Form of Government: Republic
Area: 56 594 sq km
Population: 4 124 531 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 72.88 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 42° N; long. 13° - 19° E
Capital: Zagreb (capital) 685 587 inhab. (2018); Zagabria=Zagreb 802 762 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: kuna (100 lipa)
Human development index: 0.831 (rank: 46)
President: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ), since 19 February 2015
Prime Minister: Andrej Plenković (HDZ), since 19 October 2016
Assembly: seats (June 2019 update): Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), 55; Social Democratic Party (SPD), 29; Bridge of Independent Lists (“Most”, liberal-centrist), 11; People’s Party (HNS), 4; Peasant Party (HSS), 4; others, 48 (of which 20 are independent and 8 represent the ethnic minorities)
Internet: www.dzs.hr (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code HR
International dialling code 00385
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .hr
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Zagreb 11.6; Dubrovnik 16.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Zagreb 0.5/22; Dubrovnik 9/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Zagreb 8/2; Dubrovnik 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Zagreb 865; Dubrovnik 1305
Days of rainfall (annual average) Zagreb 96; Dubrovnik 84
Politics and current affairs
The party led by Prime Minister Plenković (HDZ) lost half its approval in the European elections on 26 May 2019 compared to the previous round. Policies for energy diversification and corporate crisis resolution are underway.
Croatia is bordered by Slovenia and Hungary to the north, by Serbia to the east, by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south; its west coast lies on the Adriatic Sea. In the east, between the Drava and Sava rivers, its territory comprises the southernmost tip of the Pannonian lowlands (Slavonia, Podravina and Posavina), while, in the west lie the limestone mountains of the Dinaric Alps with extensive karst plateaux that drop down steeply towards the sea and stretch away inland creating a series of shelves.
Along the coast, Istria and almost all of Dalmatia belong to Croatia, along with the islands stretching as far as the Bay of Kotor. Croatia ends in southern Dalmatia with the town of Neum and its hinterland, which belong to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much of the territory drains into the River Danube through the Drava and Sava rivers. It has a Mediterranean climate, although inland the climate is more continental.
Border disputes with Slovenia remain unresolved. The Croatian government withdrew from the international arbitration in July 2015, accusing Slovenia of having broken the rules. In June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration recognized the sovereignty of Slovenia over the Gulf of Piran. Croatia has refuted the decision, while conflicts continue regarding fishing rights in the contested area. On 13 July 2018, Slovenia therefore turned to the EU Court of Justice.
Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991 and on 8 October 1991 was recognised by the international community. This gave rise to a bitter conflict with the Serb minority which demanded autonomy from Zagreb and was supported at first by the Yugoslav Federal army and then directly by Serbia. This conflict took place mainly in Krajina and Slavonia. Between 1992 and 1995 Croatia participated in the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina; in the summer of 1995 Croatian troops re-conquered Krajina, and on 15 January 1998 regained control of eastern Slavonia.
The death (on 11 December, 1999) of President Franjo Tudjman, in power since 1991, paved the way for political change, in a less nationalistic and more democratic direction. On 9 December 2011, Croatia signed the European Union accession treaty, which led to the country’s accession to the EU on 1 July 2013.
According to the 1990 Constitution, which was amended several times, the Head of State, whose powers are extensive, is elected by direct vote for five years; the single-chamber Assembly (or Sabor) comprises a minimum of 100 up to a maximum of 160 members, elected for four years (currently there are 151, eight of whom represent ethnic minorities and four representing citizens resident abroad); the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President of the Republic, must be approved by Parliament. Croatia’s legal system is based on the continental European system. On 13 April 2018, the Parliament approved the ratification of the Istanbul Convention against domestic violence.
|Population by age and gender (% - 2018)|
The war created a demographic shake-up, reducing the number of Serbs to about 4% (compared with 12.2% in 1991).
There are about 17 800 Italians living in Croatia (2012); the Italian community was granted a certain amount of autonomy in the Treaty of Zagreb of 6 November 1996.
|Foreigners, total||51 995||units||2018|
Growth was disappointing in 2018, stopping at 2.7%, where it should remain in the years to come. Investments, especially public ones, increased, driven by EU funds.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||120.73||index||2016|
|Balance of trade||-10 727.9||M US$||2018|
|Active population||1 807 400||units||2018|
|Active population, Females||46.4||%||2018|
|Unemployment rate, Females||50.6||%||2018|
|Expenses||113 214.3||M LCU||2018|
|Revenues||113 714.2||M LCU||2018|
|Currency in circulation||35.046||BN LCU||2018|
|International reserves||19 991.3||M US$||2018|
Agriculture is concentrated in the northern plains; the main crops are maize, wheat, potatoes and sugar beet; vines and olives are grown along the coast. Croatia’s forests (which cover 34.3% of the territory) produce considerable amounts of timber, much of which is exported.
