Form of Government: Republic
Area: 1 284 000 sq km
Population: 16 818 391 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 13.1 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 23° - 8° N; long. 14° - 24° E
Capital: N’Djamena (capital) 1 322 679 inhab. (2018);
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.398 (rank: 187)
Chairman of the Transitional Military Council: Mahamat ibn Idriss Déby, since 20 April 2021
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 13 February 2011: ART (Alliance for the Renewal of Chad, formed by the MPS, Patriotic Salvation Movement; the RDP, Rally for Democracy and Progress; Viva-RNDP, (National Rally for Development and Progress), 133; UNDR (National Union for Democracy and Renewal), 11; others, 44
Internet: www.inseed.td (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, CEMAC, EU associated, OIC, UN, WTO

Chad

Tchad, Tshād, République du Tchad, Jumhūrīyah Tshād
Useful information

International license plate code TCH
International dialling code 00235
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (recommended; it is also required if traveling from a country with risk of transmission); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .td

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) N’djamena 28
Average temperature in January/July (°C) N’djamena 23.5/28
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) N’djamena 8/10
Annual average precipitation (mm) N’djamena 599
Days of rainfall (annual average) N’djamena 58

Politics and current affairs

President Idriss Déby was killed on 20 April 2021 during a clash with Front for Change and Concord in Chad rebels, which had penetrated from Libya. A military council now leads the country, headed up by the son of the deceased president.

Geography.
Chad borders with Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south and Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger to the west. The country includes a part of Lake Chad, the valleys of the Rivers Logone and Chari, a number of plateaus (Erdi and Ennedi). It also includes the highest part of the Tibesti Mountains (Emi Koussi, 3415 m) and the Bodélé depression. In the south, the rainy season lasts 6 months; the northern region is steppe and mostly desert.

Government


Formerly a French colony, Chad has been independent since 11 August 1960. After President F. N. Tombalbaye was overthrown in 1975, the country has seen numerous coup d’états, the latest of which brought General Idriss Déby to power in 1990. Interethnic conflicts are common and many rebel groups exist, like the UFR (Union of Resistance Forces) and the CCMSR (Military Command Council for the Salvation of the Republic). Since 2015, the western part of the country has been subject to attacks by the Islamic extremist group Boko Haram. According to the Constitution of 2018, the President (elected by direct suffrage for a six-year term and re-eligible only once) is also head of the government; the National Assembly is made up of 188 members elected for five years. The elections scheduled for 2015 have been postponed several times.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force1.2%2015
Army82.4%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides9$per 100 000 pop.2015
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
N’Djamena1 322 679inhab.2018
Moundou137 251inhab.2009
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate41.6652019
Death rate11.9072019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Sara27.7%1993
Arab12.3%1993


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Muslim58$%2009
Catholic18$%2009


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Arabic (official)
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years47.4%2020
15-29 years26.8%2020


TOP

Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)149.68index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)118.48index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population6 211 000units2020
Active population, Females45.5%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.3%2020
Unemployment rate, Females41.1%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses924 000M LCU2019
Revenues885 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture76.6%2019
industry2.1%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture28.454%2019
industry18.74%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation504.486BN LCU2019
International reserves310.032M US$2019
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector.
Farming is practised in the southern regions; cereals (sorghum, millet and maize) are grown for local consumption, as are groundnuts, sweet potatoes, cassavas, dates, beans and sesame seeds; the only significant crop for export is cotton (Chari-Baguirmi, Guéra). Livestock farming is widespread in the Kanem, Batha and Ouaddai areas. Fishing in Lake Chad and the River Chari is an important source of food, although the size of Lake Chad is reducing significantly.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land4.16%2018
forests3.601%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total2 925.2921000 t2019
maize414.6061000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava296.9761000 t2019
potatoes39.8531000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry24.1181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry152.9031000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts939.2521000 t2019
sesame seed1701000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane477.1941000 t2019
tobacco0.181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton3251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fruits, total126.0891000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates21.4581000 t2019
mangoes35.5151000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize328.411000 ha2019
millet1 180.4311000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava36.3821000 ha2019
potatoes4.0061000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
onions, dry1.9491000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry225.4711000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts824.1981000 ha2019
sesame seed3501000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane4.5981000 ha2019
tobacco0.1461000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton140.131000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
dates11.7041000 ha2019
mangoes9.3831000 ha2019
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber8 852 9742019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle30 612.4611000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes30 612.4611000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs117.1711000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep35 863.7641000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats38 792.5971000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses3 621.241000 heads2019
asses and mules3 621.241000 heads2019
Livestock - Camelids
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
camels8 276.4161000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds6 3071000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey1.051000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter0.3021000 t2018
eggs4.051000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes107 085t2019
total catch107 105t2019
TOP

Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.
Petrol is the main natural resource and is found in Sédigui, the Doba basin and Komé with a refinery at N’Djamena and a pipeline that transports crude oil to the port of Kribi in Cameroon. Bicarbonate of soda is extracted at Lake Chad. Industries are restricted to agriculture and food processing and a factory for tractor production in N’Djamena. The CFA franc is pegged to the Euro at a fixed exchange rate.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil, crude5 776.41000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
salt10$1000 t2011
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
gold14$kg2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal220M kWh2018
non-renewable electricity generation96.07%2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal86$1000 kW2018
- other renew.1.31000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation229M kWh2018
total installed capacity87.31000 kW2018
TOP

Industry

Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen1.11000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soda ash13$1000 t2014
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley62$1000 t2018
cottonseed oil2$1000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes, packs40$M units2004
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3501000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production341.982M US$2020
TOP

Trade

Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 155M US$ -
20193 205M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20202 491M US$ -
20192 666M US$ -
TOP

Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures98$M US$2014
Number of arrivals87 000units2017
TOP

Communications

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown1 500 000km flown2001
Civil aviation, passengers carried28.31000 units2014
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers0.004per 1000 pop.2019
Computers1.6per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling7.349years2015
Graduates1 166units2008
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level2 213 223units2016
Students, secondary level535 112units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds0.4per 1000 pop.2017
Physicians0.04per 1000 pop.2017
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV1.2% of adults2019
HIV, total1.8%2001
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending0.301% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking3.8%2019
Access to electricity8.4%2019
TOP