Form of Government: Republic
Area: 78 870 sq km
Population: 10 649 800 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 135.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 51° - 49° N; long. 12° - 19° E
Capital: Prague=Praha (capital) 1 308 632 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Czech koruna
Human development index: 0.888 (rank: 27)
President: Miloš Zeman (SPOZ), since 8 March 2013, re-elected 26-27 January 2018
Prime Minister: Andrej Babiš (ANO), since 13 December 2017
Chamber of Deputies: seats (August 2019 update): ANO 2011 (Action of Dissatisfied Citizens), 78; ODS (Civic Democratic Party, conservative), 23; Pirate Party (anti-corruption), 22; SPD (Freedom and Direct Democracy, right-wing), 19; KSČM (Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia), 15; ČSSD (Social Democratic Party), 15; KDU-ČSL (Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party), 10; others, 18
Internet: www.czso.cz (Czech Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO

Czechia

Česko, Česká republika
Useful information

International license plate code CZ
International dialling code 00420
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cz

GMT  +1
DST  +2
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October

Annual average temperature (°C) Prague 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Prague -2.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Prague 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Prague 490
Days of rainfall (annual average) Prague 93

Politics and current affairs

Prime Minister Andrej Babiš (ANO) is at the centre of one of the country’s largest protests since the end of Communism: begun in April, 120 000 people protested in the streets of Prague on 4 June 2019. The demonstrations are against the conflict of interests surrounding Agrofert, the holding company owned by Babiš, who was already subject to investigations by the judiciary because according to a report by the European Commission, he would have wrongfully benefited from EU funds. In the European elections on 26 May 2019, ANO nonetheless upheld its top position with 21.2% of the votes, while the social democrats, in partnership with the government, reached only 3.9%, putting the coalition at risk.

Geography.
The Czech Republic borders with Poland to the north-east, Slovakia to the south-east, Austria to the south and Germany to the west and north-west. The country comprises two main regions: Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia extends across the upper River Elbe basin up to the Sudetes, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Bohemian Forest and the Ore Mountains. Moravia, including a small part of Silesia, has its south east border with the Little Carpathians, the White Carpathians and Mount Javorník.
The main river is the River Elbe, with its main tributaries Vltava and Ohře. The climate is continental.

Government


Formerly a part of Czechoslovakia (the state that was created in 1918 after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire), the Czech Republic was formed on 1 January 1993 after a peaceful and consensual separation from Slovakia. Until 2018, the country has been run by successive conservatives (ODS) and social democratic (CSSD) governments. The Czech Republic joined the European Union on the 1 May 2004 and has been a member of NATO since 1999. In line with the new constitutional law, which came into force in 2012, the President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The Parliament is made up of a Chamber of Deputies (200 members, elected for four-year terms), and the Senate (81 members, elected for six-year terms with a third elected every two years).


Defence and justice

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force26.7%2015
Army56.2%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Crimes1 906.7per 100 000 pop.2017
Homicides1.4per 100 000 pop.2017
TOP

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Prague=Praha1 308 632inhab.2018
Brno380 681inhab.2018
TOP

Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2018)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE
Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate10.72018
Death rate10.62018
Foreigners
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Foreigners, total566 931units2018
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Czech64.3%2011
other27.5%2011


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other (undeclared)47.4%2011
nonreligious/atheist41.3%2011


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Czech (official)
German
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years15.2%2018
15-29 years15.8%2018


TOP

Economy


Economic situation.
Driven by investments and domestic consumption, the economy grew 2.9% in 2018, though it should slow down a bit in the years to come. The saturated job market is leading to an increase in salaries, which in turn are having an impact on the competitiveness of the economic system.

