Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 862 sq km
Population: 827 147 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 444.23 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 13° S; long. 43° - 45° E
Capital: Moroni 55 000 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: Comorian franc (100 centimes, no longer used)
Human development index: 0.497 (rank: 160)
Head of State: Azali Assoumani, elected 10 April 2016, in office since 26 May 2016
Internet: www.beit-salam.km (Union des Comores)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO observer

Comoros

Komori, Comores, Juzur al Qamar, Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, Jumūriyyat al Qamar al Muttaḥidah
Useful information

International license plate code COM
International dialling code 00269
Travel vaccinations requirement malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .km

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Moroni 25.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Moroni 26.5/23.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Moroni 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Moroni 2630
Days of rainfall (annual average) Moroni 132

Geography.
An archipelago in the Indian Ocean, situated at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel. The main islands are Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan) and Mwali (Mohéli). Large tracts of the islands, which are of volcanic origin, are covered in forest. The highest peak is the volcano Karthala (2361 m) on Grande Comore, which last erupted in January 2007. It has a tropical climate.

Government


Formerly an overseas territory of Metropolitan France, the Comoros archipelago became independent on 6 July 1975, after the referendum of 22 December 1974 (Mayotte was the only island that opted to remain part of France). Its politics have been dominated by authoritarian regimes. In 1995-96 a military regime led by a French mercenary, Bob Denard, seized power and democracy was restored only as a result of French military intervention. In 1999 another coup brought Colonel Azali Assoumani to power. In 2002, however, thanks to the mediation of France and the African Union, democratic institutions were re-instated, safeguarding the three main islands’ aspirations towards autonomy. On 2007 the refusal of the President of the island of Anjouan, Mohamed Bacar, to step down at the end of his mandate led to effective secession, ending in military intervention (March 2008). Azali Assoumani won the presidential election of 2016 and returned to lead the country; a constitutional referendum (30 July 2018) granted him the opportunity to reapply for a second term.
According to the 2001 Constitution, modified several times, the Federal President is elected every five years from three candidates put forward by one of the islands (in 2016 it was the turn of Ngazidja). The Federal Parliament is made up of 33 members of whom 24 are elected directly and 9 are appointed by the regional assemblies (three from each island). Each island elects its own president and legislative assembly.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure2.8% of GDP2007
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.6per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative division
IslandAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Mwali/Mohéli/Mūhaylī290 sq km54 404 inhab.2017
Ndzuwani/Anjouan/Hanzwān424 sq km350 859 inhab.2017
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moroni55 000inhab.2016
Mutsamudu20 828inhab.2003
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moroni55 000inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.92016
Death rate7.42016
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Comorian97%2000
Makoa1.6%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)98%2017
other2%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Bantu
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years39.4%2017
15-29 years27.1%2017


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Economy


The economy is based on agriculture and on remittances from migrant workers.
Food products grown for domestic consumption (rice, maize, sweet potatoes and cassava) are not sufficient to meet the nation’s needs.
Crops grown for export include cloves, plants used in the perfume industry (including ylang-ylang), vanilla and coffee. Promoting Comoros as a tourist destination is proving difficult owing to the unstable political situation. Oil prospecting is under way. The Comorian franc is pegged to the Euro by a fixed exchange rate.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)109.42index2016
Balance of trade- 207M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population211 166units2017
Active population, Females41.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate20%2016
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses83 651M LCU2016
Revenues63 841M LCU2016
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture54.8%2017
industry15.4%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture42%2016
industry11.8%2016
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation36BN LCU2017
International reserves159.4M US$2016
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land63.41%2015
forests19.88%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total40.11000 t2016
maize6.1571000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava65.7181000 t2016
potatoes0.6191000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.6641000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.9561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts101.0551000 t2016
copra8.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon0.0151000 t2016
cloves2.6991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total50.8651000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas44.6331000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize3.0021000 ha2016
rice26.5751000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava11.6691000 ha2016
potatoes0.0411000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.0721000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.1351000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts33.8511000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves9.3881000 ha2016
cocoa0.121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas7.7961000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber333 0252016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle50.8831000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes50.8831000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep24.6841000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats121.0841000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.4351000 heads2016
asses and mules5.4351000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5441000 heads2016
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs1.3181000 t2016
hides and skins0.3461000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs28t2016
marine fishes16 379t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
non-renewable electricity generation96.296%2015
- thermal52M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal251000 kW2015
- hydro11000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation54M kWh2015
total installed capacity261000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil5.41000 t2014
vegetable oils5.41000 t2014
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production42.4M US$2015
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products78.2% of goods exports2013
manufactures21.7% of goods exports2013
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201731.172M US$ -
201630.643M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017237.995M US$ -
2016219.324M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures37M US$2012
Number of arrivals26 800units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet218units2018
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage854 073t2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.019per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.2years2014
Graduates1 277units2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level4 322units2013
Teachers, secondary level8 150units2014
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2006
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2005
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
Malaria1 333cases2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking9.34%2016
Access to electricity77.844%2016
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