Form of Government: Republic
Area: 78 870 sq km
Population: 10 701 777 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 135.69 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 51° - 49° N; long. 12° - 19° E
Capital: Prague=Praha (capital) 1 335 084 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Czech koruna
Human development index: 0.9 (rank: 27)
President: Miloš Zeman (SPOZ), since 8 March 2013, re-elected 26-27 January 2018
Prime Minister: Andrej Babiš (ANO), since 13 December 2017
Chamber of Deputies: seats (July 2020 update): ANO 2011 (Action of Dissatisfied Citizens), 78; ODS (Civic Democratic Party, conservative), 23; Pirate Party (anti-corruption), 22; SPD (Freedom and Direct Democracy, right-wing), 20; KSČM (Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia), 15; ČSSD (Social Democratic Party), 14; KDU-ČSL (Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party), 10; others, 18
Internet: www.czso.cz (Czech Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Czechia

Česko, Česká republika
Useful information

International license plate code CZ
International dialling code 00420
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cz

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Prague 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Prague -2.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Prague 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Prague 490
Days of rainfall (annual average) Prague 93

Politics and current affairs

Between Autumn 2020 and Spring 2021, the Czech Republic was affected by another new waves of COVID-19. Prime Minister Andrej Babiš (ANO) has played down the risks of the pandemic several times and his behaviour has led to the resignation of three health ministers since the beginning of 2020. Ineffective containment strategies have resulted in double the mortality rate of EU countries. In May 2021, following a diplomatic spat with Russia regarding who was responsible for the explosion of ammunition warehouses in 2014, the Czech Republic expelled several Russian diplomats and was categorised by Russia as a “non-ally”. Political elections are expected to take place in October.

Geography.
The Czech Republic borders with Poland to the north-east, Slovakia to the south-east, Austria to the south and Germany to the west and north-west. The country comprises two main regions: Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia extends across the upper River Elbe basin up to the Sudetes, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Bohemian Forest and the Ore Mountains. Moravia, including a small part of Silesia, has its south east border with the Little Carpathians, the White Carpathians and Mount Javorník.
The main river is the River Elbe, with its main tributaries Vltava and Ohře. The climate is continental.

Government


Formerly a part of Czechoslovakia (the state that was created in 1918 after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire), the Czech Republic was formed on 1 January 1993 after a peaceful and consensual separation from Slovakia. Until 2018, the country has been run by successive conservatives (ODS) and social democratic (CSSD) governments. The Czech Republic joined the European Union on the 1 May 2004 and has been a member of NATO since 1999. In line with the new constitutional law, which came into force in 2012, the President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The Parliament is made up of a Chamber of Deputies (200 members, elected for four-year terms), and the Senate (81 members, elected for six-year terms with a third elected every two years).


Defence and justice

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26.7%2015
Army56.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 862.9per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides1.3per 100 000 pop.2019
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Prague=Praha1 335 084inhab.2020
Brno382 405inhab.2020
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.32020
Death rate12.12020
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total595 881units2019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Czech64.3%2011
other27.5%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other (undeclared)47.4%2011
nonreligious/atheist41.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Czech (official)
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.2%2020
15-29 years15.3%2020


