Form of Government: People's republic
Area: 9 572 900 sq km
Population: 1 390 080 000 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 145.21 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 53° - 18° N; long. 73° - 135° E
Capital: Beijing (capital) 11 716 000 inhab. (2010); Beijing 19 618 000 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: renminbi-yuan (10 jiao=100 fen)
Human development index: 0.752 (rank: 86)
President: Xi Jinping, since 14 March 2013
Prime Minister: Li Keqiang, since 15 March 2013
Internet: www.stats.gov.cn/english (National Bureau of Statistics)
Member of APEC, EBRD, OAS observer, SCO, UN, WTO
International license plate code VRC
International dialling code 0086
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required only if traveling from a country with risk of transmission, including travelers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended or advised for some areas)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cn
DST not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Pechino 11.8; Chongqing 18.7; Harbin 3.2; Lanzhou 9.5; Lhasa 8.3; Shanghai 15.9; Ürümqi 5.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Pechino -5/26; Chongqing 8.5/28.5; Harbin -20/23; Lanzhou -6.5/22.5; Lhasa -1.5/16; Shanghai 4.5/27.5; Ürümqi -16/24
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Pechino 9/6; Chongqing 4/2; Harbin 9/6; Lanzhou 7/5; Lhasa 6/6; Shanghai 5/4; Ürümqi 9/5
Annual average precipitation (mm) Pechino 573; Chongqing 1082; Harbin 586; Lanzhou 335; Lhasa 405; Shanghai 1200; Ürümqi 275
Days of rainfall (annual average) Pechino 43; Chongqing 99; Harbin 61; Lanzhou 63; Lhasa 34; Shanghai 98; Ürümqi 93
Politics and current affairs
Foreign policy under President Xi has increased conflicts with many Western countries. Many members of the European Union have placed limits on Chinese investments to slow the country’s economic saturation in key industries. The United States continues its protectionist policy that imposed tariffs on Chinese imports and limitations on the sale of high-tech goods. Meetings aimed at diplomatically overcoming the situation have not led to any significant results. Tumultuousness in the global market has amounted to a nearly ten-year slowdown in China’s economy, which has affected the middle class.
China is bordered by Mongolia and Russia to the north, North Korea to the north-east, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma) and India to the south, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan to the west, and by Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan to the north-west. The Yellow Sea and the East China Sea lie off its east coast and the South China Sea lies off its south-east coast. Claimed by China, disputed with Taiwan, are the Pratas=Dongsha Qundao Islands, to the south-east of Hong Kong and populated by Chinese, as well as the Senkaku=Diouyutai Qundao islands, in the East China Sea and governed by Japan. In the South China Sea China also lays claim, competing with Taiwan and Vietnam, to the Paracel=Xisha Qundao Islands and, competing with Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines, to the Spratly=Nansha Qundao Islands.
The landscape is predominantly mountainous. Only 30% of the land lies below 1000 m above sea level. The principal mountain chains (the Himalayas, the Kunlun Shan, the Tien Shan and the Altai) alternate with vast plateaux (Tibet, the largest plateau on earth, with an average height of 4000 m), the valleys of the Tarim and the Zungaria, the south-eastern hills and the eastern plains (Manchuria). The highest peak is Mount Everest (8848 m), on the border with Nepal. The largest depression is the Turpan Valley. From the high Tibetan plateau, the largest Chinese rivers flow down towards the east and south-east, including the Yellow River (the Huang He), The Yangtze River (the Chang Jiang) and the Xi River (the Si Kiang). To the north, the River Amur (Heilongjiang) marks the border with Russia, while the River Yalu marks the border with North Korea. Inland areas have a continental climate, while the south-east has monsoons and very heavy rains in the summer. The coast is battered by typhoons which cause storms at sea and flooding. The heavy rains become lighter as they move northwards and westwards.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) was proclaimed on 1 October 1949, after a civil war between the Communist forces of Mao Zedong and the Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-shek. The Nationalists were defeated and fled to Taiwan (where they established the Republic of China). According to the Constitution of 4 December 1982 (the fourth in the country’s history), the People’s Republic of China is a Socialist state in which the Communist Party (CPC) has absolute power. The National People’s Congress is the central body; it elects the Central Committee, led, in turn, by the Political Office; within this office, control is maintained by the Standing Committee, currently made up of 7 members (including the President and Prime Minister). In 1993 the principle of “socialist market economy” was added to the Constitution. The amendments of 1999, 2003 and 2004 introduced the right to private property (defined as “inviolable”), the principle of a constitutional state, the holding of public trials, the respect for and defence of human rights, as well as the moving ahead from the principle of socialist planning.