|cereals, total||2 656.778||1000 t||2017|
|roots and tubers, total||156.089||1000 t||2017|
|carrots and turnips||13.676||1000 t||2017|
|beans, dry||1.34||1000 t||2017|
|beans, green||2.535||1000 t||2017|
|sugar beet||1 295.459||1000 t||2017|
|flax fibre and tow||0||1000 t||2017|
|citrus fruits||19.233||1000 t||2017|
|carrots and turnips||0.661||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, dry||1.539||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, green||0.505||1000 ha||2017|
|sugar beet||19.533||1000 ha||2017|
|flax fibre and tow||0||1000 ha||2017|
|citrus fruits||2.063||1000 ha||2017|
|timber||5 307 125||m³||2017|
|cattle and buffaloes||450.757||1000 heads||2017|
|pigs||1 121.032||1000 heads||2017|
|asses and mules||2.137||1000 heads||2017|
|birds||10 397||1000 heads||2017|
|crustaceans and molluscs||3 506.854||t||2017|
Secondary and tertiary sector.
Croatia has some reserves of natural gas and oil. The Adria oil pipeline starts from the port of Omišalj, then veers off towards Bratislava and Budapest; another connection with Albania is being planned; refineries in Rijeka and Sisak (closure in 2019 announced); there are gas pipelines connecting Paoa and Karlovac, as well as one linked with Hungary. The construction of a regasification plant on the island of Krk has been approved, thanks in part to funds from the EU, which will help to reduce the dependency on Russia for energy. The shipbuilding industry in Rijeka and Split is significant, while the Pula shipyards declared bankruptcy on 13 May 2019. Other sectors include steel and metal-working, chemicals and petro-chemicals, mechanics, the food and textile industries.
Croatia’s main trading partners are Italy and Germany.
The country’s two top private banks are controlled by Italian banks. Tourism has a great strategic importance.
|natural gas||1 483||M m³||2017|
|oil, crude||694||1000 t||2018|
|marble - t||217.1||1000 t||2004|
|- hydro||6 784||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||3 995.94||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||2 134||1000 kW||2016|
|- hydro||1 912||1000 kW||2016|
|total net generation||12 197.94||M kWh||2016|
|total installed capacity||4 921||1000 kW||2016|
|aluminium alloys||6.7||1000 t||2016|
|steel, crude||140||1000 t||2018|
|air conditioners||1 086||no.||2016|
|petrol||1 053.2||1000 t||2014|
|caustic soda||0.005||1000 t||2016|
|cotton fabrics||11.3||M m²||2016|
|footwear||3 890 000||pairs||2016|
|beer of barley||341.7||1000 t||2014|
|fish, frozen||14.7||1000 t||2016|
|cigarettes||7 871||M units||2016|
|cigars and cigarettes||7 871||M units||2016|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||38.912||1000 t||2017|
|mechanical pulp||38.912||1000 t||2017|
|cement||2 318||1000 t||2016|
|sheet glass||400||1000 m²||2008|
|chemicals production||517.5||M US$||2016|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||1 624.4||M US$||2016|
Main exports (M US$ - 2017) machinery 1 356, electrical and electronic equipment 1 351, pharmaceuticals 1 266, petroleum products 1 068, timber 859, apparel and accessories 756, iron and steel 670, vehicles and parts thereof 607, furniture and accessories 520, aluminium 479, electric energy 474, plastics 421, technical and electro-medical appliances 289, footwear 271, ships and boats 271, paper 252, fertilizers 215, food preparations 206, cosmetics 189
|manufactures||66.216||% of goods exports||2018|
|food products||13.861||% of goods exports||2018|
|Italy||2 504||M US$||2018|
|Germany||2 267||M US$||2018|
|Germany||4 266||M US$||2018|
|Italy||3 689||M US$||2018|
|Expenditures||1 399||M US$||2017|
|Number of arrivals||15 593 000||units||2017|
The Zagreb-Split motorway and the section of the Rijeka-Trieste motorway leading to the Slovenian border have been completed, as well as other major roads linking Croatia to Hungary and Serbia.
|Civil aviation, km flown||18 106 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||2 057.8||1000 units||2017|
|Broadband subscribers||261.587||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Computers||199||per 1000 pop.||2005|
Social and welfare
|Expected years of schooling||15||years||2016|
|Teachers, primary level||12 033||units||2016|
|Teachers, secondary level||51 843||units||2016|
|Social protection spending||31.1||% of total expenses||2016|
|Social protection spending||20.9||% of GDP||2017|
|Hospital beds||5.6||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Physicians||3.6||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|HIV||-0.1||% of adults||2011|
|Tuberculosis||10||per 100 000 pop.||2017|
|Museums, visitors||2 710 438||units||2015|
|Research and development spending||0.86||% of GDP||2017|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||92.7||%||2016|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2017|