Form of Government: Republic
Area: 78 870 sq km
Population: 10 701 777 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 135.69 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 51° - 49° N; long. 12° - 19° E
Capital: Prague=Praha (capital) 1 335 084 inhab. (2020);
Currency: Czech koruna
Human development index: 0.9 (rank: 27)
President: Miloš Zeman (SPOZ), since 8 March 2013, re-elected 26-27 January 2018
Prime Minister: Andrej Babiš (ANO), since 13 December 2017
Chamber of Deputies: seats (July 2020 update): ANO 2011 (Action of Dissatisfied Citizens), 78; ODS (Civic Democratic Party, conservative), 23; Pirate Party (anti-corruption), 22; SPD (Freedom and Direct Democracy, right-wing), 20; KSČM (Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia), 15; ČSSD (Social Democratic Party), 14; KDU-ČSL (Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party), 10; others, 18
Internet: www.czso.cz (Czech Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code CZ
International dialling code 00420
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cz
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Prague 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Prague -2.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Prague 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Prague 490
Days of rainfall (annual average) Prague 93
Politics and current affairs
Between Autumn 2020 and Spring 2021, the Czech Republic was affected by another new waves of COVID-19. Prime Minister Andrej Babiš (ANO) has played down the risks of the pandemic several times and his behaviour has led to the resignation of three health ministers since the beginning of 2020. Ineffective containment strategies have resulted in double the mortality rate of EU countries. In May 2021, following a diplomatic spat with Russia regarding who was responsible for the explosion of ammunition warehouses in 2014, the Czech Republic expelled several Russian diplomats and was categorised by Russia as a “non-ally”. Political elections are expected to take place in October.
The Czech Republic borders with Poland to the north-east, Slovakia to the south-east, Austria to the south and Germany to the west and north-west. The country comprises two main regions: Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia extends across the upper River Elbe basin up to the Sudetes, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Bohemian Forest and the Ore Mountains. Moravia, including a small part of Silesia, has its south east border with the Little Carpathians, the White Carpathians and Mount Javorník.
The main river is the River Elbe, with its main tributaries Vltava and Ohře. The climate is continental.
Formerly a part of Czechoslovakia (the state that was created in 1918 after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire), the Czech Republic was formed on 1 January 1993 after a peaceful and consensual separation from Slovakia. Until 2018, the country has been run by successive conservatives (ODS) and social democratic (CSSD) governments. The Czech Republic joined the European Union on the 1 May 2004 and has been a member of NATO since 1999. In line with the new constitutional law, which came into force in 2012, the President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The Parliament is made up of a Chamber of Deputies (200 members, elected for four-year terms), and the Senate (81 members, elected for six-year terms with a third elected every two years).
Defence and justice
|Prague=Praha||1 335 084||inhab.||2020|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2020)|
|Foreigners, total||595 881||units||2019|
After the slump in GDP in 2020 (-5.6%), the economy is expected to expand again in 2021 (+4.2%). A sizeable growth in consumptions and investments and a general upswing in the services sector are expected in the second half of 2021.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||100.13||index||2016|
|Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)||92.96||index||2019|
|Active population||5 372 100||units||2020|
|Active population, Females||44.2||%||2020|
|Unemployment rate, Females||51.1||%||2020|
|Expenses||1 998 567||M LCU||2020|
|Revenues||1 637 703||M LCU||2020|
|Currency in circulation||709.163||BN LCU||2020|
|International reserves||166 116.999||M US$||2020|
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for the growing of cereals. Important are hops, fruit-growing and sugar beet.
Livestock and fishing.
Widespread forage has favoured the development of livestock farming (particularly cattle). Fishing is practiced in the inland waters.
|barley||1 718.06||1000 t||2019|
|cereals, total||7 646.15||1000 t||2019|
|roots and tubers, total||622.6||1000 t||2019|
|beans, green||0.271||1000 t||2018|
|broad beans, dry||0.81||1000 t||2019|
|rapeseed||1 156.97||1000 t||2019|
|mustard seed||11.639||1000 t||2018|
|sugar beet||3 661.42||1000 t||2019|
|flax fibre and tow||0.005||1000 t||2018|
|hemp tow waste||0.18||1000 t||2019|
|carrots and turnips||0.78||1000 ha||2019|
|beans, green||0.046||1000 ha||2018|
|broad beans, dry||0.76||1000 ha||2019|
|mustard seed||12.984||1000 ha||2018|
|sugar beet||59.21||1000 ha||2019|
|flax fibre and tow||0.003||1000 ha||2018|
|hemp tow waste||0.4||1000 ha||2019|
|timber||32 586 000||m³||2019|
|cattle||1 367.05||1000 heads||2019|
|cattle and buffaloes||1 367.05||1000 heads||2019|
|pigs||1 508.91||1000 heads||2019|
|equines, total||31.964||1000 heads||2019|
|birds||22 979||1000 heads||2019|
|freshwater fishes||23 667||t||2019|
|total catch||24 707||t||2019|
Coal deposits are particularly significant. The principal fields are Ostrava-Karviná as well as the fields in Northern Bohemia for lignite. However, the country is planning to stop producing electricity from coal by 2040. Natural gas and relatively small amounts of oil are extracted. Other minerals are bentonite, feldspar and kaolin. Uranium mining ended in 2017.
