Form of Government: Republic
Area: 56 594 sq km
Population: 4 124 531 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 72.88 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 42° N; long. 13° - 19° E
Capital: Zagreb (capital) 685 587 inhab. (2018); Zagabria=Zagreb 802 762 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: kuna (100 lipa)
Human development index: 0.831 (rank: 46)
President: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ), since 19 February 2015
Prime Minister: Andrej Plenković (HDZ), since 19 October 2016
Assembly: seats (June 2019 update): Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), 55; Social Democratic Party (SPD), 29; Bridge of Independent Lists (“Most”, liberal-centrist), 11; People’s Party (HNS), 4; Peasant Party (HSS), 4; others, 48 (of which 20 are independent and 8 represent the ethnic minorities)
Internet: www.dzs.hr (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Croatia

Hrvatska, Republika Hrvatska
Useful information

International license plate code HR
International dialling code 00385
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .hr

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Zagreb 11.6; Dubrovnik 16.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Zagreb 0.5/22; Dubrovnik 9/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Zagreb 8/2; Dubrovnik 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Zagreb 865; Dubrovnik 1305
Days of rainfall (annual average) Zagreb 96; Dubrovnik 84

Politics and current affairs

The party led by Prime Minister Plenković (HDZ) lost half its approval in the European elections on 26 May 2019 compared to the previous round. Policies for energy diversification and corporate crisis resolution are underway.

