Form of Government: Republic
Area: 56 594 sq km
Population: 4 174 349 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 73.76 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 47° - 42° N; long. 13° - 19° E
Capital: Zagreb (capital) 688 163 inhab. (2011); Zagabria=Zagreb 802 338 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: kuna (100 lipa)
Human development index: 0.827 (rank: 45)
President: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ), since 19 February 2015
Prime Minister: Andrej Plenković (HDZ), since 19 October 2016
Assembly: seats based on the elections of 11 September 2016: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), 55; Social Democratic Party (SPD), 35; Bridge of Independent Lists (“Most”, liberal-centrist), 14; People’s Party (HNS), 5; Peasant Party (HSS), 5; others, 37 (of which 15 are independent and 8 represent the ethnic minorities)
Internet: www.dzs.hr (Central Bureau of Statistics)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Croatia

Hrvatska, Republika Hrvatska
Useful information

International license plate code HR
International dialling code 00385
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .hr

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Zagreb 11.6; Dubrovnik 16.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Zagreb 0.5/22; Dubrovnik 9/25
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Zagreb 8/2; Dubrovnik 10/3
Annual average precipitation (mm) Zagreb 865; Dubrovnik 1305
Days of rainfall (annual average) Zagreb 96; Dubrovnik 84

Politics and current affairs

The coalition government, led by Andrej Plenković, has had to manage the crisis surrounding Agrokor, the most important employment provider in the Balkans, under public control since 2017. Its bankruptcy had serious political implications, leading to the resignation of the Minister of Economy Martina Dalić, on 14 May 2018.

Geography.
Croatia is bordered by Slovenia and Hungary to the north, by Serbia to the east, by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south; its west coast lies on the Adriatic Sea. In the east, between the Drava and Sava rivers, its territory comprises the southernmost tip of the Pannonian lowlands (Slavonia, Podravina and Posavina), while, in the west lie the limestone mountains of the Dinaric Alps with extensive karst plateaux that drop down steeply towards the sea and stretch away inland creating a series of shelves.
Along the coast, Istria and almost all of Dalmatia belong to Croatia, along with the islands stretching as far as the Bay of Kotor. Croatia ends in southern Dalmatia with the town of Neum and its hinterland, which belong to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much of the territory drains into the River Danube through the Drava and Sava rivers. It has a Mediterranean climate, although inland the climate is more continental.
Border disputes with Slovenia remain unresolved. The Croatian government withdrew from the international arbitration in July 2015, accusing Slovenia of having broken the rules. In June 2017, the Permanent Court of Arbitration recognized the sovereignty of Slovenia over the Gulf of Piran. Croatia has refuted the decision, while conflicts continue regarding fishing rights in the contested area.

