Form of Government: Republic
Area: 756 096 sq km
Population: 17 574 003 inhab. (census 2017)
Density: 23.24 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 17° - 56° S; long. 76° - 66° W
Capital: Santiago (administrative capital) 6 310 000 inhab. (2017); Santiago 7 112 808 inhab. (2017), urban agglomeration; Valparaíso (legislative capital) 296 655 inhab. (2017);
Currency: Chilean peso (100 centavos)
Human development index: 0.843 (rank: 44)
President and head of government: Sebastián Piñera (National Renewal), elected 17 December 2017, in office since 11 March 2018
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 19 November 2017: Chile Vamos (centre-right coalition), 72; The Force of the Majority (centre-left coalition), 43; Broad Front (left coalition), 20; others, 20
Internet: www.ine.cl (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas)
Member of APEC, Mercosur associated, OAS, OECD, UN, UNASUR, WTO

Chile

Chile, República de Chile
Useful information

International license plate code RCH
International dialling code 0056
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cl

GMT  -4
DST  -3
DST duration (start-end) mid October (Sunday 12)-mid March (Sunday 9)

Annual average temperature (°C) Santiago 14.7; Antofagasta 16.3; Punta Arenas 6.6
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Santiago 20.5/9; Antofagasta 20/13; Punta Arenas 10.5/1.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Santiago 4/11; Antofagasta 6/9; Punta Arenas 3/8
Annual average precipitation (mm) Santiago 355; Antofagasta 8; Punta Arenas 450
Days of rainfall (annual average) Santiago 31; Antofagasta 0; Punta Arenas 75

Politics and current affairs

On 17 December 2017, Sebastián Piñera of the centre-right coalition was elected president for a second term with 54.6% of the votes, previously filling the role from 2010 to 2014.

Geography.
Chile is bordered by Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east and Argentina to the east (the border follows the line of the Andes Mountain Chain).
The South Pacific Ocean lies off its west coast. The country forms a long, thin strip (4300 km), with an average width of 175 km, between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean.
The mountains, the highest peaks of which are Mount Aconcagua (6962 m) and Mount Ojos del Salado (6893 m), occupy about one third of the land. The main rivers are the Loa and the Biobío. The climate varies in different parts of the country. In the north, the climate is hot and dry, in the centre the climate is Mediterranean while, in the south, there is a cold, temperate oceanic climate.
Chile also owns the Desventuradas Islands (part of the Atacama region, 3.33 km², and including San Felix 1.6 km², San Ambrosio 1.5 km² and Gonzales 0.2 km²) and the Juan Fernández Islands (part of the Valparaíso region, 185 km², population 509, and including Robinson Crusoe Island, formerly Más a Tierra, 95 km², Alejandro Selkirk, formerly Más Afuera, 85 km², and Santa Clara, 5 km². Chile has also been granted sovereignty over the islands of Picton, Nueva and Lennox, in the Beagle Channel.

Government


Chile became independent from Spain on 18 September 1818. In the 1925 Constitution, Chile assumed the character of a western-style democracy. During the following decades, Chile enjoyed a certain amount of political and social stability until 11 September 1973, when the left-wing government of Salvador Allende (in power since 1970) was toppled by a coup supported by the United States.
The military junta of General Augusto Pinochet closed down Parliament, dissolved the political parties, abolished the Constitution, abolished civil liberties and proceeded to install a regime based on ruthless repression. The first signs of a return to democracy appeared in 1980, when a popular vote approved a new Constitution (which came into force on 11 March 1981 and was altered again in a referendum on 30 July 1989). On 8 October 1988, the committee governing elections rejected General Pinochet’s bid to stay in power for another eight years and at the subsequent 1989 elections the candidate for the united opposition, Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, was elected President of the Republic, putting an end to the long authoritarian regime.
The President of the Republic, who is elected by direct suffrage, is also head of the government.
The new Constitution, which came into force on 17 September 2005, reduced the presidential mandate from six years to four; it cannot be renewed. Legislative power lies in the hands of the National Congress, which comprises the Chamber of Deputies (155 members, elected for four years) and the Senate (43 members, who stay in office for eight years, half being renewed every four years). In 2015 an electoral reform was approved, increasing the representation of lesser parties and which will bring the number of members of the House to 150 and those of the Senate to 50. The Congress has been headquartered in Valparaíso since 1987.


Defence.
Military service is almost completely voluntary. It lasts for one year in the army and for 22 months in the navy and the air force.


