069M US$ -
201917 181M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202026 649M US$ -
201928 161M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 809M US$2019
Number of arrivals17 353 000units2019
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Communications


The Pelješac Bridge is scheduled to open in 2022, which will connect the south-east of Croatia to the rest of the country.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown18 106 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 108.61000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers279.586per 1000 pop.2019
Computers199per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.182years2018
Gradautes, percentage7.8%2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level161 740units2018
Students, secondary level332 460units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.982% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending21.8% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.61per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians3.44per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Tuberculosis8$per 100 000 pop.2019
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums162units2018
Museums, visitors2 912 744units2018
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.11% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.3%2019
education0.9%2019
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