Form of Government: Republic
Area: 5 896 sq km
Population: 864 200 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 146.57 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 36° - 34° N; long. 32° - 34° E
Capital: Nicosia=Lefkosía (capital) 55 014 inhab. (2011); Nicosia 246 900 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.869 (rank: 32)
President and head of government: Nikos Anastasiades (DISY), since 28 February 2013, re-elected 4 February 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 22 May 2016: DISY (Democratic Rally, conservative), 18; AKEL (Progressive Party of Working People, communist), 16; DIKO (Democratic Party), 9; EDEK (Movement for Social Democracy), 3; Citizens' Alliance (populist, left), 3; Solidarity Movement (right), 3; ELAM (National Popular Front, far-right), 2; Greens, 2; reserved for minorities, 3
Internet: www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf (Statistical Service of Cyprus)
Member of Commonwealth, Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Cyprus

Kýpros, Kıbrıs, Kypriakí Dimokratía, Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Useful information

International license plate code CY
International dialling code 00357
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .cy

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Nicosia 19
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nicosia 10/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nicosia 13/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nicosia 338
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nicosia 44

Politics and current affairs

The country is involved in growing international tensions with Turkey, not only for the long-standing division of the island, but also because of the dual claims made alongside Ankara regarding offshore natural gas fields in the Eastern Mediterranean. Nikos Anastasiades’s government strongly protested after Turkey sent two exploratory missions into Bulgarian waters and in Cyprus’s exclusive economic zone in 2018 and 2019. Meanwhile, the European elections on 26 May 2019 upheld the political balance in the country, but for the first time, a Cypriot Turk was elected to the European Parliament.

Geography.
The island of Cyprus lies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, off the coasts of Syria and Turkey.
Two mountain chains cross it from east to west. They are separated by the Mesaria plain, which is criss-crossed by short watercourses. It has a Mediterranean climate.

Government


The island of Cyprus became an independent republic under the Anglo-Greek-Turkish treaty of 19 February 1959 (which brought British sovereignty to an end). According to the 1960 Cyprus Act, the island was to be jointly ruled by the Greek and Turkish communities but, as early as 1963, the Turkish Cypriot vice-president, ministers and deputies abandoned the country’s political institutions. In 1964, the UN was forced to send peacekeepers to the island. However, this was not enough to prevent the military junta then in power in Greece from staging a coup on 17 July 1974. There followed military intervention by Turkey, which seized control of the north of the island, creating the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. In 2004, the UN plan to re-unify the island failed when a referendum was rejected in the Greek Republic of Cyprus (75.8% voting “No”), despite being approved in the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (64.9% voting “Yes”). As a result, only the Greek Republic of Cyprus joined the EU (1 May 2004).
The President of the Republic, who is also head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the House of Representatives (80 members, though the 24 seats reserved for the Turkish community are not occupied).


Defence and justice.
The military defence lies in the hands of the National Guard. On the island there are a UN peace-keeping force and two British military bases.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.9% of GDP2017
Military personnel15 000units2017
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes605per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.3per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative division
DistrictAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Famagusta=Ammóchostos200 sq km47 500 inhab.2017
Larnaca=Lárnaka1 051 sq km146 500 inhab.2017
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Limassol=Lemesós101 000inhab.2011
Stróvolos67 904inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nicosia246 900inhab.2017
Limassol184 600inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After partition in 1974, more than 180 000 Greeks moved to the south and 50 000 Turks moved to the North.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.72017
Death rate72017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total149 168units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Cypriot79.4%2011
other7.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox89.1%2011
Catholic2.9%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Greek (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.6%2018
15-29 years22%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
Economic recovery continues thanks to a growth of 3.9% in 2018, though this is expected to slow to 3% by 2020. Investments are expected to increase thanks to the widespread registration of boats. Unemployment dropped to 8.4%. Public finances continue to strengthen.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)78.59index2016
Balance of trade-5 732.6M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population437 500units2018
Active population, Females47.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate8.4%2018
Unemployment rate, Females48.6%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 516M LCU2018
Revenues6 243.2M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2018
industry16.6%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2%2018
industry14.1%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2.432BN LCU2018
International reserves924.2M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops are cereals (wheat and barley), vines, citrus fruits, fruit and potatoes.
Livestock farming is limited, whereas fishing is more lucrative, especially sponge-fishing.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land13.56%2015
forests18.69%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley25.8041000 t2017
cereals, total48.8081000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes135.0831000 t2017
roots and tubers, total136.8491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.1851000 t2017
cabbages4.2681000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.1921000 t2017
beans, green3.0871000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes17.0211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives12.8861000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2641000 t2017
sesame seed0.0011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.1341000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed01000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples4.0671000 t2017
apricots0.8891000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.2681000 t2017
hazelnuts0.0221000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits101.2471000 t2017
citrus fruits, nes0.3431000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.8851000 t2017
bananas7.5931000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.7231000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley14.2321000 ha2017
oats0.3231000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes5.2581000 ha2017
taro0.071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.1191000 ha2017
cabbages0.091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0681000 ha2017
beans, green0.281000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape5.8251000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive10.4441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0691000 ha2017
sesame seed0.0011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.0311000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed01000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.5031000 ha2017
apricots0.2111000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds2.2571000 ha2017
hazelnuts0.031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.5151000 ha2017
citrus fruits, nes0.0341000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.0861000 ha2017
bananas0.2841000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 5292017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle67.0271000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes67.0271000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs350.011000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep311.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats254.4211000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.21000 heads2017
asses and mules6.71000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 9741000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.3041000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese7.3221000 t2014
eggs9.6251000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs142t2017
freshwater fishes20t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
A new and important natural gas field was discovered off the coast of Cyprus, joining Calypso and Aphrodite, which should be ready to be mined beginning in 2025. After the discovery, Italy, Greece, Cyprus and Israel agreed to build a new gas pipeline.
A new pipe towards Egypt is also in the works.
There are many small and medium-size companies producing food, textiles, building materials and tobacco.
Tourism is an important source of income, but it has suffered recently due to the collapse of some airline companies that flew to Cyprus as well as the effects of Brexit (a third of tourists are British). Cyprus has special tax laws which attract large amounts of foreign capital.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper5001000 t2016
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite117.21000 t2016
clay7521000 t2016
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t0.51000 t2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 195.22M kWh2016
- other renew.423M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 5181000 kW2016
- other renew.2521000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 618.22M kWh2016
total installed capacity1 7701000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper1.71000 t2016
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol461000 t2004
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chlorine - l1 9401000 l2006
soap0.471000 t2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear55 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley32.81000 t2014
olive oil2.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes3 845.3M units2004
tobacco334t2005
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 018.51000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production116M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production365.3M US$2016
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels31.529% of goods exports2017
manufactures29.856% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greece323.4M US$2010
Germany139.6M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greece1 615M US$2010
Italy802.5M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20184 974M US$ -
20173 287M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201810 707M US$ -
20179 231M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 781M US$2017
Number of arrivals3 652 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown30 000 000km flown2005
Civil aviation, passengers carried672.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers347.947per 1000 pop.2017
Computers383.4per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.6years2015
Gradautes, percentage29%2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level4 597units2016
Teachers, secondary level7 000units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending35.6% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending19.1% of GDP2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.8per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.56% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.8%2017
education2.6%2017
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