Justice.
The legal system is based on Spanish Law.
Divorce became legal in Chile in 2004.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force14.3%2018
Army60%2018
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes398.4per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides3.6per 100 000 pop.2017
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Santiago6 310 000inhab.2017
Puente Alto568 106inhab.2017
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Santiago7 112 808inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate13.12017
Death rate6.22017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mestizo72%2002
white22%2002


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic66.7%2012
Protestant16.4%2012


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Amerindian languages
Spanish (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years20%2018
15-29 years22.8%2018


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Economy


Economic situation.
The economy’s growth, one of the most developed in South America, is supported above all by revenue from exports, particularly copper, which are partially stored in a sovereign fund used to finance the deficit in difficult periods. The role of foreign investments is significant, which offset part of the deficit of the current accounts. The tax burden was redistributed in order to weigh primarily on higher incomes and companies in an attempt to reduce the substantial social disparity.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.51index2016
Balance of trade1 292.7M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population9 018 089units2018
Active population, Females41.8%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate7%2018
Unemployment rate, Females46.1%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses41 195 194M LCU2018
Revenues41 225 205M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture9.2%2018
industry22.3%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture4.2%2017
industry32.8%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation9 475BN LCU2018
International reserves39 858.8M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture.
Most of the large commercial estates, which constitute about three-quarters of the cultivated land and produce mainly for export, lie in the centre of Chile. In the north, smallholdings predominate, based on subsistence farming (growing legumes and cereals).
The most important sectors for export are fruit and vegetables (grapes, apples, kiwifruit, pears, plums, peaches and tomatoes), sugar beet and wine, a sector where quality is constantly on the increase. Although cereal crops are very important (wheat, barley, oats, maize and rice), harvests are not enough to meet the country’s requirements.
Forests.
Forests are located in the south of the country and include several southern species of beech, including the Nothofagus obliqua and some conifers, e.g. the prized larch (Fitzroya cupressoides), as well as poplars and eucalyptus.
Livestock.
Livestock farming is practised extensively; llama and alpaca are kept on the plateaux for their highly-prized wool.
Fishing.
Fishing plays a vital role in the Chilean economy and fuels a fish oil and fish-flour industry. Anchovies, sardines, cod, mackerel and seafood are among the species fished the most. Fish farming produces salmon, sole, trout and shellfish.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land2.38%2015
forests23.85%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley95.4821000 t2017
cereals, total3 471.2091000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes1 426.4791000 t2017
roots and tubers, total1 442.7131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes11.1171000 t2017
asparagus9.8131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry17.4421000 t2017
beans, green42.9481000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes2 0001000 t2017
raisins641000 t2006
Agriculture - products - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olives116.2311000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed183.1911000 t2017
soybeans01000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet1 770.4971000 t2017
tobacco4.3151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow3.1391000 t2017
linseed1.3661000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste4.1691000 t2017
hempseed1.5241000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples1 766.211000 t2017
apricots7.7011000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds32.9791000 t2017
hazelnuts18.3251000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits382.4741000 t2017
grapefruits1.1621000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados133.6361000 t2017
papayas2.6581000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley13.5741000 ha2017
maize94.6681000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes54.0821000 ha2017
sweet potatoes1.3921000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
artichokes1.4641000 ha2017
cabbages2.031000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry11.5451000 ha2017
beans, green2.6721000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape2151000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Olive
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
olive21.9041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed46.2491000 ha2017
soybeans01000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar beet16.3831000 ha2017
tobacco1.4441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow2.7921000 ha2017
linseed2.9821000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste4.4111000 ha2017
hempseed2.4611000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples35.9371000 ha2017
apricots0.7531000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
almonds8.0991000 ha2017
hazelnuts13.6931000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits19.2351000 ha2017
grapefruits0.2621000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados30.0781000 ha2017
papayas0.1551000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber62 108 7892017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle2 890.841000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes2 890.841000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs2 505.5031000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep2 037.5161000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats447.1411000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses15.651000 heads2017
asses and mules22.651000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds134 3981000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey111000 t2013
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter21.8741000 t2014
cheese88.7051000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs589 957.5t2017
freshwater fishes915t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The main mineral produced is copper (with deposits at El Salvador, El Teniente, Chuquicamata and Andina, which have smelting and refining plants close by). Copper-processing generates various by-products including arsenic, molybdenum, rhenium and selenium.
Other important minerals are gold (deposits at Andacollo and Marga Marga), silver (at La Serena, Taltal and Caracoles) and sulfur (on the slopes of Aucanquilcha). Molybdenum is mined at Valparaíso, Vallenar, Santiago and Coquimbo.
Iron is mined at El Laco (Antofagasta), Carmen, Las Adrianitas, Cerro Imán, Bandurrias, Boquerón-Chañar, El Algarrobo (Atacama), El Pleito, El Romeral and El Dorado (Coquimbo). There are significant lithium reserves (Salar de Atacama). Deposits of nitrates (Chile saltpetre) are found in northern Chile (at Iquique, Antofagasta, Tocopilla and Taltal). By-products of sodium nitrate include borax (at Ascotán, Chilcaya and Pedernal) and iodine. Oil is extracted in the south of the country (at Cerro Manantiales in Tierra del Fuego). A 72-km pipeline long takes the crude oil to the port at Caleta Clarencia. Refineries are in operation at Concón, near Valparaíso, Hualpén, near Concepción, and at San Gregorio, in Patagonia. There are natural gas reserves at Pampa Larga, Punta Delgada and Chanarcillo, but most of the demand is satisfied by import. Coal is mined in the provinces of Arauco and Magallanes.
Energy and industry.
Much of the electrical energy produced in Chile comes from hydro-electric schemes (power-plants on the rivers Biobío, Melado, Raja, Rapel and near Colbún Lake). Re-gasification plants are located at Mejillones and Quintero. In particular, industrial activities are linked to the processing of the raw materials obtained from mining, farming and forestry. In addition to copper-working (at Chuquicamata, El Teniente-Caletones, Potrerillos, El Salvador, Paipote, Las Ventanas, Chagres and Antofagasta), iron and steel is important (at Huachipato, Talcahuano and Corral). The chemical industry produces caustic soda, sulfuric acid and nitrogenous fertilizers. At Calama explosives are made for the mining industry. At Santiago there are pharmaceutical plants.
One of the main segments of the economy is textiles, using Chilean wool (at Tomé, Concepción, Valparaíso and Santiago) and imported cotton. There are rayon production plants at Llolleo and Quillota. Synthetic fibres are produced at San Joaquín and Santiago. There are tanneries and footwear factories at Valdivia, Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción and Chillán. In the food-processing segment, the most important sectors are fish, frozen meat and conserves (at Punta Arenas, Ancud, Osorno, Valparaíso, Coquimbo, Antofagasta and Iquique), as well as sugar refining (at Chillán, Curicó, Linares, Los Ángeles) and beer. The engineering and electro-mechanical industry consists almost exclusively of vehicle assembly workshops (at Arica). The paper industry is concentrated at Santiago, Valdivia and Talca. Cigarettes, tyres and cement are also produced (near Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción, and at San Antonio, Curicó, Puerto Montt).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal2 963.21000 t2018
coal, total2 963.21000 t2018
Mineral resources - Metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
copper5 8001000 t2018
iron ore15 4261000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite1.41000 t2016
boron5601000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite271000 t2017
kaolin601000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold37 911kg2017
silver1 300 000kg2018
Mineral resources - Other minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arsenic101000 t2014
iodine18 000t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal42 289.66M kWh2016
- hydro22 808M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal15 2321000 kW2016
- hydro6 6711000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation76 090.66M kWh2016
total installed capacity24 5301000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coke, metall.4001000 t2016
copper2 6881000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes8 000no.2010
tractors298no.2008
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks2 924no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners510no.2016
computers1 130no.2012
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4501000 t2006
petrol3 947.71000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
caustic soda115.61000 t2016
nitrogen fertilizers1061000 t2016
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets1 548.51000 m²2016
cotton fabrics - m7.55M m2016
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear801 423pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley7001000 t2014
cottonseed oil0.91000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes20 027.1M units2016
cigars and cigarettes20 027.1M units2016
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp4 9211000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp5 1931000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement5 0001000 t2016
sheet glass368.51000 m²2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 842.5M US$2016
food, beverages and tobacco production11 589.8M US$2016
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Trade