On 18/24 October 2017, the CPC Congress approved a measure to strengthen the party’s control over the state and president Xi Jinping’s control over the party.
The supreme body of state power is the National People’s Congress (NPC), whose 2987 members are elected for five years by the provinces, the autonomous regions, the municipalities and the armed forces. The NPC, which normally meets once a year, has a Standing Committee of 178 members, who carry out the business of the Assembly between the yearly sessions. The Standing Committee elects the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister and the Council of State (which carries out the functions of government). In addition, the Standing Committee draws up laws, approves state plans and budgets. Local people’s assemblies and the committees elected by them are the local authorities of state government.
On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong was returned to the PRC. On 20 December 1999, Macau was also returned to the PRC. China continues to regard Taiwan as its 23rd province. The process to liberalize investment from Taiwan in PRC started in 2001. Nevertheless, on 14 March 2005 the National Assembly approved a law authorizing the use of force against Taiwan if it proclaimed independence.
Independence movements (harshly repressed by central authorities) are active in Tibet and Xinjiang. In the latter province, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Uyghurs and Muslims are enclosed in re-education camps.
In foreign policy, the country pursues a highly pragmatic line aimed at establishing profitable relations with countries which provide raw materials and legitimizing itself as a stable centre of a new world balance based on commerce, alternating between phases of collaboration and phases of conflict with the United States and European Union, which constitute major markets for Chinese exports as well as opportunities for investment and the diversification of the country.
All the armed forces are gathered together in the People’s Liberation Army. For organizational reasons, military service, which lasts for two years, is based on selection (fewer than 10% of potential recruits, who are also volunteers, are actually enrolled in the armed forces).
The legal system is based on a varied collection of legal principles including common law and written laws.
The death penalty is in force (though not in Hong Kong or Macau) for a vast range of crimes and is widely applied: the number of executions is kept confidential but totals a few thousand every year.
|Homicides||0.6||per 100 000 pop.||2016|
|Shanghai||20 217 748||inhab.||2010|
|Beijing||11 716 000||inhab.||2010|
|Beijing||19 618 000||inhab.||2018|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2018)|
China is the most populous country in the world. Family planning campaigns, especially the “one-child policy” enforced from 1979 to 2015, have dramatically reduced the birth rate. As a result of the traditional preference for male children (which led to an increase in the practise of killing female babies at birth), there are now many more men than women.
The over-60s population is growing dramatically. Ethnic minorities (about 130 million individuals from Chinese-Tibetan and Altaic ethnic groups) are found especially in outlying parts of the country. A constant flow of people from rural areas is swelling the population of the large metropolitan areas. From the mid-19th century, large-scale emigration has led to the creation of numerous Chinese communities in South-East Asia, America and Europe. The huaqiao, as Chinese living overseas are known, are estimated to number approximately 50 million.
|Chinese folk religion||21.9||%||2010|
The slowdown in growth since 2011 continued in 2018-19, due in part to the tariffs imposed by the USA, which affected Chinese exports; not only did the manufacturing and building sectors feel its effects, but the service industry did as well, putting the middle class in difficulty, which resulted in a drop in consumption. It is against this backdrop that the result of traditional countercyclical tools (investments in infrastructure and credit incentives) remains uncertain. The expansive monetary policy, together with the exorbitant debt of businesses and provinces, is an element of heightened instability. In an attempt to stem these excesses, in 2017, many debt-ridden companies were investigated and the flow of direct investments abroad were reduced. A block on salary growth and the increase in the prices of staple goods risk feeding the public’s discontent. The thirteenth five-year plan, adopted in 2016, reiterated the previous plan’s objectives, strongly aimed at developing services and the domestic market in order to make the country less dependent on exports and the heavy industry, now at overcapacity.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||139.23||index||2016|
|Balance of trade||351 140||M US$||2018|
|Active population||787 551 371||units||2018|
|Active population, Females||43.6||%||2018|
|Unemployment rate, Females||37.7||%||2018|
|Expenses||20 308 500||M LCU||2017|
|Revenues||17 259 300||M LCU||2017|
|Currency in circulation||55 168.6||BN LCU||2018|
|International reserves||3 168 216.3||M US$||2018|
Agriculture and forests.
