Form of Government: Republic
Area: 2 345 410 sq km
Population: 91 994 000 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 39.22 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 5° N - 13° S; long. 12° - 31° E
Capital: Kinshasa (capital) 11 575 000 inhab. (2015);
Currency: Congolese franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.48 (rank: 175)
President: Félix Tshisekedi (Union for Democracy and Social Progress), elected 30 December 2018, in office since 25 January 2019
Prime Minister: Jean-Michel Sama Lukonde Kyenge (Future of Congo), since 15 February 2021
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 30 December 2018: Common Front for Congo (coalition aligned with J. Kabila), 341; Lamuka (“Wake Up”) Coalition, 112; Heading for Change Coalition, 47
Internet: www.ins.cd (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, COMESA, SADC, UN, WTO

Congo, Dem. Rep.

République Démocratique du Congo
Useful information

International license plate code CD
International dialling code 00243
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cd

GMT Kinshasa +1; Lubumbashi +2
DST Kinshasa not applied; Lubumbashi not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Kinshasa 25.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Kinshasa 26/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Kinshasa 5/4
Annual average precipitation (mm) Kinshasa 1385
Days of rainfall (annual average) Kinshasa 83

Politics and current affairs

After having announced the breakdown of the coalition with his predecessor J. Kabila (6 December 2020), President F. Tshisekedi formed a new government. Attacks by armed bands intensified in the east of the country, which also resulted in the death of the Italian ambassador (22 February 2021).

Geography.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is bordered by the Central African Republic and Southern Sudan to the north, by Uganda to the north-east, by Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east, by Zambia to the south-east, by Zambia and Angola to the south and by Congo-Brazzaville to the west. The country has a short coastline to the west looking out onto the Atlantic Ocean. The area occupied by the country more or less corresponds to the basin of the River Congo, an extremely vast catchment area covered by tropical rain forests and savanna, rising in the south with the southern African highlands, in the east to the plateau of the Great Lakes, and in the north up to Sudan. The central and western part of the country is made up of plains with an average altitude of between 310 and 430 m, through which the River Congo flows. To the east the plateau is broken in rifts by the Lake Tanganyika and Lake Kivu.
The climate in the central part of the country is tropical, becoming milder towards the borders and the coast.

Government


Formerly known as the Belgian Congo, the country was granted independence on 30 June 1960 with a government headed by Patrice Lumumba, the leader of the National Congolese Movement (MNC), a progressive movement. Shortly afterwards, however, civil war broke out, provoked by secessionist movements in Katanga, supported by mining companies and European powers present in central Africa at the time. On the 24 November 1965, General Mobuto Sese Seko assumed full control of the country and on 27 October 1971, he changed the name of the country (to the Republic of Zaire) and instituted a system of one-party rule. The dictatorship of Mobutu ended in May 1997 after the Army for Congolese Liberation led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila with the support of the AFDL (Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire) as well as Rwandan and Angolan armed forces took power. On 17 May 1997, the country was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo with all powers given over to a transitional parliament made up of 300 deputies appointed by the President. Meanwhile civil war spread through the country with involvement from Rwanda, Burundi and other African states.
In 1999 a UN mission (MONUSCO) was sent into the country, which was nevertheless unable to stop the violence. In January 2001, after the assassination of L.D. Kabila, his son Joseph Kabila was declared President of the transitional parliament. On 30 July 2002, Kabila signed a peace treaty with Rwanda and shortly after Rwandan troops began pulling back. In return, the President agreed to disarm Hutu forces (the Interahamwe) in the country which were threatening Rwandan security. On 6 September 2002, another peace treaty was signed, this time with Uganda which in turn gradually withdrew its troops from Congolese territory. On 1 April 2003, after more than a year of negotiations under the auspices of South Africa, the Sun City Agreement was signed which, as well as drawing up a new transitional constitution, also laid down the timetable for a peace process. On 15 July 2003, a government of national unity took office, leading the country into the 2006-07 elections; J. Kabila remained in power until the 2018 elections. In reality, armed forces have remained active in the east of the country, often supported by neighbouring countries or in war with them, like the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) and the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP). The latter, following the arrest of its leader, Laurent Nkunda, at the beginning of 2009, reached an agreement with the government and was integrated into the army, but some of its former members formed the March 23 Movement (M23), with the possible support of Uganda and Rwanda, active in North Kivu from April 2012 to November 2013, when the army, flanked by MONUSCO troops, forced the last rebel groups to surrender. Behind these clashes lies a complex web of interests for the control and division of huge mineral resources, to which neighbouring countries and international mining companies are not extraneous. In the East province militia of Ugandan rebels of the Lord’s Resistance Army are active. Since 2016, clashes between the military and rebel militia Kamwina Nsapu have been reported in the Kasai Province. In South Kivu there is an active ethnic conflict between the Banyamulenge Tutsi and Bantu militias.
Based on the new constitution approved on 19 December 2005, the President of the Republic is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term and can stand for re-election only once. Legislative power is divided between National Assembly, made up of 500 members elected by direct suffrage for five-year terms and the Senate with 180 members, elected indirectly for five-year terms). The eastern provinces are granted a high degree of autonomy.


