Form of Government: Republic
Area: 5 896 sq km
Population: 854 800 inhab. (estimate 2016)
Density: 144.98 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 36° - 34° N; long. 32° - 34° E
Capital: Nicosia=Lefkosía (capital) 55 014 inhab. (2011); Nicosia 244 200 inhab. (2016), urban agglomeration
Currency: euro (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.856 (rank: 33)
President and head of government: Nikos Anastasiades (DISY), since 28 February 2013, re-elected 4 February 2018
House of Representatives: seats based on the elections of 22 May 2016: DISY (Democratic Rally, conservative), 18; AKEL (Progressive Party of Working People, communist), 16; DIKO (Democratic Party), 9; EDEK (Movement for Social Democracy), 3; Citizens' Alliance (populist, left), 3; Solidarity Movement (right), 3; ELAM (National Popular Front, far-right), 2; Greens, 2
Internet: www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf (Statistical Service of Cyprus)
Member of Commonwealth, Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, OAS observer, OSCE, UN, WTO

Cyprus

Kýpros, Kıbrıs, Kypriakí Dimokratía, Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Useful information

International license plate code CY
International dialling code 00357
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 240
Driving side left
Internet code .cy

GMT  +2
DST  +3
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Nicosia 19
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Nicosia 10/27.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Nicosia 13/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Nicosia 338
Days of rainfall (annual average) Nicosia 44

Politics and current affairs

On 4 February 2018, Nikos Anastasiades (DISY, relative majority party) was re-elected President of the Republic with 55% of the votes in the run-off against Stavros Malas (AKEL). The president had to immediately tackle the intensifying diplomatic crisis with Turkey regarding explorations of new off-shore gas fields. After ENI and Total discovered a promising field in Cyprus’s exclusive economic zone (Calypso 1), on 9 February 2018, Turkish military ships blocked an ENI exploration vessel. Cyprus denounced the move, accusing Ankara of having threatened to use force to obstruct explorations. The crisis has further hampered the island’s reunification, following failed negotiations in 2017.

Geography.
The island of Cyprus lies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, off the coasts of Syria and Turkey.
Two mountain chains cross it from east to west. They are separated by the Mesaria plain, which is criss-crossed by short watercourses. It has a Mediterranean climate.

Government


The island of Cyprus became an independent republic under the Anglo-Greek-Turkish treaty of 19 February 1959 (which brought British sovereignty to an end). According to the 1960 Cyprus Act, the island was to be jointly ruled by the Greek and Turkish communities but, as early as 1963, the Turkish Cypriot vice-president, ministers and deputies abandoned the country’s political institutions. In 1964, the UN was forced to send peacekeepers to the island. However, this was not enough to prevent the military junta then in power in Greece from staging a coup on 17 July 1974. There followed military intervention by Turkey, which seized control of the north of the island, creating the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. In 2004, the UN plan to re-unify the island failed when a referendum was rejected in the Greek Republic of Cyprus (75.8% voting “No”), despite being approved in the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (64.9% voting “Yes”). As a result, only the Greek Republic of Cyprus joined the EU (1 May 2004).
The President of the Republic, who is also head of the executive, is elected by direct suffrage for a five-year term, as is the House of Representatives (80 members, though the 24 seats reserved for the Turkish community are not occupied).


Defence and justice.
The military defence lies in the hands of the National Guard. On the island there are a UN peace-keeping force and two British military bases.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Military expenditure1.8% of GDP2016
Military personnel12 000units2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes920.8per 100 000 pop.2012
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative division
DistrictAREAINHABITANTSYEAR
Famagusta=Ammóchostos200 sq km47 000 inhab.2016
Larnaca=Lárnaka1 051 sq km144 900 inhab.2016
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Limassol=Lemesós101 000inhab.2011
Stróvolos67 904inhab.2011
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Nicosia244 200inhab.2016
Limassol182 600inhab.2016
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

