Form of Government: Republic
Area: 5 896 sq km
Population: 888 000 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 150.61 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 36° - 34° N; long. 32° - 34° E
Capital: Nicosia=Lefkosía (capital) 55 014 inhab. (2011); Nicosia 269 469 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.887 (rank: 33)
President and head of government: Nikos Anastasiades (DISY), since 28 February 2013, re-elected 4 February 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 30 May 2021: DISY (Democratic Rally, conservative), 17; AKEL (Progressive Party of Working People, communist), 15; DIKO (Democratic Party), 9; EDEK (Movement for Social Democracy), 4; ELAM (National Popular Front, far-right), 4; DIPA (liberal-democratic centre), 4; Movement of Ecologists, 3
Internet: www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf (Statistical Service of Cyprus)
Member of Commonwealth, Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Cyprus

Kýpros, Kıbrıs, Kypriakí Dimokratía, Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Useful information

International license plate code CY
International dialling code 00357
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .cy

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Nicosia 19
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nicosia 10/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nicosia 13/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nicosia 338
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nicosia 44

Politics and current affairs

On 30 May 2021, the parliamentary elections were won by the democratic coalition DISY with 27.8% of the vote, down compared to 30.7% in 2016. Popularity is also waning for the main Communist opposition party, AKEL, (22.3% compared to 25.7% in 2016). The far right (ELAM) is up to 6.8%. After pro-Erdogan nationalist Ersin Tatar won the election and became President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, the prospect of resuming talks for the reunification of the island waned. In April 2021, nothing came of the talks between the parties under UN protection.

Geography.
The island of Cyprus lies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, off the coasts of Syria and Turkey.
Two mountain chains cross it from east to west. They are separated by the Mesaria plain, which is criss-crossed by short watercourses. It has a Mediterranean climate.

Government


The island of Cyprus became an independent republic under the Anglo-Greek-Turkish treaty of 19 February 1959 (which brought British sovereignty to an end). According to the 1960 Cyprus Act, the island was to be jointly ruled by the Greek and Turkish communities but, as early as 1963, the Turkish Cypriot vice-president, ministers and deputies abandoned the country’s political institutions. In 1964, the UN was forced to send peacekeepers to the island. However, this was not enough to prevent the military junta then in power in Greece from staging a coup on 17 July 1974. There followed military intervention by Turkey, which seized control of the north of the island, creating the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. In 2004, the UN plan to re-unify the island failed when a referendum was rejected in the Greek Republic of Cyprus (75.8% voting “No”), despite being approved in the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (64.9% voting “Yes”). As a result, only the Greek Republic of Cyprus joined the EU (1 May 2004). The President of the Republic, who is also head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the House of Representatives (80 members, though the 24 seats reserved for the Turkish community are not occupied).


Defence and justice.
The military defence lies in the hands of the National Guard. On the island there are a UN peace-keeping force and two British military bases.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.628% of GDP2019
Military personnel16 000units2018
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes605per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.3per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative division
DistrictAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Famagusta=Ammóchostos200 sq km47 500 inhab.2017
Larnaca=Lárnaka1 051 sq km146 500 inhab.2017
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Limassol=Lemesós101 000inhab.2011
Stróvolos67 904inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nicosia269 469inhab.2018
Limassol184 600inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After partition in 1974, more than 180 000 Greeks moved to the south and 50 000 Turks moved to the North.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.82019
Death rate7.12019
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total149 168units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Cypriot79.4%2011
other7.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox89.1%2011
Catholic2.9%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Greek (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.7%2020
15-29 years20.8%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
The drop in GDP in 2020 (-5.1%) was mainly caused by the collapse of the tourism sector due to the effects of the global pandemic. The expected growth of 3% in 2021 is not enough to bring the country back to pre-crisis levels.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)78.59index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)105.7index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population451 600units2020
Active population, Females46.8%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females47.1%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses7 575.1M LCU2020
Revenues6 039.5M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.731%2020
industry19.502%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.126%2020
industry14.148%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2.841BN LCU2020
International reserves1 237.326M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops are cereals (wheat and barley), vines, citrus fruits, fruit and potatoes.
Livestock farming is limited, whereas fishing is more lucrative, especially sponge-fishing.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land14.006%2018
forests18.684%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley30.41000 t2019
cereals, total61.281000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes82.11000 t2019
roots and tubers, total82.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes1.291000 t2019
cabbages4.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0771000 t2018
beans, green1.191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes22.761000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives25.521000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2791000 t2018
sesame seed0.0011000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.1111000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0$1000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1.841000 t2019
apricots0.961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.341000 t2019
hazelnuts0.021000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits65.931000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.3231000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.911000 t2019
bananas5.341000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms1.231000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley11.581000 ha2019
oats0.221000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3.881000 ha2019
taro0.061000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.061000 ha2019
cabbages0.121000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.0351000 ha2018
beans, green0.051000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape6.671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive11.061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0741000 ha2018
sesame seed0.0011000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.0261000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed0$1000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.371000 ha2019
apricots0.181000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds2.711000 ha2019
hazelnuts0.021000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits3.211000 ha2019
citrus fruits, nes0.0311000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.11000 ha2019
bananas0.211000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber9 3662019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle73.971000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes73.971000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs351.921000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep310.9881000 heads2018
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats250.4121000 heads2018
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.21000 heads2018
asses and mules6.71000 heads2018
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 7581000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.661000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.0111000 t2017
cheese22.5541000 t2018
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs61.13t2019
freshwater fishes20$t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
A new and important natural gas field was discovered off the coast of Cyprus, joining Calypso and Aphrodite, which should be ready to be mined beginning in 2025. After the discovery, Italy, Greece, Cyprus and Israel signed an agreement for the Eastmed gas pipeline to Italy. A new pipe towards Egypt is also being planned.
There are many small and medium-size companies producing food, textiles, building materials and tobacco.
Tourism has recently suffered due to the effects of Brexit (a third of tourists are British) as well as the global pandemic. Cyprus has special tax laws which attract large amounts of foreign capital.

Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper2601000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite83.11000 t2019
clay721.41000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t3.71000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal4 349.38M kWh2019
- other renew.515M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 5171000 kW2018
- other renew.299.721000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 864.38M kWh2019
total installed capacity1 806.21000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium20$1000 t2018
copper0.9081000 t2018
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol46$1000 t2004
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chlorine - l1 9401000 l2006
soap0.411000 t2018
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear35 900pairs2018
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley43.9241000 t2018
olive oil3.2871000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes3 845.3M units2004
tobacco334t2005
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement1 3581000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production174.426M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production490.358M US$2018
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures32.098% of goods exports2019
food products31.243% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greece323.4M US$2010
Germany139.6M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greece1 615M US$2010
Italy802.5M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 056M US$ -
20193 453M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20208 636M US$ -
20199 127M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 496M US$2019
Number of arrivals3 977 000units2019
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown30 000 000km flown2005
Civil aviation, passengers carried395.41000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers377.881per 1000 pop.2019
Computers383.4per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling15.356years2018
Gradautes, percentage29$%2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level57 079units2018
Students, secondary level54 966units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.044% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending18.1% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.3per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.07per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.63% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.6%2019
education3$%2019
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