Justice.
The legal system is based on the Belgian model, with local tribal influences.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.9%2015
Army76.7%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides13.5per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Kinshasa11 575 000inhab.2015
Lubumbashi2 015 000inhab.2014
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

The birthrate is extremely high, as are the rates of mortality and infant mortality. Both average age and life expectancy are very low. There are about 4.5 million refugees in some areas due to the on-going war. The principal ethnic group is the Bantus, which can in turn be divided into subgroups (the Luba, Lunda, Kongo and Mongo) all having different cultures and social structures. Small groups of pygmies still live in the heart of the tropical forests.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate40.6392019
Death rate9.2922019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other30.2%1983
Luba18$%1983


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Protestant48.1%2010
Catholic47.3%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
French (official)
Kikongo
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years46.4%2020
15-29 years27.1%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)108.91index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)109.86index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population30 691 000units2020
Active population, Females48.3%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate4.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females38.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses8 578 059M LCU2020
Revenues8 340 198M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture65.4%2019
industry9.7%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture20.782%2019
industry42.4%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2 448.942BN LCU2020
International reserves747.655M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
The vast majority of the active population is engaged in agriculture. The hot and humid climate combined with the highly fertile soil favours certain industrial crops, particularly coffee, cocoa and tobacco. Of less importance are maize, tea (Kivu) and oil palm. The main foodstuffs, which manage to meet local demand, include cassava, maize, potatoes, bananas, rice, sweet potatoes and groundnuts. The vast forests supply valuable wood (kambala, limbali, khaya) and rubber.
Livestock and fishing.
Livestock farming is widespread in north-east regions, but output is low and is not enough to satisfy local demand. Fishing is a more important activity and is practiced in the African Great Lakes and the rivers.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land5.867%2018
forests56.619%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.0881000 t2019
cereals, total3 576.6861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava40 050.1121000 t2019
potatoes102.9321000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages9.4211000 t2019
carrots and turnips0.4231000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry260.0411000 t2019
beans, green4.9021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts455.3561000 t2019
sesame seed4.6251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits1 835.4191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa10$1000 t2019
coffee31.1211000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane2 319.2821000 t2019
tobacco3.3871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton28.4711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute7.4731000 t2014
sisal0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total6 630.4921000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits186.781000 t2019
grapefruits9.4161000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados62.9231000 t2019
bananas804.5911000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1.5821000 ha2019
maize2 762.7191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava4 919.4571000 ha2019
potatoes22.3091000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages0.5491000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.0481000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry476.0631000 ha2019
beans, green1.1171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4951000 ha2019
sesame seed10.491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit280.4911000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa24.2171000 ha2019
coffee79.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane47.261000 ha2019
tobacco6.8731000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton68.1181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute9.31000 ha2014
sisal0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits12.141000 ha2019
grapefruits0.6191000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados9.0661000 ha2019
bananas214.8171000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber10 000t2019
timber91 312 5562019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 211.9121000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 211.9121000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs995.5841000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep912.7891000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats4 111.7821000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds18 5581000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs7.6031000 t2019