Industry remains a fundamental factor in the national economy. Oil refinery plants are in operation in Litvínov and Kralupy nad Vltavou. The country is crossed by an oil pipeline connecting it to Russia (Druzhba). Another pipeline pipes crude oil from Germany (IKL-MERO). The Gazela pipeline transports natural gas from Russia to Germany. There are two active nuclear power plants (Temelín and Dukovany) for a total of 6 reactors, which produce over a third of the electricity and which the government would like to expand by 2040. The country is a large net exporter of energy, thanks in part to its significant coal reserves. Also located in the carboniferous zones is the steel industry with a number of blast furnaces which also work with imported minerals.
The metal industry produces lead and copper. The coal-rich area of Ostrava is also the heart of a healthy chemical industry which produces hydrochloric acid, nitrogenous fertilizers, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, plastic materials and resins, artificial textiles and synthetic fibres. Rubber and cement production plants are widespread. The main mechanical and automobile industries are in Prague, Plzeň, Vítkovice and Mladá Boleslav. The automotive industry (Škoda), including components manufacturing, attracts significant investments: it employs 150 000 people and accounts for a considerable share of total exports.
The furniture and paper industries take advantage of the vast forestry resources. The glass industry is concentrated mainly in northern Bohemia. Bohemian porcelain is famous. The country also has an important musical instrument industry based in Kraslice (wind instruments), Luby (stringed instruments) and Krnov (for organs). Bohemian beer is world famous.
|coal||4 470||1000 t||2018|
|coal, total||31 720.3||1000 t||2020|
|- thermal||42 624.3||M kWh||2019|
|- nuclear||28 581||M kWh||2019|
|- thermal||12 519||1000 kW||2018|
|- nuclear||3 932||1000 kW||2019|
|total net generation||81 148.24||M kWh||2019|
|total installed capacity||21 920||1000 kW||2018|
|coke, metall.||2 352||1000 t||2019|
|cars||1 152 901||no.||2020|
|watches and clocks||17 271||no.||2016|
|air conditioners||180 688||no.||2019|
|artificial and synthetic tow||110.6||1000 t||2019|
|carpets||8 950||1000 m²||2019|
|cotton fabrics||26.9||M m²||2019|
|beer of barley||2 127.2||1000 t||2018|
|fish, frozen||9.6||1000 t||2019|
|chemical pulp||553.307||1000 t||2019|
|other paper||882.124||1000 t||2019|
|cement||4 662||1000 t||2019|
|chemicals production||3 298.438||M US$||2018|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||4 263.305||M US$||2018|
(M US$ - 2017) machinery 33 762, electric and electronic equipment 30 716, cars 21 746, vehicles and parts thereof 16 736, iron and steel 10 449, plastics 6 390, furniture and accessories 5 358, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 599, toys and sports equipment 3 265, pharmaceuticals 2 499, apparel and accessories 2 250, timber 2 183
Finance & banking.
The Czech National Bank acts as the central bank. In April 2017, the country pulled out of the fixed exchange rate with the euro. A new tax system for international digital businesses operating in Czech Republic is still being discussed. Prague is home to a stock exchange.
|manufactures||91.169||% of goods exports||2019|
|food products||4.209||% of goods exports||2019|
|Germany||62 793||M US$||2020|
|Slovakia||14 638||M US$||2020|
|Germany||39 677||M US$||2020|
|China||30 973||M US$||2020|
Tourism. On the rise, it employs a growing number of people and provides a notable source of income.
The main tourist destinations are Prague and other historically important cities such as Karlovy Vary, Olomouc, Český Krumlov and Telč. Most tourists come from Germany or other EU countries.
|Expenditures||6 036||M US$||2019|
|Number of arrivals||10 891 000||units||2019|
The rail and road network connect with international road and rail systems, linking Czech cities with Budapest, Vienna, Moscow, Berlin and Warsaw.
The system of navigable waterways connects the country with the North Sea (via the River Elbe and its tributaries) and with the Baltic (via the River Oder).
Media and telecommunication.
The main operator in the telecommunications sector (O2) is part of the Spanish group Telefónica. The public group Česká Televize operates alongside private companies.
|Civil aviation, km flown||87 824 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||5 446.2||1000 units||2019|
|Broadband subscribers||349.85||per 1000 pop.||2019|
|Computers||273.5||per 1000 pop.||2005|
Social and welfare
Schooling is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16 years. Secondary school lasts four years and includes general and professional education. There are also apprenticeship courses lasting two-to-four years.
Social security and health.
The social security and pension system have a mixed public and private management.
|Expected years of schooling||16.277||years||2018|
|Students, primary level||583 522||units||2018|
|Students, secondary level||787 114||units||2018|
|Social protection spending||30.501||% of total expenses||2019|
|Social protection spending||19.159||% of GDP||2019|
|Hospital beds||6.62||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|Physicians||4.04||per 1000 pop.||2018|
|HIV||-0.1||% of adults||2018|
|Museums, visitors||14 692 978||units||2019|
|Research and development spending||1.94||% of GDP||2019|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||100||%||2019|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2019|