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Chile’s main trading partners are China, the USA, Brazil, Japan, South Korea and Argentina. Chile has signed free-trade agreements with the USA, China and many other countries and international organizations, including the EU and Mercosur.


Main exports (M US$ - 2017) refined copper 17 799, copper ores 17 404, fresh and preserved fruit 6 033, fresh and preserved fish 5 585, wood pulp 2 614, timber 2 233, chemicals 2 116, wine 2 018, molybdenum 986, iron ores 983, gold and silver 932, meat 813, vehicles and parts thereof 798, machinery 673, fruit & vegetable juices and preserves 610, fertilizers 565, iron and steel 535, paper 480, plastics 461, petroleum products 445, electric and electronic equipment 412


Finance
and banking.
The Banco Central de Chile acts as Chile’s central bank. The main bank is the Banco del Estado, which is state-owned. There is a stock exchange at Santiago.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ores and metals53.537% of goods exports2018
food products24.467% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China25 287M US$2018
United States10 412M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
China17 504M US$2018
United States14 000M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201875 482M US$ -
201769 230M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
201874 189M US$ -
201765 063M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. The main attractions for tourists are the Andean ski resorts, its beaches, Tierra del Fuego and Easter Island.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures2 982M US$2017
Number of arrivals6 450 000units2017
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Communications


Transport.
The most important road in Chile is the Pan-American Highway (3369 km) between Arica and Puerto Montt. The Trans-Andean Highway, which connects Chile to Argentina, is very important for trade.
The railway network is based on Santiago; four lines cross the Andes (to Argentina and Bolivia) but are little used.
The port and airport networks are highly developed.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown136 400 000km flown2009
Civil aviation, passengers carried17 641.11000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers169.428per 1000 pop.2017
Computers141.1per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education and research.
With the approval of a law in 2013, pre-school education became mandatory and free of charge for children over 2 years, bringing the overall duration of mandatory education to 13 years.


Social security.
The social security system (which dates from 1981) provides free hospital care for all citizens over the age of 60. The pension system was privatized in 1980 and reformed in 2008 to cover more people.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.5years2017
Gradautes, percentage22.5%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level85 130units2017
Teachers, secondary level82 797units2017
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending25.5% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending10.9% of GDP2017
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds2.1per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians2.4per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV0.6% of adults2017
HIV, total0.1%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums27units2017
Museums, visitors2 677 202units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.37% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking92.28%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.4%2016-17
education6.5%2016-17
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