Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 51 100 sq km
Population: 5 003 393 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 97.91 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 8° N; long. 87° - 83° W
Capital: San José (capital) 342 188 inhab. (2018); San José 1 428 300 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: colón (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.794 (rank: 63)
President and head of government: Carlos Alvarado Quesada (PAC), elected 1 April 2018, in office since 8 May 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 4 February 2018: PLN (National Liberal Party, conservative), 17; PRN (National Restoration Party, right-wing), 14; PAC (Citizens’ Action Party, centre-left), 10; PUSC (Social Christian Unity Party, centre-right), 9; others, 7
Internet: www.inec.go.cr (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, UN, WTO

Costa Rica

Costa Rica, República de Costa Rica
Useful information

International license plate code CR
International dialling code 00506
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cr

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) San José 20.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) San José 19/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) San José 4/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) San José 1805
Days of rainfall (annual average) San José 148

Geography.
Costa Rica is bordered by Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south-east. The Caribbean Sea lies off its north-east coast and the Pacific Ocean off its south-west and west coasts. Two mountain chains extend down the length of the country from north to south. Between them lies the inland plain known as the Meseta Central. The country has a tropical climate. The islands of Chira (45 km², Coco (24 km²) and other islands with a total surface area of 100 km² belong to Costa Rica. In 2009 the International Court of Justice declared in favour of Costa Rica with regard to a dispute with Nicaragua about freedom of navigation on the River San Juan.

Government


Having been a Spanish colony since the 16th century, Costa Rica became independent in 1821. According to the Constitution of 7 November 1949, the President is elected directly and has executive power. His term of office lasts four years, like that of the National Assembly (57 members).
The army was abolished in 1948 and replaced by the Guardia Civil. In 1983, the country declared its neutrality. The judicial system is based on European Continental Civil Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Paramilitary expenditure0.9% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 231.7per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides11.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
San José342 188inhab.2018
Liberia62 663inhab.2018
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
San José1 428 300inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The foreign-born resident population represents about 9% of the total. The majority of immigrants traditionally come from nearby Nicaragua, and the political crisis in that country has exacerbated the phenomenon.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.92017
Death rate4.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white and mestizo83.6%2011
mulatto6.7%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic69.7%2016
Protestant15.2%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years22.4%2018
15-29 years24.6%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)129.41index2016
Balance of trade-4 957.7M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 337 785units2018
Active population, Females38.3%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate10.3%2018
Unemployment rate, Females49.5%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses6 995 167M LCU2018
Revenues4 956 655M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.5%2018
industry18.4%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture5.8%2017
industry20.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 237.8BN LCU2018
International reserves7 500.9M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Most of the crops grown are commercial crops such as pineapples, bananas, coffee, oil palm, sugar cane and cocoa (cocoa is grown especially in the province of Limón and near Puntarenas). Crops grown for domestic consumption include rice, potatoes and cassava. Livestock farming and fishing are profitable, especially tuna fishing. There are freezing and canning facilities at Puntarenas.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land10.69%2015
forests53.98%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total159.0451000 t2017
maize6.8651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava149.941000 t2017
potatoes82.8271000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0231000 t2017
asparagus0.1511000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry9.1431000 t2017
beans, green0.4961000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2231000 t2017
sesame seed0.1561000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1 095.81000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts14.5591000 t2017
copra0.31000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.5451000 t2017
coffee90.391000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 142.1431000 t2017
tobacco0.0141000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.7051000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total6 450.91000 t2016
strawberries4.31000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits294.6361000 t2017
grapefruits20.8741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados12.1581000 t2017
bananas2 552.8221000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize4.4391000 ha2017
rice33.5461000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava9.9961000 ha2017
potatoes3.2181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0051000 ha2017
cabbages0.4641000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry17.8791000 ha2017
beans, green0.5011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.1961000 ha2017
sesame seed0.261000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit72.8561000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.51000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa41000 ha2017
coffee84.1331000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane64.251000 ha2017
tobacco0.0081000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.9441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
strawberries0.1511000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits27.7861000 ha2017
grapefruits2.5671000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.0921000 ha2017
bananas42.9211000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 510 0642017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 420.9791000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 420.9791000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs490.2851000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2.8121000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5.8371000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8.2451000 heads2017
asses and mules13.5931000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds24 6591000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.1551000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter7.651000 t2014
cheese14.2491000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs5 411t2017
freshwater fishes16 250t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
There are modest reserves of gold (at San Ramón), oil (in Valle de Talamanca) and quarry materials. There is also a small-scale production of sea salt.
Tax incentives and the creation of tax-free zones in San José have attracted foreign businesses, especially in the electronics sector (medical equipment and microprocessors).
There are processing plants for sugar, cigarettes, paper, cement and nitrogenous fertilizers. There is an oil refinery at Limón.
The main tourist attractions are the large number of country parks and the beaches at Guanacaste, Puntarenas and Limón.

Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite41000 t2017
limestone1 9501000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold100kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7 946M kWh2016
- other renew.2 665M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 3301000 kW2016
- thermal6611000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 792.42M kWh2016
total installed capacity3 5841000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1.61000 t2011
petrol168.11000 t2010
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley54.61000 t2014
coconut oil0.131000 t2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemi-mechanical pulp2.81000 t2017
mechanical pulp2.81000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 6001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production484.8M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production2 502.5M US$2016
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
technical and 
electro-medical appliances 2 865, tropical fruit 2 203, food preparations 527, electrical and electronic equipment 479

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures53.080% of goods exports2017
food products43.392% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States4 623M US$2018
Netherlands679M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States6 476M US$2018
China2 271M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201811 201M US$ -
20179 556M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201816 159M US$ -
201715 322M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 129M US$2017
Number of arrivals2 960 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown24 100 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried1 822.91000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers151.670per 1000 pop.2017
Computers231per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.4years2016
Gradautes, percentage23%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level39 717units2016
Teachers, secondary level36 355units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending22.9% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending6.9% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.2per 1000 pop.2015
Physicians1.1per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2017
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking93.45%2016
Access to electricity99.6%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.4%2012-13
education5.1%2012-13
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