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Economy


Economic situation.
After the slump in GDP in 2020 (-5.6%), the economy is expected to expand again in 2021 (+4.2%). A sizeable growth in consumptions and investments and a general upswing in the services sector are expected in the second half of 2021.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.13index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)92.96index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 372 100units2020
Active population, Females44.2%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females51.1%2020
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 998 567M LCU2020
Revenues1 637 703M LCU2020
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.609%2020
industry37.245%2020
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.125%2020
industry34.634%2020
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation709.163BN LCU2020
International reserves166 116.999M US$2020
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Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for the growing of cereals. Important are hops, fruit-growing and sugar beet.
Livestock and fishing.
Widespread forage has favoured the development of livestock farming (particularly cattle). Fishing is practiced in the inland waters.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land32.811%2018
forests34.63%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 718.061000 t2019
cereals, total7 646.151000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes622.61000 t2019
roots and tubers, total622.61000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.6081000 t2018
cabbages41.331000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.2711000 t2018
broad beans, dry0.811000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes67.961000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1 156.971000 t2019
soybeans27.841000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed11.6391000 t2018
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops7.151000 t2019
sugar beet3 661.421000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0051000 t2018
linseed1.351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.181000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples99.51000 t2019
apricots2.871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.111000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.541000 t2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley319.581000 ha2019
maize74.831000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes22.891000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.261000 ha2019
carrots and turnips0.781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0461000 ha2018
broad beans, dry0.761000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape16.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed379.781000 ha2019
soybeans12.241000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed12.9841000 ha2018
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops5$1000 ha2019
sugar beet59.211000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow0.0031000 ha2018
linseed1.081000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.321000 ha2019
apricots1.151000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.131000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber32 586 0002019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 367.051000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes1 367.051000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 508.911000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep213.0681000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats29.211000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total31.9641000 heads2019
horses31.9641000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds22 9791000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey8.261000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter22.41000 t2019
cheese174.31000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes23 667t2019
total catch24 707t2019
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Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
Coal deposits are particularly significant. The principal fields are Ostrava-Karviná as well as the fields in Northern Bohemia for lignite. However, the country is planning to stop producing electricity from coal by 2040. Natural gas and relatively small amounts of oil are extracted. Other minerals are bentonite, feldspar and kaolin. Uranium mining ended in 2017.
Industry.
Industry remains a fundamental factor in the national economy. Oil refinery plants are in operation in Litvínov and Kralupy nad Vltavou. The country is crossed by an oil pipeline connecting it to Russia (Druzhba). Another pipeline pipes crude oil from Germany (IKL-MERO). The Gazela pipeline transports natural gas from Russia to Germany. There are two active nuclear power plants (Temelín and Dukovany) for a total of 6 reactors, which produce over a third of the electricity and which the government would like to expand by 2040. The country is a large net exporter of energy, thanks in part to its significant coal reserves. Also located in the carboniferous zones is the steel industry with a number of blast furnaces which also work with imported minerals.
The metal industry produces lead and copper. The coal-rich area of Ostrava is also the heart of a healthy chemical industry which produces hydrochloric acid, nitrogenous fertilizers, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, plastic materials and resins, artificial textiles and synthetic fibres. Rubber and cement production plants are widespread. The main mechanical and automobile industries are in Prague, Plzeň, Vítkovice and Mladá Boleslav. The automotive industry (Škoda), including components manufacturing, attracts significant investments: it employs 150 000 people and accounts for a considerable share of total exports.
The furniture and paper industries take advantage of the vast forestry resources. The glass industry is concentrated mainly in northern Bohemia. Bohemian porcelain is famous. The country also has an important musical instrument industry based in Kraslice (wind instruments), Luby (stringed instruments) and Krnov (for organs). Bohemian beer is world famous.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal4 4701000 t2018
coal, total31 720.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite3601000 t2020
clay4691000 t2018
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite31$1000 t2019
dolomite4511000 t2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal42 624.3M kWh2019
- nuclear28 581M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal12 5191000 kW2018
- nuclear3 9321000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation81 148.24M kWh2019
total installed capacity21 9201000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium66$1000 t2018
coke, metall.2 3521000 t2019
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes467 828no.2019
cars1 152 901no.2020
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks17 271no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners180 688no.2019
computers458 900no.2010
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen5511000 t2017
petrol5661000 t2018
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1301000 t2019
artificial and synthetic tow110.61000 t2019
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets8 9501000 m²2019
cotton fabrics26.9M m²2019
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear848 000pairs2019
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley2 127.21000 t2018
fish, frozen9.61000 t2019
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp553.3071000 t2019
other paper882.1241000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 6621000 t2019
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production3 298.438M US$2018
food, beverages and tobacco production4 263.305M US$2018
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Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) machinery 33 762, electric and electronic equipment 30 716, cars 21 746, vehicles and parts thereof 16 736, iron and steel 10 449, plastics 6 390, furniture and accessories 5 358, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 599, toys and sports equipment 3 265, pharmaceuticals 2 499, apparel and accessories 2 250, timber 2 183


Finance & banking.
The Czech National Bank acts as the central bank. In April 2017, the country pulled out of the fixed exchange rate with the euro. A new tax system for international digital businesses operating in Czech Republic is still being discussed. Prague is home to a stock exchange.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures91.169% of goods exports2019
food products4.209% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany62 793M US$2020
Slovakia14 638M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany39 677M US$2020
China30 973M US$2020
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020191 685M US$ -
2019199 128M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2020170 142M US$ -
2019179 039M US$ -
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Tourism


Tourism. On the rise, it employs a growing number of people and provides a notable source of income.
The main tourist destinations are Prague and other historically important cities such as Karlovy Vary, Olomouc, Český Krumlov and Telč. Most tourists come from Germany or other EU countries.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures6 036M US$2019
Number of arrivals10 891 000units2019
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Communications


Transport.
The rail and road network connect with international road and rail systems, linking Czech cities with Budapest, Vienna, Moscow, Berlin and Warsaw.
The system of navigable waterways connects the country with the North Sea (via the River Elbe and its tributaries) and with the Baltic (via the River Oder).


Media and telecommunication.
The main operator in the telecommunications sector (O2) is part of the Spanish group Telefónica. The public group Česká Televize operates alongside private companies.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown87 824 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 446.21000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers349.85per 1000 pop.2019
Computers273.5per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare


Education.
Schooling is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16 years. Secondary school lasts four years and includes general and professional education. There are also apprenticeship courses lasting two-to-four years.


Social security and health.
The social security and pension system have a mixed public and private management.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.277years2018
Gradautes, percentage24.212%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level583 522units2018
Students, secondary level787 114units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending30.501% of total expenses2019
Social protection spending19.159% of GDP2019
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.62per 1000 pop.2018
Physicians4.04per 1000 pop.2018
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2018
HIV, total0.01%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums481units2019
Museums, visitors14 692 978units2019
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.94% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.6%2019
education0.5%2019
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