Geography.
Croatia is bordered by Slovenia and Hungary to the north, by Serbia to the east, by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south; its west coast lies on the Adriatic Sea. In the east, between the Drava and Sava rivers, its territory comprises the southernmost tip of the Pannonian lowlands (Slavonia, Podravina and Posavina), while, in the west lie the limestone mountains of the Dinaric Alps with extensive karst plateaux that drop down steeply towards the sea and stretch away inland creating a series of shelves.
Along the coast, Istria and almost all of Dalmatia belong to Croatia, along with the islands stretching as far as the Bay of Kotor. Croatia ends in southern Dalmatia with the town of Neum and its hinterland, which belong to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much of the territory drains into the River Danube through the Drava and Sava rivers. It has a Mediterranean climate, although inland the climate is more continental.
Border disputes with Slovenia remain unresolved. The Croatian government withdrew from the international arbitration in July 2015, accusing Slovenia of having broken the rules. In June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration recognized the sovereignty of Slovenia over the Gulf of Piran. Croatia has refuted the decision, while conflicts continue regarding fishing rights in the contested area. On 13 July 2018, Slovenia therefore turned to the EU Court of Justice.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991 and on 8 October 1991 was recognised by the international community. This gave rise to a bitter conflict with the Serb minority which demanded autonomy from Zagreb and was supported at first by the Yugoslav Federal army and then directly by Serbia. This conflict took place mainly in Krajina and Slavonia. Between 1992 and 1995 Croatia participated in the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina; in the summer of 1995 Croatian troops re-conquered Krajina, and on 15 January 1998 regained control of eastern Slavonia.
The death (on 11 December, 1999) of President Franjo Tudjman, in power since 1991, paved the way for political change, in a less nationalistic and more democratic direction. On 9 December 2011, Croatia signed the European Union accession treaty, which led to the country’s accession to the EU on 1 July 2013.
According to the 1990 Constitution, which was amended several times, the Head of State, whose powers are extensive, is elected by direct vote for five years; the single-chamber Assembly (or Sabor) comprises a minimum of 100 up to a maximum of 160 members, elected for four years (currently there are 151, eight of whom represent ethnic minorities and four representing citizens resident abroad); the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President of the Republic, must be approved by Parliament. Croatia’s legal system is based on the continental European system. On 13 April 2018, the Parliament approved the ratification of the Istanbul Convention against domestic violence.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.2%2015
Army68%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 691.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Zagreb685 587inhab.2018
Split167 121inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Zagabria=Zagreb802 762inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The war created a demographic shake-up, reducing the number of Serbs to about 4% (compared with 12.2% in 1991).
There are about 17 800 Italians living in Croatia (2012); the Italian community was granted a certain amount of autonomy in the Treaty of Zagreb of 6 November 1996.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate8.92017
Death rate132017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total51 995units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Croat90.4%2011
Serb4.4%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic86.3%2011
Orthodox4.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Croatian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.2%2018
15-29 years17%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth was disappointing in 2018, stopping at 2.7%, where it should remain in the years to come. Investments, especially public ones, increased, driven by EU funds.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.73index2016
Balance of trade-10 727.9M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 807 400units2018
Active population, Females46.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.5%2018
Unemployment rate, Females50.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses113 214.3M LCU2018
Revenues113 714.2M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture6.2%2018
industry27.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.6%2018
industry25.7%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation35.046BN LCU2018
International reserves19 991.3M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is concentrated in the northern plains; the main crops are maize, wheat, potatoes and sugar beet; vines and olives are grown along the coast. Croatia’s forests (which cover 34.3% of the territory) produce considerable amounts of timber, much of which is exported.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.43%2015
forests34.35%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley260.4261000 t2017
cereals, total2 656.7781000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes156.0891000 t2017
roots and tubers, total156.0891000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages35.3181000 t2017
carrots and turnips13.6761000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.341000 t2017
beans, green2.5351000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes116.3071000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives28.9471000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed135.811000 t2017
soybeans207.7651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1 295.4591000 t2017
tobacco9.4131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples56.571000 t2017
apricots0.7261000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.0611000 t2017
hazelnuts1.5341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits19.2331000 t2017
lemons0.0491000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley53.951000 ha2017
maize247.1191000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.8331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.9681000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.6611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.5391000 ha2017
beans, green0.5051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape21.91000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive18.6831000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed48.6161000 ha2017
soybeans85.1331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet19.5331000 ha2017
tobacco4.5631000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.8381000 ha2017
apricots0.2791000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.4591000 ha2017
hazelnuts3.841000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.0631000 ha2017
lemons0.0221000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 307 1252017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle450.7571000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes450.7571000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 121.0321000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep636.8081000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats76.7711000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.1371000 heads2017
asses and mules2.1371000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds10 3971000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey6.2691000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.9971000 t2014
cheese32.6191000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals18.5t2017
crustaceans and molluscs3 506.854t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Croatia has some reserves of natural gas and oil. The Adria oil pipeline starts from the port of Omišalj, then veers off towards Bratislava and Budapest; another connection with Albania is being planned; refineries in Rijeka and Sisak (closure in 2019 announced); there are gas pipelines connecting Paoa and Karlovac, as well as one linked with Hungary. The construction of a regasification plant on the island of Krk has been approved, thanks in part to funds from the EU, which will help to reduce the dependency on Russia for energy. The shipbuilding industry in Rijeka and Split is significant, while the Pula shipyards declared bankruptcy on 13 May 2019. Other sectors include steel and metal-working, chemicals and petro-chemicals, mechanics, the food and textile industries.
Croatia’s main trading partners are Italy and Germany.
The country’s two top private banks are controlled by Italian banks. Tourism has a great strategic importance.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 483M m³2017
oil, crude6941000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite32.71000 t2014
gypsum170.11000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t217.11000 t2004
pumice201000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro6 784M kWh2016
- thermal3 995.94M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1341000 kW2016
- hydro1 9121000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation12 197.94M kWh2016
total installed capacity4 9211000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium alloys6.71000 t2016
steel, crude1401000 t2018
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes31 890no.2016
mopeds348no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 086no.2016
computers10 287no.2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen11000 t2016
petrol1 053.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3471000 t2016
caustic soda0.0051000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets5.481000 m²2016
cotton fabrics11.3M m²2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 890 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley341.71000 t2014
fish, frozen14.71000 t2016
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes7 871M units2016
cigars and cigarettes7 871M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemi-mechanical pulp38.9121000 t2017
mechanical pulp38.9121000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 3181000 t2016
sheet glass4001000 m²2008
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production517.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production1 624.4M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
machinery 1 356, electrical and electronic equipment 1 351, pharmaceuticals 1 266, petroleum 
products 1 068, timber 859, apparel and accessories 756, iron and steel 670, vehicles and parts thereof 607, furniture and accessories 520, aluminium 479, electric energy 474, plastics 421, technical and electro-medical appliances 289, footwear 271, ships and boats 271, paper 252, fertilizers 215, food preparations 206, cosmetics 189

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures66.216% of goods exports2018
food products13.861% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy2 504M US$2018
Germany2 267M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany4 266M US$2018
Italy3 689M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201817 372M US$ -
201716 069M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201828 100M US$ -
201724 829M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 399M US$2017
Number of arrivals15 593 000units2017
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Communications


The Zagreb-Split motorway and the section of the Rijeka-Trieste motorway leading to the Slovenian border have been completed, as well as other major roads linking Croatia to Hungary and Serbia.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown18 106 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 057.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers261.587per 1000 pop.2017
Computers199per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15years2016
Gradautes, percentage7.8%2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level12 033units2016
Teachers, secondary level51 843units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.1% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending20.9% of GDP2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.6per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians3.6per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2011
Tuberculosis10per 100 000 pop.2017
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums222units2015
Museums, visitors2 710 438units2015
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.86% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.7%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear7.3%2017
education0.9%2017
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