Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 284 000 sq km
Population: 15 775 200 inhab. (estimate 2019)
Density: 12.29 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 8° N; long. 14° - 24° E
Capital: N’Djamena (capital) 1 322 679 inhab. (2018);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.404 (rank: 186)
President and head of government: Idriss Déby (MPS), since 1 December 1990, first elected 3 July 1996, last re-elected 10 April 2016
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 13 February 2011: ART (Alliance for the Renewal of Chad, formed by the MPS, Patriotic Salvation Movement; the RDP, Rally for Democracy and Progress; Viva-RNDP, (National Rally for Development and Progress), 133; UNDR (National Union for Democracy and Renewal), 11; others, 44
Internet: www.inseed-tchad.org (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, CEMAC, EU associated, OIC, UN, WTO

Chad

Tchad, Tshād, République du Tchad, Jumhūrīyah Tshād
Useful information

International license plate code TCH
International dialling code 00235
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .td

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) N’djamena 28
Average temperature in January/July (°C) N’djamena 23.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) N’djamena 8/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) N’djamena 599
Days of rainfall (annual average) N’djamena 58

Geography.
Chad borders with Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south and Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger to the west.
The country includes a part of Lake Chad, the valleys of the Rivers Logone and Chari, a number of plateaus (Erdi and Ennedi). It also includes the highest part of the Tibesti Mountains (Emi Koussi, 3415 m) and the Bodélé depression. In the south, the rainy season lasts 6 months; the northern region is steppe and mostly desert.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Chad has been independent since 11 August 1960. After President F. N. Tombalbaye was overthrown in 1975, the country has seen numerous coup d’états, the latest of which brought General Idriss Déby to power in 1990. The country is hosting around 400 000 refugees from the Central African Republic, Nigeria and Sudan. Interethnic conflicts are common and many rebel groups exist, like the UFR (Union of Resistance Forces) and the CCMSR (Military Command Council for the Salvation of the Republic). Since 2015, the western part of the country has been subject to attacks by the Islamic extremist group Boko Haram.
According to the Constitution of 2018, the President (elected by direct suffrage for a six-year term and re-eligible only once) is also head of the government; the National Assembly is made up of 188 members elected for five years.
The elections scheduled for 2015 have been postponed several times.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.2%2015
Army82.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9per 100 000 pop.2015
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
N’Djamena1 322 679inhab.2018
Moundou137 251inhab.2009
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate42.82017
Death rate12.72017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sara27.7%1993
Arab12.3%1993


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim58%2009
Catholic18%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years48.1%2018
15-29 years26.7%2018


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)149.68index2016
Balance of trade-1 100M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 814 370units2018
Active population, Females45.7%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females53.4%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses887 000M LCU2018
Revenues944 000M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture81.6%2018
industry3.1%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture32.2%2017
industry25.4%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation450.59BN LCU2018
International reserves147.75M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
Farming is practised in the southern regions; cereals (sorghum, millet and maize) are grown for local consumption, as are sweet potatoes, cassavas, dates, beans and sesame seeds; the only significant crop for export is cotton (Baguirmi, Ouaddai and lower Chari). Livestock farming is widespread in the Kanem, Batha and Ouaddai areas. Fishing in Lake Chad and the River Chari is an important source of food, although the size of Lake Chad is reducing significantly.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land3.92%2015
forests3.87%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 716.9011000 t2017
maize396.5061000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava290.5841000 t2017
potatoes41.4991000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry19.6131000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry151.9741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts870.0941000 t2017
sesame seed158.7151000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane461.0041000 t2017
tobacco0.181000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1201000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total121.3251000 t2014
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates20.0111000 t2017
mangoes35.2811000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize335.6371000 ha2017
millet1 165.4591000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava35.1941000 ha2017
potatoes4.2161000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry1.3871000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry209.3091000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts768.0561000 ha2017
sesame seed297.6541000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4.4741000 ha2017
tobacco0.1481000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton1201000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates10.5761000 ha2017
mangoes8.8631000 ha2017
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 634 2542017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle27 603.2031000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes27 603.2031000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1101000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep30 789.4841000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats34 408.1011000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses3 186.5811000 heads2017
asses and mules3 186.5811000 heads2017
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels7 285.3091000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds6 1691000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.0621000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.5261000 t2014
eggs7.51000 t2017
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes107 475t2017
total catch107 495t2017
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Petrol is the main natural resource and is found in Sédigui, the Doba basin and Komé with a refinery at N’Djamena and a pipeline that transports crude oil to the port of Kribi in Cameroon. Bicarbonate of soda is extracted at Lake Chad. Industries are restricted to agriculture and food processing and a factory for tractor production in N’Djamena. The CFA franc is pegged to the Euro at a fixed exchange rate.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude6 583.51000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt101000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold14kg2016
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal215M kWh2016
non-renewable electricity generation95.853%2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal471000 kW2016
- other renew.1.21000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation224.3M kWh2016
total installed capacity48.21000 kW2016
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Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1.11000 t2016
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soda ash131000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley651000 t2014
cottonseed oil7.11000 t2014
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes, packs40M units2004
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2001000 t2016
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production298.2M US$2016
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Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20181 900M US$ -
20171 600M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20183 000M US$ -
20172 700M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures98M US$2014
Number of arrivals87 000units2017
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Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2001
Civil aviation, passengers carried28.31000 units2014
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.702per 1000 pop.2017
Computers1.6per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling8years2014
Graduates1 166units2008
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level38 905units2016
Teachers, secondary level19 721units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.4per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.04per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.3% of adults2017
HIV, total1.8%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.3% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.13%2016
Access to electricity10.876%2017
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