Form of Government: Presidential republic
Area: 51 100 sq km
Population: 5 163 021 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 101.04 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 8° N; long. 87° - 83° W
Capital: San José (capital) 349 678 inhab. (2021); San José 1 453 500 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: colón (100 céntimos)
Human development index: 0.81 (rank: 62)
President and head of government: Carlos Alvarado Quesada (PAC), elected 1 April 2018, in office since 8 May 2018
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 4 February 2018: PLN (National Liberal Party, conservative), 17; PRN (National Restoration Party, right-wing), 14; PAC (Citizens’ Action Party, centre-left), 10; PUSC (Social Christian Unity Party, centre-right), 9; others, 7
Internet: www.inec.go.cr (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos)
Member of DR-CAFTA, OAS, OECD, UN, WTO

Costa Rica

Costa Rica, República de Costa Rica
Useful information

International license plate code CR
International dialling code 00506
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cr

GMT  -6
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) San José 20.5
Average temperature in January/July (°C) San José 19/21
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) San José 4/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) San José 1805
Days of rainfall (annual average) San José 148

Geography.
Costa Rica is bordered by Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south-east. The Caribbean Sea lies off its north-east coast and the Pacific Ocean off its south-west and west coasts. Two mountain chains extend down the length of the country from north to south. Between them lies the inland plain known as the Meseta Central. The country has a tropical climate. The islands of Chira (45 km², Coco (24 km²) and other islands with a total surface area of 100 km² belong to Costa Rica. In 2009 the International Court of Justice declared in favour of Costa Rica with regard to a dispute with Nicaragua about freedom of navigation on the River San Juan.

Government


Having been a Spanish colony since the 16th century, Costa Rica became independent in 1821. According to the Constitution of 7 November 1949, the President is elected directly and has executive power. His term of office lasts four years, like that of the National Assembly (57 members).
The army was abolished in 1948 and replaced by the Guardia Civil. In 1983, the country declared its neutrality. The judicial system is based on European Continental Civil Law.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Paramilitary expenditure0.9% of GDP2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 231.7per 100 000 pop.2006
Homicides11.9per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
San José349 678inhab.2021
Liberia66 040inhab.2021
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
San José1 453 500inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The foreign-born resident population represents about 9% of the total. The majority of immigrants traditionally come from nearby Nicaragua, and the political crisis in that country has exacerbated the phenomenon.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.6892019
Death rate5.1522019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
white and mestizo83.6%2011
mulatto6.7%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic69.7%2016
Protestant15.2%2016


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Spanish
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years22$%2020
15-29 years23.5%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)129.41index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)106.91index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population2 406 532units2020
Active population, Females39.8%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate19.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females52$%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 682 246M LCU2020
Revenues4 776 053M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture12.808%2020
industry18.489%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.599%2019
industry20.007%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 498.209BN LCU2020
International reserves7 231.534M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Most of the crops grown are commercial crops such as pineapples, bananas, coffee, oil palm, sugar cane and cocoa (cocoa is grown especially in the province of Limón and near Puntarenas). Crops grown for domestic consumption include rice, potatoes and cassava. Livestock farming and fishing are profitable, especially tuna fishing. There are freezing and canning facilities at Puntarenas.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land11.408%2018
forests58.796%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total160.0461000 t2019
maize6.2411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava159.8611000 t2019
potatoes83.8111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0181000 t2019
asparagus0.1571000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry8.3521000 t2019
beans, green0.5411000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2251000 t2019
sesame seed0.1651000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1 081.81000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts15.0621000 t2019
copra0.31000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa0.51000 t2019
coffee84.0961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4 421.211000 t2019
tobacco0.0181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.6161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total7 009.8411000 t2019
strawberries4.4621000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits287.6131000 t2019
grapefruits21.1921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados16.7461000 t2019
bananas2 437.3811000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize3.461000 ha2019
rice31.6571000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava10.6721000 ha2019
potatoes3.3281000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.0041000 ha2019
cabbages0.8231000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry16.7291000 ha2019
beans, green0.5451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2061000 ha2019
sesame seed0.2731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit76.721000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.4041000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa4.0241000 ha2019
coffee93.6971000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane62.631000 ha2019
tobacco0.0091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0.871000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
strawberries0.1521000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits27.6851000 ha2019
grapefruits2.7841000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados3.181000 ha2019
bananas43.1691000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber4 478 5402019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 465.8671000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 465.8671000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs4931000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2.8261000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5.8211000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses8.3241000 heads2019
asses and mules13.7161000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds25 8111000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.181000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter8.3111000 t2018
cheese25.7531000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs3 040t2019
freshwater fishes18 980t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
There are modest reserves of gold (at San Ramón), oil (in Valle de Talamanca) and quarry materials. There is also a small-scale production of sea salt.
Tax incentives and the creation of tax-free zones in San José have attracted foreign businesses, especially in the electronics sector (medical equipment and microprocessors).
There are processing plants for sugar, cigarettes, paper, cement and nitrogenous fertilizers. There is an oil refinery at Limón.
The main tourist attractions are the large number of country parks and the beaches at Guanacaste, Puntarenas and Limón.

Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite7$1000 t2019
limestone1 9001000 t2018
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold3 699kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro7 748.73M kWh2019
- other renew.3 547M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 3431000 kW2019
- other renew.7991000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation11 385.97M kWh2019
total installed capacity3 659.771000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1.61000 t2011
petrol168.11000 t2010
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley62.1691000 t2018
coconut oil0.2311000 t2018
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mechanical pulp2.81000 t2017
newsprint32.7311000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 9001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production592.183M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production2 971.23M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) 
technical and 
electro-medical appliances 2 865, tropical fruit 2 203, food preparations 527, electrical and electronic equipment 479

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures57.398% of goods exports2019
food products39.122% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States5 057M US$2020
Netherlands896M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
United States5 401M US$2020
China2 091M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202012 174M US$ -
201911 712M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202014 942M US$ -
201917 573M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 393M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 139 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown24 100 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried2 033.11000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers179.242per 1000 pop.2019
Computers231per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.546years2019
Gradautes, percentage25.067%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level497 065units2019
Students, secondary level504 316units2019
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.26% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending12.229% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.1per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians3.07per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.4% of adults2019
HIV, total0.3%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.383% of GDP2018
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking95.5%2019
Access to electricity99.71%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear5.4%2012-13
education5.1%2012-13
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