Rice is the most important crop, and is widely grown in the south-east (especially in the Chang Jiang Valley). Wheat is grown mainly in the great plains of the Huang He. Maize is widespread in the Huang He plain and in Manchuria. Barley, oats, rye, sorghum and millet are commonly grown in Manchuria, Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet. Other very important crops grown for domestic consumption are potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, soya (the typical crop of Manchuria), fruit and vegetables. Crops grown for oil include sesame and rapeseed (in the Chang Jiang valley), peanuts (Huang He valley), tung (Vernicia fordii, in Sichuan) and the castor-oil plant. Among the main exported products are garlic, soybeans, tomatoes, apples and beans. Tea is widely grown, especially in the middle reaches of the Chang Jiang valley and the coastal provinces of Zhejiang and Fujian. Sugar cane is grown mainly in Guangxi, beetroot in Manchuria. There is a flourishing tobacco industry (Guizhou, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan). Plants grown for textiles include cotton (in the central and eastern provinces and in Xinjiang), ramie, jute, kenaf, sisal and flax. The forests provide large quantities of timber and rubber. Extensive reforestation programmes have been implemented to counter soil degradation.
Pig-farming is very important (pigs supply most of the meat and animal fat), also poultry and farmyard animals. Relatively few cattle are reared. Sheep and goats are farmed on the high plateaux. In Tibet, yaks are the typical livestock.
In many provinces, silkworm farming is common.
In the south of Manchuria, a type of wild silkworm produces the raw silk for making tussah silk.
Fishing (both in marine areas and inland waters) as well as aquaculture are of primary importance for feeding the domestic population. Tianjin, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Yantai, Dalian and Shanghai are the main fish-processing centres.
|barley||1 897.318||1000 t||2017|
|cereals, total||617 930.299||1000 t||2017|
|cassava||4 847.098||1000 t||2017|
|potatoes||99 147||1000 t||2017|
|asparagus||7 843.162||1000 t||2017|
|beans, dry||1 322.214||1000 t||2017|
|beans, green||19 281.055||1000 t||2017|
|grapes||13 083||1000 t||2017|
|castor oil seed||55||1000 t||2017|
|groundnuts||17 092||1000 t||2017|
|oil palm fruits||671.347||1000 t||2017|
|tung nuts||370.083||1000 t||2017|
|sugar beet||9 384||1000 t||2017|
|seed cotton||17 148.459||1000 t||2017|
|flax fibre and tow||12||1000 t||2017|
|hemp tow waste||16.575||1000 t||2017|
|apples||41 390||1000 t||2017|
|cashew nuts||0.214||1000 t||2017|
|citrus fruits||38 853.849||1000 t||2017|
|citrus fruits, nes||5 287.861||1000 t||2017|
|bananas||11 170||1000 t||2017|
|mushrooms||7 855.698||1000 t||2017|
|maize||42 399||1000 ha||2017|
|potatoes||5 765.144||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, dry||801.588||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, green||680.762||1000 ha||2017|
|castor oil seed||30||1000 ha||2017|
|groundnuts||4 608||1000 ha||2017|
|oil palm fruit||50.826||1000 ha||2017|
|tung nuts||140.871||1000 ha||2017|
|sugar beet||174||1000 ha||2017|
|seed cotton||3 625.385||1000 ha||2017|
|flax fibre and tow||2.4||1000 ha||2017|
|hemp tow waste||4.841||1000 ha||2017|
|apples||2 220.23||1000 ha||2017|
|cashew nuts||0.191||1000 ha||2017|
|citrus fruits||2 598.472||1000 ha||2017|
|citrus fruits, nes||166.704||1000 ha||2017|
|natural rubber||817 366||t||2017|
|timber||327 725 324||m³||2017|
|cattle||83 209.6||1000 heads||2017|
|cattle and buffaloes||106 679||1000 heads||2017|
|buffaloes||23 469.4||1000 heads||2017|
|pigs||435 037.1||1000 heads||2017|
|sheep||161 350.8||1000 heads||2017|
|goats||139 769.4||1000 heads||2017|
|asses||4 568.5||1000 heads||2017|
|asses and mules||6 497.1||1000 heads||2017|
|birds||5 899 837||1000 heads||2017|
|silk, raw||126||1000 t||2014|
|crustaceans and molluscs||23 336 734.517||t||2017|
One of the most plentiful mineral resources is coal (China mines almost half of the world’s total). The main deposits are found in Hebei (at Kaiping, Tangshan, Jingshing and Lincheng), in Shandong (at Zibo-Boshan, Yanzhou, Xinglong, Zechuan and Jingxian), in Shanxi (at Taiyuan, Pingding, Licheng and Datong), in Jiangxi (at Pingxiang) and in Manchuria (at Fuxin, Benxi, Fushun, Jiamusi, Jixi, Hegang, Huolinhe and Huainan).