After partition in 1974, more than 180 000 Greeks moved to the south and 50 000 Turks moved to the North.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate11.12016
Death rate6.42016
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total140 384units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Cypriot79.4%2011
other7.1%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Orthodox89.1%2011
Catholic2.9%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
English
Greek (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.6%2017
15-29 years22.6%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
After higher growth than expected in 2017 (3.9%), the economy should continue to develop at a rate of around 3.5% over the next two years, with unemployment on the decline, currently under 10%. After the adjustment concluded in 2016, public finances have been strong. Investments are growing.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)78.59index2016
Balance of trade-5 793M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population425 700units2017
Active population, Females48.1%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate11.1%2017
Unemployment rate, Females48.9%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses5 644.8M LCU2017
Revenues5 787.7M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4%2017
industry17%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2%2017
industry12.5%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation2.3BN LCU2017
International reserves887.7M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The main crops are cereals (wheat and barley), vines, citrus fruits, fruit and potatoes.
Livestock farming is limited, whereas fishing is more lucrative, especially sponge-fishing.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land13.56%2015
forests18.69%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley29.31000 t2016
cereals, total53.1051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes74.3121000 t2016
roots and tubers, total76.0711000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes2.2751000 t2016
cabbages4.6521000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.3631000 t2016
beans, green2.8691000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes19.8561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives13.4991000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.2621000 t2016
sesame seed0.0011000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.121000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples3.591000 t2016
apricots0.8131000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds0.3161000 t2016
hazelnuts0.0481000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits97.5221000 t2016
citrus fruits, nes0.3981000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados1.1971000 t2016
bananas4.6951000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.7611000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley14.6551000 ha2016
oats0.5011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes3.4661000 ha2016
taro0.0671000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes0.1211000 ha2016
cabbages0.1191000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry0.121000 ha2016
beans, green0.311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape6.0051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive10.6121000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts0.0761000 ha2016
sesame seed0.0011000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
tobacco0.0281000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
linseed01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples0.4291000 ha2016
apricots0.2181000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds1.9441000 ha2016
hazelnuts0.0311000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits2.4951000 ha2016
citrus fruits, nes0.041000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados0.1191000 ha2016
bananas0.1771000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber15 7382016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle63.1381000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes63.1381000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs352.7691000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep300.7421000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats234.531000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses5.21000 heads2016
asses and mules6.71000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds2 9471000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey0.3041000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cheese7.3221000 t2014
eggs9.481000 t2016
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs103.4t2016
freshwater fishes20t2016
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
The discovery of huge natural gas deposits between the coasts of Cyprus, Israel and Egypt is redefining the geopolitical equilibrium. With the aim of reducing Europe’s dependence on gas supplies from Russia, Italy, Greece, Cyprus and Israel agreed to build a new gas pipeline.
A new pipe towards Egypt is also in the works.
There are many small and medium-size companies producing food, textiles (Yeroskipou), building materials and tobacco (Nicosia). The dismantlement of the refinery in Larnaca began in 2017. Tourism is the country’s main source of income. Cyprus has special tax laws which attract large amounts of foreign capital.

Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite1271000 t2015
clay7311000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
marble - t2.11000 t2014
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal3 886.9M kWh2015
- other renew.396M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 5221000 kW2015
- other renew.2201000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation4 282.9M kWh2015
total installed capacity1 7421000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper3.11000 t2015
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol461000 t2004
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chlorine - l1 9401000 l2006
soap0.431000 t2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear60 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley32.81000 t2014
olive oil2.71000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes3 845.3M units2004
tobacco334t2005
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement788.21000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production106.8M US$2014
food, beverages and tobacco production391.2M US$2014
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures39.868% of goods exports2016
food products32.639% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greece323.4M US$2010
Germany139.6M US$2010
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Greece1 615M US$2010
Italy802.5M US$2010
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20173 211.398M US$ -
20162 967.156M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20179 004.499M US$ -
20167 833.531M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures1 627M US$2016
Number of arrivals3 187 000units2016
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown30 000 000km flown2005
Civil aviation, passengers carried672.81000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers347.947per 1000 pop.2017
Computers383.4per 1000 pop.2006
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling14.6years2015
Gradautes, percentage29%2001
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level4 597units2016
Teachers, secondary level7 000units2016
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending29.9% of total expenses2015
Social protection spending21.8% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds3.4per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.8per 1000 pop.2016
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.1% of adults2013
HIV, total0.1%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.5% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear4.9%2016
education2.7%2016
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