hides and skins7.1641000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes233 300t2019
marine fishes8 000t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo possesses immense reserves of precious minerals. The main mining districts are found in the south. The headquarters of Gécamines, the state-owned mining company, are in Katanga. There are considerable amounts of copper reserves, often associated with cobalt (mines around Kolwezi, Lubumbashi, Tenke-Fungurume and Sakania, all in Katanga); refining plants are usually part of the mining sites. The mines in Katanga also extract silver, zinc (in Kipushi), tin (in Manono, Kikondja), coal (fields at Kalemie e Sankishia-Luena) and tungsten. The uranium reserves in Shinkolobwe are significant, as are the radium, magnesium, cadmium, niobium, tantalum and germanium reserves. The principle diamond extraction centres are found in Tshikapa and Mbuiji-Mayi (Kasaï) while gold can be found in many provinces, especially in the Orientale province. Along the Atlantic coast, oil is extracted from the continental shelf.
Energy and industry.
Almost all electrical energy produced is hydroelectric. The power stations at Inga Falls, on the River Congo are no longer fully operational. Industrial plants are concentrated in the Kinshasa area and in the Katanga province. Metal industries include copper works (at Likasi and Kolwezi), tin (at Manono), zinc and cadmium (at Kolwezi), and cobalt (at Likasi and Luilu). Other industrial plants produce chemicals (at Butembo and Panda) and cement (at Kalemie, Likasi, Lubudi, Lukala and Kakontwe). Muanda has a functioning oil refinery plant.
Other industries include textiles (at Kinshasa, Bukavu, Kalemie, Lubumbashi and Kisangani), leather tanning (at Mbandaka), shoe factories (at Kinshasa), beer and sugar plants (at Kinshasa, Kananga, Isiro, Mbuji-Mayi and Kisangani), oil presses (at Lubumbashi) and fish processing (Kalemie).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal3.61000 t2017
coal, total3.61000 t2017
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt85.91000 t2020
columbite-tantalite1 194.9t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds3 0001000 ct2020
diamonds, industrial - ct12 0001000 ct2020
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro10 432.62M kWh2018
renewable electricity generation99.937%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro2 7401000 kW2019
- thermal1411000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation10 476.2M kWh2018
total installed capacity2 884.761000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cobalt0.061000 t2018
copper1 1001000 t2020
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
paints56.21000 t2019
soap11.71000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics0.147M m²2019
yarns0.0141000 t2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear74 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley4201000 t2018
cottonseed oil2.6551000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes5 667M units2014
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other paper3$1000 t2019
paper3$1000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 078.81000 t2020
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production10 423.731M US$2020
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
The country’s most important trading partners are China, Zambia, South Africa and Belgium.
Illegal mining is widespread.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) 
refined copper 2 682, cobalt (metallurgy) 1 891, copper ores 989, chemicals 783, cobalt ores 520, crude oil and petroleum products 410

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20209 200M US$ -
20196 900M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20206 400M US$ -
20196 800M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures96$M US$2019
Number of arrivals351 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
The road network is badly in need of repair and mostly unusable. The railway lines and the waterways are more widely used. The main port is Matadi on the estuary of the River Congo, which is also the end of the rail line from Kinshasa, the focal point for inland navigation of the middle and upper Congo and along its tributaries.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown4 000 000km flown1999
Civil aviation, passengers carried550.51000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.137per 1000 pop.2019
Computers0.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Primary education from 6 to 11 is officially compulsory even though a third of the population has no access. Often the few schools that operate are run by churches.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling9.6years2013
Graduates105 094units2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level13 763 196units2015
Students, secondary level4 618 895units2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.8per 1000 pop.2006
Physicians0.07per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.8% of adults2019
HIV, total2.5%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.406% of GDP2015
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking4.5%2019
Access to electricity19.1%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing2.8%2013
education1.8%2013
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