Oil extraction is important: the largest reserves are at Daqing (in Heilongjiang), Yumen (in Gansu), Karamay, Tuha and Dushanzi (in Xinjiang), Qaidam (in Qinghai), Liaohe (in Liaoning), in the valley of the River Jialing (in Sichuan), at Renqiu (in Hebei) and Zhongyuan (in Henan). There are important oil pipelines running between Daqing and Qinhuangdao, Linyi and Nanjing, Dongying and Linyi, as well as the connections between the Caspian sea in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, and between Russian Siberia and Daqing. There are reasonable reserves of natural gas (in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia Hui and Xinjiang). A gas pipeline connects the reserves of Turkmenistan and Xinjiang, which is, in turn, connected to the coastal regions. Uranium is mined at Ürümqi, in Xinjiang.
The largest iron deposits are at Anshan, Wuhan, Daya, Baotou and Longyen. Manganese is mined in Liaoning, Hunan and Guangxi Zhuang. Nickel is mined at Jinchuan (in Gansu). Tungsten is mined at Kükong, Anyuan, Pangushan and Xihuashan. Other important minerals are zinc, tin (mined at Gejiu, in Yunnan), lead, magnesite (at Cijiao, in Manchuria), antimony (at Xinhua, in Hunan) and rare earths (in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Inner Mongolia, Sichuan).
Much of China’s electrical energy comes from thermal coal power plants, but the amount generated by hydro-electric plants has increased in recent years with the opening of new plants on the great dams at Xiaolangdi, on the Huang He (or Yellow River) and the Three Gorges Dam, on the Yangtze River (the Chang Jiang). There are nuclear power plants near Dalian, Beijing and Shenzhen, in Fujian, Guangxi, Guangdong, on Hainan island, in Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong and Zhejiang, for a total of 48 reactors, with 9 more under construction. Photovoltaic an wind power plants are also expanding.
Heavy industry (mining, iron and steel, metalworking, basic chemicals) tends to be concentrated in the north-east of the country. Light industry (textiles, garment-making, computers, consumer electronics, pharmaceuticals, electrical household appliances, clocks and watches, furniture and toys) tend to be concentrated in the south of the country along the coast, and especially in the Special Economic Zones (Shenzhen, Shuhai, Shantou, Xiamen, Pudong, and Hainan Island). The main centres for iron and steel are in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (at Huangshi and Wuhan) and in Manchuria (at Anshan, Dalian, Fushun and Benxi). The processing of aluminium is widespread (at Harbin, Fushun, Qinhuangdao, Guiyang and Lanzhou), also of nickel (at Jinchuan, in Gansu), zinc and lead (at Zhuzhou, Huludao, Shaoguan, Gejiu, Sidin and Shenyang). The basic chemicals sector has large petro-chemical plants at Anshan, Daqing, Dushanzi, Fushun, Lanzhou, Hangzhou, Lenghu, Maoming, Nanjing, Nanchong, Beijing, Qilu, Shanghai, Shengli, Ürümqi, Yanshan and Yumen. In the provinces of Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei and Guangdong there are modern production facilities for artificial textile fibres, synthetic rubber and plastic materials. In the provinces of Liaoning and Guangdong they refine the local oil sands. Cement is produced on a very large scale (at Jidong, Datong, Lanzhou and Nanping).
