Form of Government: Republic
Area: 78 870 sq km
Population: 10 610 055 inhab. (estimate 2017)
Density: 134.53 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 51° - 49° N; long. 12° - 19° E
Capital: Prague=Praha (capital) 1 294 513 inhab. (2017);
Currency: Czech koruna
Human development index: 0.878 (rank: 28)
President: Miloš Zeman (SPOZ), since 8 March 2013, re-elected 26-27 January 2018
Prime Minister: Andrej Babiš (ANO), since 13 December 2017
Chamber of Deputies: seats based on the elections of 20-21 October 2017: ANO 2011 (Action of Dissatisfied Citizens), 78; ODS (Civic Democratic Party, conservative), 25; Pirate Party (anti-corruption), 22; SPD (Freedom and Direct Democracy, right-wing), 22; KSČM (Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia), 15; ČSSD (Social Democratic Party), 15; KDU-ČSL (Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party), 10; others, 13
Internet: www.czso.cz (Czech Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Czechia

Česko, Česká republika
Useful information

International license plate code CZ
International dialling code 00420
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cz

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Prague 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Prague -2.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Prague 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Prague 490
Days of rainfall (annual average) Prague 93

Politics and current affairs

The elections on 20-21 October 2017 were won by ANO 2011, the party of ex-Minister of Finance Andrej Babiš, with 29% of the vote, becoming the country’s leading political force. It was a historic defeat for the Social Democrats (7.3%). However, the 47 seats won by ANO were not enough to form a majority. On 15 June 2018, the Social Democrats entered into a minority coalition with ANO, while the communists promised their support from the outside. In January 2018, the popular vote reconfirmed President Miloš Zeman, a close ally of Prime Minister Babiš.

Geography.
The Czech Republic borders with Poland to the north-east, Slovakia to the south-east, Austria to the south and Germany to the west and north-west. The country comprises two main regions: Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia extends across the upper River Elbe basin up to the Sudetes, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Bohemian Forest and the Ore Mountains. Moravia, including a small part of Silesia, has its south east border with the Little Carpathians, the White Carpathians and Mount Javorník.
The main river is the River Elbe, with its main tributaries Vltava and Ohře. The climate is continental.

Government


Formerly a part of Czechoslovakia (the state that was created in 1918 after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire), the Czech Republic was formed on 1 January 1993 after a peaceful and consensual separation from Slovakia. Until 2018, the country has been run by successive conservatives (ODS) and social democratic (CSSD) governments. The Czech Republic joined the European Union on the 1 May 2004 and has been a member of NATO since 1999. In line with the new constitutional law, which came into force in 2012, the President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The Parliament is made up of a Chamber of Deputies (200 members, elected for four-year terms), and the Senate (81 members, elected for six-year terms with a third elected every two years).


Defence and justice

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26.7%2015
Army56.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes2 062.3per 100 000 pop.2016
Homicides1.3per 100 000 pop.2016
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Prague=Praha1 294 513inhab.2017
Brno379 527inhab.2017
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2017)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.82017
Death rate10.52017
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total526 811units2017
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Czech64.3%2011
other27.5%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other (undeclared)47.4%2011
nonreligious/atheist41.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Czech (official)
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.2%2017
15-29 years16.1%2017


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Economy


Economic situation.
Strong economic growth should stop around 3-3.5% in 2018-19, sustained by internal demand and a smart use of EU capital. At the end of 2017, the unemployment rate was the lowest in the EU (2.9%).

