Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 861 sq km
Population: 850 688 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 457.11 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 11° - 13° S; long. 43° - 45° E
Capital: Moroni 62 351 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: Comorian franc (100 centimes, no longer used)
Human development index: 0.503 (rank: 165)
Head of State: Azali Assoumani, elected 10 April 2016, in office since 26 May 2016, reconfirmed 24 March 2019
Internet: www.inseed.km (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of Arab League, AU, COMESA, OIC, SADC, UN, WTO observer

Comoros

Komori, Comores, Juzur al Qamar, Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, Jumūriyyat al Qamar al Muttaḥidah
Useful information

International license plate code COM
International dialling code 00269
Travel vaccinations requirement malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .km

GMT  +3
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Moroni 25.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Moroni 26.5/23.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Moroni 8/7
Annual average precipitation (mm) Moroni 2630
Days of rainfall (annual average) Moroni 132

Geography.
An archipelago in the Indian Ocean, situated at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel. The main islands are Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuwani (Anjouan) and Mwali (Mohéli). Large tracts of the islands, which are of volcanic origin, are covered in forest. The highest peak is the volcano Karthala (2361 m) on Grande Comore, which last erupted in January 2007. It has a tropical climate.

Government


Formerly an overseas territory of Metropolitan France, the Comoros archipelago became independent on 6 July 1975, after the referendum of 22 December 1974 (Mayotte was the only island that opted to remain part of France). Its politics have been dominated by authoritarian regimes. In 1995-96 a military regime led by a French mercenary, Bob Denard, seized power and democracy was restored only as a result of French military intervention. In 1999 another coup brought Colonel Azali Assoumani to power. In 2002, however, thanks to the mediation of France and the African Union, democratic institutions were re-instated, safeguarding the three main islands’ aspirations towards autonomy. On 2007 the refusal of the President of the island of Anjouan, Mohamed Bacar, to step down at the end of his mandate led to effective secession, ending in military intervention (March 2008). Azali Assoumani won the presidential election of 2016 and returned to lead the country; a constitutional referendum (30 July 2018) granted him the opportunity to reapply for a second term.
According to the 2001 Constitution, modified several times, the Federal President is elected every five years and has the opportunity to reapply only once. The Federal Parliament is made up of 33 members of whom 24 are elected directly and 9 are appointed by the regional assemblies (three from each island). Each island elects its own president and legislative assembly.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure2.8% of GDP2007
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides7.7per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative division
IslandAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Mwali/Mohéli/Mūhaylī290 sq km56 932 inhab.2018
Ndzuwani/Anjouan/Hanzwān424 sq km360 409 inhab.2018
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moroni62 351inhab.2018
Mutsamudu25 009inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Moroni62 351inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate32.42017
Death rate7.32017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Comorian97%2000
Makoa1.6%2000


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim (Sunni)98%2017
other2%2017


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
Bantu
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years38.5%2018
15-29 years27.4%2018


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Economy


The economy is based on agriculture and on remittances from migrant workers.
Food products grown for domestic consumption (rice, maize, sweet potatoes and cassava) are not sufficient to meet the nation’s needs.
Crops grown for export include cloves, plants used in the perfume industry (including ylang-ylang), vanilla and coffee. Promoting Comoros as a tourist destination is proving difficult owing to the unstable political situation. Oil prospecting is under way. The Comorian franc is pegged to the Euro by a fixed exchange rate.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)109.42index2016
Balance of trade- 248.5M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population221 722units2018
Active population, Females42.4%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate20%2016
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses84 365M LCU2017
Revenues86 429M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture56.9%2018
industry14%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture30.8%2017
industry12.6%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation38.85BN LCU2018
International reserves199.2M US$2018
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Agriculture

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land63.41%2015
forests19.88%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total40.3621000 t2017
maize6.2311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava66.3511000 t2017
potatoes0.5981000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.6711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.9651000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts102.3781000 t2017
copra8.21000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cinnamon0.0151000 t2016
cloves2.6181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total50.8651000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas24.2611000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize3.1061000 ha2017
rice26.6361000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava11.7741000 ha2017
potatoes0.041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tomatoes0.0741000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts1.1351000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts34.0051000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cloves9.51000 ha2017
cocoa0.121000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bananas4.2071000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber339 5802017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle50.6561000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes50.6561000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep24.6151000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats121.1161000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.4841000 heads2017
asses and mules5.4841000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds5541000 heads2017
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs1.061000 t2017
hides and skins0.3461000 t2013
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs28t2017
marine fishes16 993t2017
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
non-renewable electricity generation95.238%2016
- thermal40M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal261000 kW2016
- hydro11000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation42M kWh2016
total installed capacity271000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconut oil5.41000 t2014
vegetable oils5.41000 t2014
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production42.4M US$2015
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
food products78.2% of goods exports2013
manufactures21.7% of goods exports2013
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201852M US$ -
201740M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018301M US$ -
2017252M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures37M US$2012
Number of arrivals28 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Merchant fleet218units2018
Merchant fleet, gross tonnage854 073t2018
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers2.019per 1000 pop.2017
Computers9per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling11.2years2014
Graduates1 277units2013
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level6 429units2017
Teachers, secondary level12 693units2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.2per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.1per 1000 pop.2005
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
Malaria2 274cases2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking9.34%2016
Access to electricity79.931%2017
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