The engineering and electro-mechanic sectors are highly developed: hi-tech electrical and electronic material (at Beijing, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Shanghai, Jilin and Zhengzhou); machinery for the automotive industry (at Shenyang); farm machinery, railway rolling stock, textiles and bicycles (at Dalian, Taiyuan, Fuxian, Changchun and Tianjin); televisions (at Dandong); precision mechanics (at Chengdu); photographic equipment (Beijing, Changzhou and Shanghai); locomotives (at Changzhou); aircraft (at Xi’an, Pudong (Shanghai), Shenyang and Chengdu); shipyards (Shanghai, Hudong, Dalian, Jiangnan, Guangzhou and Zhonghua); cars, industrial vehicles and tractors (at Changchun, Beijing, Dalian, Jinan, Tianjin, Shanghai, Yuncheng, Nanjing and Chongqing). China is the world’s largest automotive manufacturer (about 28 million vehicles in 2018) with a greatly increasing domestic market.
The textile industry is one of the pillars of the Chinese economy. The cotton industry is particularly important. In addition to the old textile areas around Shanghai there are now plants in the new cotton areas: at Zhengzhou (in Henan), Xi’an and Xianyang (in Shaanxi), Beijing, Shijiazhuang (in Hebei), Chengdu (in Sichuan) and Xiangtan (in Hunan). The Manchurian textile industry also has modern production facilities (at Harbin, Shenyang, Jinzhou, Liaoyang, Dalian, Yingkou and so on), also the silk industry (at Hangzhou, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Suzhou, Yantai-Chefoo and Qingdao). The wool industry is based at Shanghai, Hohhot and Tianjin.
The most important segments in the food sector are rice-polishing and grinding flour (in Shanghai).
The oil industry is concentrated at Shanghai and in Manchuria, where soya is processed in particular. The sugar, beer and tobacco industries are all well developed. Other important sectors are paper (at Longyu, Chikouchen, Huiduchen in Tianjin, and Yingkou and Jiamusi in Manchuria) and timber processing, especially panels for furniture. Other typically Chinese industries are glass, porcelain (factories at Jingdezhen, near Jiujiang, at Guangzhou and throughout Jiangxi), lacquer (at Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Ningbo), paper parasols (at Luzhou) and fans.
|coal||3 255 556.6||1000 t||2017|
|coal, total||3 683 000||1000 t||2018|
|bauxite||70 000||1000 t||2018|
|barite||3 200||1000 t||2018|
|kaolin||3 200||1000 t||2018|
|diamonds, industrial - ct||1 000||1000 ct||2012|
|- thermal||4 157 282.54||M kWh||2016|
|- hydro||1 150 948||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||1 054 000||1000 kW||2016|
|- hydro||305 420||1000 kW||2016|
|total net generation||5 882 943.54||M kWh||2016|
|total installed capacity||1 653 215||1000 kW||2016|
|alumina||72 000||1000 t||2018|
|aluminium||33 000||1000 t||2018|
|bikes||71 052 400||no.||2017|
|cars||23 529 423||no.||2018|
|cameras||23 082 700||no.||2017|
|watches and clocks||161 866 100||no.||2016|
|air conditioners||178 615 300||no.||2017|
|computers||172 435 200||no.||2017|
|bitumen||21 715.8||1000 t||2016|
|petrol||132 761.9||1000 t||2017|
|ammonia||44 000||1000 t||2018|
|artificial tow||483.2||1000 t||2001|
|cotton fabrics - m||26 857||M m||2005|
|cotton yarn||15 959||1000 t||2005|
|footwear||4 618 157 300||pairs||2016|
|beer of barley||49 219||1000 t||2014|
|cottonseed oil||1 540.6||1000 t||2014|
|cigarettes||2 344 825||M units||2017|
|cigars and cigarettes||2 344 825||M units||2017|
|chemical pulp||9 534||1000 t||2017|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||10 399||1000 t||2017|
|cement||2 370 000||1000 t||2018|
|chemicals production||348 673.9||M US$||2016|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||381 366.3||M US$||2016|
The Chinese trade balance is traditionally in surplus. To encourage international trade and offer outlets for the building sectors, the country has promoted extensive plans for overseas infrastructure investments.