Government


Formerly part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-91), Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991 and on 8 October 1991 was recognised by the international community.
This gave rise to a bitter conflict with the Serb minority which demanded autonomy from Zagreb and was supported at first by the Yugoslav Federal army and then directly by Serbia. This conflict took place mainly in Krajina and Slavonia. Between 1992 and 1995 Croatia participated in the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina; in the summer of 1995 Croatian troops re-conquered Krajina, and on 15 January 1998 regained control of eastern Slavonia.
The death (on 11 December, 1999) of President Franjo Tudjman, in power since 1991, paved the way for political change, in a less nationalistic and more democratic direction. On 9 December 2011, Croatia signed the European Union accession treaty, which led to the country’s accession to the EU on 1 July 2013.
According to the 1990 Constitution, which was amended several times, the Head of State, whose powers are extensive, is elected by direct vote for five years; the single-chamber Assembly (or Sabor) comprises a minimum of 100 up to a maximum of 160 members, elected for four years (currently there are 151, eight of whom represent ethnic minorities and four representing citizens resident abroad); the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President of the Republic, must be approved by Parliament. Croatia’s legal system is based on the continental European system. On 13 April 2018, the Parliament approved the ratification of the Istanbul Convention against domestic violence.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force11.2%2015
Army68%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 691.2per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.2per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Zagreb688 163inhab.2011
Split167 121inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Zagabria=Zagreb802 338inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The war created a demographic shake-up, reducing the number of Serbs to about 4% (compared with 12.2% in 1991).
There are about 17 800 Italians living in Croatia (2012); the Italian community was granted a certain amount of autonomy in the Treaty of Zagreb of 6 November 1996.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate92016
Death rate12.32016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total45 951units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Croat90.4%2011
Serb4.4%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic86.3%2011
Orthodox4.4%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Croatian
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years14.2%2017
15-29 years17.4%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Growth is predicted to be stable at around 2.8% in 2018-19. The increase in remittances abroad are substantial, as are the use of EU funds. Unemployment is on the decline.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)120.73index2016
Balance of trade-8 726M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population1 830 200units2017
Active population, Females46.1%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.1%2017
Unemployment rate, Females50.2%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses105 200.9M LCU2017
Revenues107 707.4M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture7%2017
industry26.4%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture3.9%2017
industry26%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation31.7BN LCU2017
International reserves18 818.2M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Agriculture is concentrated in the northern plains; the main crops are maize, wheat, potatoes and sugar beet; vines and olives are grown along the coast. Croatia’s forests (which cover 34.3% of the territory) produce considerable amounts of timber, much of which is exported.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.43%2015
forests34.35%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley263.1651000 t2016
cereals, total3 555.7331000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes193.9621000 t2016
roots and tubers, total193.9621000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages37.7221000 t2016
carrots and turnips18.2251000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.4611000 t2016
beans, green2.9311000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes123.6511000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives31.1831000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed112.991000 t2016
soybeans244.0751000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1 169.6221000 t2016
tobacco8.9771000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples44.7811000 t2016
apricots0.6031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.2331000 t2016
hazelnuts1.2591000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits53.2571000 t2016
lemons0.5711000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley56.4831000 ha2016
maize250.0721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes9.8661000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.2361000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.6961000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry1.5741000 ha2016
beans, green0.6171000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape23.41000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive18.1841000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed36.7781000 ha2016
soybeans78.6141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet15.4931000 ha2016
tobacco4.4131000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples6.161000 ha2016
apricots0.2781000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.431000 ha2016
hazelnuts3.3041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.1921000 ha2016
lemons0.0631000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber5 165 2792016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle4631000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes4631000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 1631000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep618.8961000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats75.531000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses2.8621000 heads2016
asses and mules2.8621000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds9 8561000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey6.2691000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter3.9971000 t2014
cheese32.6191000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
corals18.5t2016
crustaceans and molluscs3 626.644t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Croatia has some reserves of natural gas and oil. An oil pipeline connects the port of Omišalj (the island of Krk) to Sisak, where it veers off towards Bratislava and Budapest; another connection with Albania is being planned; refineries in Rijeka and Sisak; there are gas pipelines connecting Paoa and Karlovac, as well as one linked with Hungary. The construction of a regasification plant on the island of Krk has been approved, thanks in part to funds from the EU, which will also help other European countries to reduce their dependency on Russia for energy. Industrial sectors include shipbuilding (at Rijeka, Split, Pula), but also steel (at Sisak, Split and Topusko), metal-working (at Sebenico), chemicals and petro-chemicals (oil refineries at Rijeka and Sisak), engineering (at Slavonski Brod and Zagreb), the food and textile industries.
Croatia’s main trading partners are Italy and Germany.
The country’s two top private banks are controlled by Italian banks. Tourism has great strategic importance for the economy.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas1 483M m³2017
oil, crude698.31000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite32.71000 t2014
gypsum138.11000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t217.11000 t2004
pumice201000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro6 327M kWh2015
- thermal3 504.32M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal2 1541000 kW2015
- hydro1 9151000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 957.32M kWh2015
total installed capacity4 9151000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium alloys301000 t2015
steel, crude1221000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ships703 123G.T.2007
tractors7 473no.2015
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 168no.2015
computers13 067no.2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen31000 t2014
petrol1 053.21000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia3751000 t2015
caustic soda0.0051000 t2015
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets81000 m²2015
cotton fabrics8.4M m²2014
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear3 973 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley341.71000 t2014
fish, frozen111000 t2015
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes8 223M units2015
cigars and cigarettes8 223M units2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemi-mechanical pulp33.5961000 t2016
mechanical pulp33.5961000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 4491000 t2015
sheet glass4001000 m²2008
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production6 911.7M US$2017
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Trade


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
machinery 1 356, electrical and electronic equipment 1 351, pharmaceuticals 1 266, petroleum 
products 1 068, timber 859, apparel and accessories 756, iron and steel 670, vehicles and parts thereof 607, furniture and accessories 520, aluminium 479, electric energy 474, plastics 421, technical and electro-medical appliances 289, footwear 271, ships and boats 271, paper 252, fertilizers 215, food preparations 206, cosmetics 189

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures66.834% of goods exports2016
food products13.986% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Italy2 155M US$2017
Germany1 944M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany3 780M US$2017
Italy3 160M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201716 005.024M US$ -
201613 824.627M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201724 731.279M US$ -
201621 906.768M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures954M US$2016
Number of arrivals13 809 000units2016
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Communications


The Zagreb-Split motorway and the section of the Rijeka-Trieste motorway leading to the Slovenian border have been completed, as well as other major roads linking Croatia to Hungary and Serbia.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown18 106 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 057.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers261.587per 1000 pop.2017
Computers199per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15years2016
Gradautes, percentage7.8%2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level11 849units2015
Teachers, secondary level51 214units2015
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending34.5% of total expenses2014
Social protection spending21.1% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds5.5per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.2per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2011
Tuberculosis12per 100 000 pop.2016
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums181units2012
Museums, visitors2 284 673units2012
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.85% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.7%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear6.8%2014
education1.1%2014
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