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.13index2016
Balance of trade18 164M US$2017
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 377 000units2017
Active population, Females44.5%2017
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.9%2017
Unemployment rate, Females55.5%2017
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 429 689M LCU2017
Revenues1 459 838M LCU2017
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.8%2017
industry38.1%2017
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.4%2017
industry37.1%2017
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation591.7BN LCU2017
International reserves147 976.4M US$2017
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for the growing of cereals, the most important of which is hops (in the Ohře valley). Cultivation of fruit and sugar beet is widespread (northern Bohemia and Moravia).
Livestock and fishing.
Widespread forage has favoured the development of livestock farming (particularly cattle). Fishing is practiced in the inland waters.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land41.6%2015
forests34.54%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 845.2541000 t2016
cereals, total8 600.6211000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes699.6051000 t2016
roots and tubers, total699.6051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.7951000 t2016
cabbages50.2031000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.1551000 t2016
broad beans, dry2.3551000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes75.9051000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1 359.1251000 t2016
soybeans27.9721000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed12.3911000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops7.7121000 t2016
sugar beet4 118.3561000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2014
linseed2.2371000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.6091000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples124.9971000 t2016
apricots0.7821000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.0911000 t2016
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.5611000 t2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley325.7251000 ha2016
maize86.4071000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes23.4141000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.2141000 ha2016
carrots and turnips0.8051000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0261000 ha2016
broad beans, dry1.8941000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape15.7971000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed392.9911000 ha2016
soybeans10.6081000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed11.771000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops4.7751000 ha2016
sugar beet60.7361000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 ha2014
linseed1.4811000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.2241000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.4911000 ha2016
apricots1.1511000 ha2016
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.1751000 ha2016
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber16 472 0002016
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 415.6581000 heads2016
cattle and buffaloes1 415.6581000 heads2016
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 609.9451000 heads2016
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep218.4931000 heads2016
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats26.5481000 heads2016
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total32.1331000 heads2016
horses32.1331000 heads2016
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds21 3151000 heads2016
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.1631000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter21.681000 t2014
cheese568.5771000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes23 679t2016
total catch24 459t2016
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country’s coal deposits are particularly significant. The principal fields are Ostrava-Karviná as well as the fields in Northern Bohemia for lignite. Natural gas and relatively small amounts of oil are extracted around Hodonín and Ostrava-Hrabová. There are gold and uranium deposits (at Příbram and Dolní Rožínka).
Industry.
Industry remains a fundamental factor in the national economy, contributing to over 37% of the GDP. Petroleum refinery plants are in operation in Litvínov, Kralupy nad Vltavou, Pardubice and Kolín. The country has an oil pipeline running through it, connecting it to Russia (Druzhba). Another oil pipeline pipes oil from Germany (MERO-IKL). The Gazela gas pipeline, connected to Nord Stream, transports natural gas from Russia. There are two active nuclear power plants (Temelín and Dukovany) employing uranium extracted in the country, both of which would like to increase their capacity, despite counsel from neighbouring countries. The country is a large net exporter of energy, thanks in part to its significant coal reserves. Also located in the carboniferous zones is the steel industry with a number of blast furnaces which also work with imported minerals.
The metal industry produces lead (at Příbram and Bílina-Chudeřice) and copper. The coal-rich area of Ostrava is also the heart of a healthy chemical industry which produces hydrochloric acid, nitrogenous fertilizers, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, plastic materials and resins, artificial textiles and synthetic fibres. The rubber industry is located in Prague, Zlín and Náchod. Cement production plants are found in Beroun-Králův Dvůr, Radotin-Lochkov, Prachovice, Hranice and Ostrava. The main mechanical and automobile industries are in Prague, Plzeň (headquarters of Skoda), Vítkovice, Mladá Boleslav. The auto parts sector is located in Choceň, Vrchlabí, Kunovice and Zlín. The furniture industry (in Prague, Rousínov, Bučovice and Koryčany) and the paper industry (in Větřní, Plzeň, Česká Kamenice, Štětí and Hostinné) take advantage of the vast forestry resources. The glass industry is concentrated mainly in northern Bohemia. Bohemian porcelain is famous. The country also has an important musical instrument industry based in Kraslice (wind instruments), Luby (stringed instruments) and Krnov (for organs). Bohemian beer is world famous (Plzeň, Prague, České Budějovice).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal8 314.11000 t2015
coal, total44 934.81000 t2017
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite3701000 t2017
clay5691000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite4501000 t2017
dolomite4511000 t2015
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
silver25 000kg2005
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal43 423.3M kWh2015
- nuclear25 337M kWh2015
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal12 1641000 kW2015
- nuclear3 9301000 kW2015
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation78 214.3M kWh2015
total installed capacity21 5061000 kW2015
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium641000 t2015
coke, metall.2 3321000 t2015
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes423 241no.2015
cars1 413 881no.2017
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks10 900no.2011
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners1 118 000no.2013
computers458 900no.2010
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen4401000 t2015
petrol1 911.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1801000 t2016
artificial and synthetic tow104.81000 t2014
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets10 4731000 m²2015
cotton fabrics46.9M m²2015
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 756 000pairs2015
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 8091000 t2014
fish, frozen5.51000 t2015
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp4451000 t2016
chemi-mechanical pulp4451000 t2016
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement3 8001000 t2015
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 211.7M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production3 857M US$2013
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) machinery 33 762, electric and electronic equipment 30 716, cars 21 746, vehicles and parts thereof 16 736, iron and steel 10 449, plastics 6 390, furniture and accessories 5 358, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 599, toys and sports equipment 3 265, pharmaceuticals 2 499, apparel and accessories 2 250, timber 2 183


Finance and banking.
The Czech National Bank acts as the central bank. In April 2017, the Czech Republic pulled out of the fixed exchange rate with the euro, in effect since 2014 to counter the increasing value of the koruna against the unified European currency. The role of Prague’s stock exchange is significant.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures90.308% of goods exports2016
food products4.948% of goods exports2016
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany59 119M US$2017
Slovakia13 958M US$2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany41 761M US$2017
China20 473M US$2017
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017180 126.372M US$ -
2016162 714.078M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2017161 962.603M US$ -
2016143 086.859M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. On the rise, it employs a growing number of people and provides a notable source of income. The main tourist destinations are Prague and other historically important cities such as Karlovy Vary, Olomouc, Český Krumlov and Telč. Most tourists come from Germany or other EU countries.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures4 963M US$2016
Number of arrivals9 321 000units2016
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Communications


Transport.
The rail and road network connect with international road and rail systems, linking Czech cities with Budapest, Vienna, Moscow, Berlin and Warsaw.
The system of navigable waterways connects the country with the North Sea (via the River Elbe and its tributaries) and with the Baltic (via the River Oder).


Media and telecommunication.
The main operators in the telecommunications sector are part of the Spanish group Telefónica. The public group Česká Televize operates alongside private companies.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown87 824 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 450.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers288.237per 1000 pop.2017
Computers273.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Schooling is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16 years. Secondary school lasts four years and includes general and professional education. There are also apprenticeship courses lasting two-to-four years.


Social security and health.
The social security and pension system have a mixed public and private management.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.9years2015
Gradautes, percentage23%2016
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level25 979units2013
Teachers, secondary level69 387units2013
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31% of total expenses2015
Social protection spending19% of GDP2015
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.8per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.7per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2016
HIV, total0.01%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums509units2014
Museums, visitors11 651 327units2014
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.68% of GDP2016
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.13%2016
Access to electricity100%2016
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.7%2017
education0.5%2017
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