Main exports (M US$ - 2017) electrical and electronic material 313 045, telecommunications equipment 219 422, machinery and home appliances 189 877, computers and accessories 175 127, apparel and accessories 145 563, iron and steel 100 375, furniture and accessories 89 817, chemicals 80 998, optical and electro-medical appliances 70 648, plastics 70 646, vehicles and parts thereof 67 358, electronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 66 508, toys and sports equipment 55 259, footwear 48 438, leather goods 29 118, synthetic and artificial fibres/yarns/fabrics 30 032, petroleum products 26 779, household linens 26 469, ships and boats 22 905, aluminium 22 642, fresh and preserved fish 20 412, ceramics 19 997, paper and paperboard 18 418, jewels and precious stones 17 780, articles of base metal 17 480, fabrics 16 509, fruit and vegetables 16 505, glass 15 850, miscellaneous manufactured articles 15 649, cotton 15 133, tools and implements 15 076
Finance and banking.
The People’s Bank of China acts as the central bank. The country purchased a substantial part of the USA’s foreign debt over the years by signing bond issues. The government bond and bond market is one of the most important in the world. The internationalization of the country has encouraged the development of commercial banks, and hundreds of foreign banks have opened branches; an element of fragility in the banking system is insufficient capitalization. There has been a considerable increase in stock exchanges: the most important are in Hong Kong, Shanghai and Shenzhen. A policy of credit enhancement has led to an increase in speculative investments, which have brought about repeated episodes of instability in the financial markets.
|manufactures||93.595||% of goods exports||2017|
|food products||3.027||% of goods exports||2017|
|United States||479 702||M US$||2018|
|Hong Kong||302 960||M US$||2018|
|Korea, South||204 566||M US$||2018|
|Japan||180 402||M US$||2018|
Tourism. Tourism is experiencing strong growth, supported by large investments and an increase in business tourism: China is one of the most visited countries in the world. Its chief attractions include the Forbidden City in Beijing, the Great Wall, the tombs of the Ming Emperors and the Terracotta Warriors of Xi’an.
|Expenditures||257 733||M US$||2017|
|Number of arrivals||60 740 000||units||2017|
The most widely used form of transport is the railway (40% of goods and 45% of passengers) and water (45% of goods handled). The development of the high-speed rail network proceeds apace, with more than 30 000 km already operational. In 2006 a new line was opened between Qinghai and Tibet which crosses the Tangula Pass at 5072 m (the highest in the world). The most important navigable rivers are the Yangtze River (the Chang Jiang) and the Grand Imperial Canal which connects it to the Yellow River (the Huang He), the River Amur (the Heilongjiang) and the Pearl River (the Zhu Jiang). The road network is particularly highly developed along the east coast. Here, most of the cities are linked by motorways which have reached a total length of over 120 000 km. In 2011 the world’s longest bridge (Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge) was opened to traffic, 164.8 km long, connecting the two cities of the same name along the high-speed rail Beijing-Shanghai.
Media and telecommunication.
The telecommunications sector is developing extremely quickly, but only part of the country is covered by telephone services. Most of the content accessible on the Internet is controlled by the Government.
|Civil aviation, km flown||1 541 900 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||551 234.5||1000 units||2017|
|Broadband subscribers||268.56||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Computers||57||per 1000 pop.||2008|
Social and welfare
& research. Compulsory education is organized into a primary cycle of six years and a secondary cycle of five years. Most of the schools providing secondary education offer technical and scientific or language-based syllabuses. There are about 2000 universities.
Social security and health.
The social welfare system includes old age pensions, unemployment benefits, health care and insurance for accidents in the workplace.
The pension age is 60 years for men and 50/55 for women, but a progressive increase has been established.
|Expected years of schooling||14||years||2015|
|Teachers, primary level||6 045 682||units||2017|
|Teachers, secondary level||6 266 954||units||2017|
|Social protection spending||22.9||% of total expenses||2016|
|Hospital beds||5.7||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Physicians||2.4||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|HIV||-0.1||% of adults||2011|
|Museums, visitors||971 720 000||units||2017|
|Research and development spending||2.1||% of GDP||2017|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||59.26||%||2016|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2017|
|education, culture, recreation||11.4||%||2017|