Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 861 sq km
Population: 869 595 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 467.27 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 13° S; long. 43° - 45° E
Capital: Moroni 62 351 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Comorian franc (100 centimes, no longer used)
Human development index: 0.554 (rank: 156)
Head of State: Azali Assoumani, elected 10 April 2016, in office since 26 May 2016, reconfirmed 24 March 2019
Internet: www.inseed.km (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO observer

Comoros

Komori, Comores, Juzur al Qamar, Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, Jumūriyyat al Qamar al Muttaḥidah
Useful information

International license plate code COM
International dialling code 00269
Travel vaccinations requirement malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .km

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Moroni 25.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Moroni 26.5/23.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Moroni 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Moroni 2630
Days of rainfall (annual average) Moroni 132

Geography.
An archipelago in the Indian Ocean, situated at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel. The main islands are Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan) and Mwali (Mohéli). Large tracts of the islands, which are of volcanic origin, are covered in forest. The highest peak is the volcano Karthala (2361 m) on Grande Comore, which last erupted in January 2007. It has a tropical climate.

Government


Formerly an overseas territory of Metropolitan France, the Comoros archipelago became independent on 6 July 1975, after the referendum of 22 December 1974 (Mayotte was the only island that opted to remain part of France). Its politics have been dominated by authoritarian regimes. In 1995-96 a military regime led by a French mercenary, Bob Denard, seized power and democracy was restored only as a result of French military intervention. In 1999 another coup brought Colonel Azali Assoumani to power. In 2002, however, thanks to the mediation of France and the African Union, democratic institutions were re-instated, safeguarding the three main islands’ aspirations towards autonomy. On 2007 the refusal of the President of the island of Anjouan, Mohamed Bacar, to step down at the end of his mandate led to effective secession, ending in military intervention (March 2008). Azali Assoumani won the presidential election of 2016 and returned to lead the country; after a constitutional referendum (30 July 2018) granted him the opportunity to reapply, he was re-elected in 2019. According to the 2001 Constitution, modified several times, the Federal President is elected every five years and has the opportunity to reapply only once. The Federal Parliament is made up of 33 members of whom 24 are elected directly and 9 are appointed by the regional assemblies (three from each island). Each island elects its own president and legislative assembly.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure2.8% of GDP2007
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative division
IslandAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Mwali/Mohéli/Mūhaylī290 sq km56 932 inhab.2018
Ndzuwani/Anjouan/Hanzwān424 sq km360 409 inhab.2018
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moroni62 351inhab.2018
Mutsamudu25 009inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moroni62 351inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate31.4072019
Death rate7.1352019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Comorian97$%2000
Makoa1.6%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)98$%2017
other2$%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Bantu
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years36.3%2020
15-29 years28.2%2020


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Economy


The economy is based on agriculture and on remittances from migrant workers.
Food products grown for domestic consumption (rice, maize, sweet potatoes and cassava) are not sufficient to meet the nation’s needs.
Crops grown for export include cloves, plants used in the perfume industry (including ylang-ylang), vanilla and coffee. Promoting Comoros as a tourist destination is proving difficult owing to the unstable political situation. Oil prospecting is under way. The Comorian franc is pegged to the Euro by a fixed exchange rate.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)109.42index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)99.83index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population230 000units2020
Active population, Females42.2%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.4%2020
Unemployment rate, Females45.7%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses100 922M LCU2020
Revenues101 009M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture50.4%2019
industry13$%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture34.536%2019
industry9.246%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation45.759BN LCU2020
International reserves294.34M US$2020
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land62.332%2018
forests18.162%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total42.6891000 t2019
maize7.1791000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava65.0711000 t2019
potatoes0.6661000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.681000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.9861000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts86.971000 t2019
copra8.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon0.0151000 t2016
cloves6.4711000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total26.6851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas22.7851000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize3.5471000 ha2019
rice27.7061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava11.4491000 ha2019
potatoes0.0441000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.0741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.171000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts28.7451000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves16.4281000 ha2019
cocoa0.1511000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas3.9531000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber353 1422019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle50.8081000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes50.8081000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep25.0481000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats121.1841000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.5431000 heads2019
asses and mules5.5431000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5491000 heads2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs0.761000 t2019
hides and skins0.331000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marine fishes17 600t2019
total catch17 600t2019
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal100M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation99.602%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal26$1000 kW2018
- hydro1$1000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation100.4M kWh2018
total installed capacity27$1000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil6.0741000 t2018
vegetable oils6.0741000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production42.4M US$2015
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures56.123% of goods exports2019
food products43.528% of goods exports2019
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
202026$M US$ -
201939$M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020217M US$ -
2019231M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures51.5M US$2019
Number of arrivals45 100units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet236units2021
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage904 662t2021
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers1.388per 1000 pop.2019
Computers9$per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.2years2014
Graduates1 277units2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level124 240units2018
Students, secondary level73 695units2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.27per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2019
Malaria17 697cases2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking7.5%2019
Access to electricity84.048%2019
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