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)100.13index2016
Balance of trade18 400.1M US$2018
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population5 415 300units2018
Active population, Females44.6%2018
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate2.2%2018
Unemployment rate, Females56.2%2018
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses1 549 642M LCU2018
Revenues1 561 666M LCU2018
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.8%2018
industry37.5%2018
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture2.2%2018
industry36.3%2018
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation616.27BN LCU2018
International reserves142 511.7M US$2018
TOP

Agriculture


Primary sector
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for the growing of cereals. Important are hops, fruit-growing and sugar beet.
Livestock and fishing.
Widespread forage has favoured the development of livestock farming (particularly cattle). Fishing is practiced in the inland waters.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land41.6%2015
forests34.54%2015
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley1 712.2791000 t2017
cereals, total7 460.8591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes688.971000 t2017
roots and tubers, total688.971000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asparagus0.5881000 t2017
cabbages49.1831000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.1531000 t2017
broad beans, dry2.3591000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grapes79.7741000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed1 146.2241000 t2017
soybeans37.0121000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed9.5421000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops6.7971000 t2017
sugar beet4 399.5211000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 t2014
linseed2.3491000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.6191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples105.281000 t2017
apricots1.0191000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.0711000 t2017
Agriculture - products - Others
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mushrooms0.541000 t2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
barley327.7071000 ha2017
maize85.9951000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
potatoes23.4181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages1.0931000 ha2017
carrots and turnips0.8271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, green0.0291000 ha2017
broad beans, dry1.9271000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
grape15.8071000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
rapeseed394.2621000 ha2017
soybeans15.3441000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
mustard seed11.8251000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hops4.9451000 ha2017
sugar beet66.1011000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
flax fibre and tow01000 ha2014
linseed1.7221000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hemp tow waste0.2181000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apples7.3491000 ha2017
apricots1.1041000 ha2017
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
walnuts0.1861000 ha2017
TOP

Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
timber19 387 0002017
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle1 421.2421000 heads2017
cattle and buffaloes1 421.2421000 heads2017
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 490.7751000 heads2017
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep217.1411000 heads2017
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats26.7811000 heads2017
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
equines, total34.5481000 heads2017
horses34.5481000 heads2017
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds21 3391000 heads2017
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey7.1631000 t2014
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
butter21.681000 t2014
cheese568.5771000 t2014
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
freshwater fishes24 349t2017
total catch25 242t2017
TOP

Minerals


Secondary sector
Minerals.
The country’s coal deposits are particularly significant. The principal fields are Ostrava-Karviná as well as the fields in Northern Bohemia for lignite. Natural gas and relatively small amounts of oil are extracted around Hodonín and Ostrava-Hrabová. There are gold and uranium deposits (at Příbram and Dolní Rožínka).
Industry.
Industry remains a fundamental factor in the national economy. Petroleum refinery plants are in operation in Litvínov, Kralupy nad Vltavou, Pardubice and Kolín. The country has an oil pipeline running through it, connecting it to Russia (Druzhba), whose flow was temporarily interrupted in 2019 due to the presence of contaminants. Another oil pipeline pipes oil from Germany (MERO-IKL). The Gazela gas pipeline, connected to Nord Stream, transports natural gas from Russia. There are two active nuclear power plants (Temelín and Dukovany) for a total of 6 reactors, which produce about a third of the electricity and which the government would like to expand by 2040. The country is a large net exporter of energy, thanks in part to its significant coal reserves. Also located in the carboniferous zones is the steel industry with a number of blast furnaces which also work with imported minerals.
The metal industry produces lead and copper. The coal-rich area of Ostrava is also the heart of a healthy chemical industry which produces hydrochloric acid, nitrogenous fertilizers, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, plastic materials and resins, artificial textiles and synthetic fibres. Rubber and cement production plants are widespread. The main mechanical and automobile industries are in Prague, Plzeň (headquarters of Skoda), Vítkovice, Mladá Boleslav.
The auto parts sector is located in Choceň, Vrchlabí, Kunovice and Zlín. The automotive industry attracts significant investments and in 2018 produced 1.34 million cars.
The furniture and paper industries take advantage of the vast forestry resources. The glass industry is concentrated mainly in northern Bohemia. Bohemian porcelain is famous. The country also has an important musical instrument industry based in Kraslice (wind instruments), Luby (stringed instruments) and Krnov (for organs). Bohemian beer is world famous.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coal5 4161000 t2017
coal, total43 757.71000 t2018
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bentonite3701000 t2018
clay5691000 t2015
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diatomite261000 t2017
dolomite4401000 t2016
TOP

Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal45 536.42M kWh2016
- nuclear22 730M kWh2016
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal12 2841000 kW2016
- nuclear3 9301000 kW2016
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation77 393.42M kWh2016
total installed capacity21 6291000 kW2016
TOP

Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium641000 t2016
coke, metall.2 2091000 t2016
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bikes365 055no.2017
cars1 345 041no.2018
Industry - Precision and optical instruments
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
watches and clocks17 271no.2016
Industry - Electrical and electronics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
air conditioners210 247no.2017
computers458 900no.2010
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
bitumen3631000 t2016
petrol1 911.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
ammonia1701000 t2016
artificial and synthetic tow123.51000 t2017
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
carpets21 4821000 m²2017
cotton fabrics42.9M m²2017
Industry - Clothing and footwear
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
footwear1 518 000pairs2016
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley1 8091000 t2014
fish, frozen10.71000 t2017
Industry - Paper and wood products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemical pulp4531000 t2017
chemi-mechanical pulp4531000 t2017
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement4 0791000 t2017
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
chemicals production2 211.7M US$2013
food, beverages and tobacco production3 857M US$2013
TOP

Trade


Main exports
(M US$ - 2017) machinery 33 762, electric and electronic equipment 30 716, cars 21 746, vehicles and parts thereof 16 736, iron and steel 10 449, plastics 6 390, furniture and accessories 5 358, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 599, toys and sports equipment 3 265, pharmaceuticals 2 499, apparel and accessories 2 250, timber 2 183


Finance and banking.
The Czech National Bank acts as the central bank. In April 2017, the Czech Republic pulled out of the fixed exchange rate with the euro. The government intends to introduce a new tax system for banks and international digital businesses. Prague is home to a stock exchange.

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufactures91.599% of goods exports2018
food products3.912% of goods exports2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany65 218M US$2018
Slovakia15 260M US$2018
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Germany52 812M US$2018
Poland16 638M US$2018
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018202 197M US$ -
2017182 143M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
2018183 797M US$ -
2017163 352M US$ -
TOP

Tourism


Tourism. On the rise, it employs a growing number of people and provides a notable source of income.
The main tourist destinations are Prague and other historically important cities such as Karlovy Vary, Olomouc, Český Krumlov and Telč. Most tourists come from Germany or other EU countries.

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures5 518M US$2017
Number of arrivals10 160 000units2017
TOP

Communications


Transport.
The rail and road network connect with international road and rail systems, linking Czech cities with Budapest, Vienna, Moscow, Berlin and Warsaw.
The system of navigable waterways connects the country with the North Sea (via the River Elbe and its tributaries) and with the Baltic (via the River Oder).


Media and telecommunication.
The main operators in the telecommunications sector are part of the Spanish group Telefónica. The public group Česká Televize operates alongside private companies.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown87 824 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried5 450.71000 units2017
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers288.237per 1000 pop.2017
Computers273.5per 1000 pop.2005
TOP

Social and welfare


Education.
Schooling is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16 years. Secondary school lasts four years and includes general and professional education. There are also apprenticeship courses lasting two-to-four years.


Social security and health.
The social security and pension system have a mixed public and private management.

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling16.8years2016
Gradautes, percentage23.9%2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Teachers, primary level25 979units2013
Teachers, secondary level69 387units2013
Social statistics - Social protection
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Social protection spending31.2% of total expenses2016
Social protection spending18.7% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds6.8per 1000 pop.2016
Physicians3.7per 1000 pop.2013
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV-0.1% of adults2017
HIV, total0.01%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums477units2017
Museums, visitors13 485 899units2017
Research
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Research and development spending1.79% of GDP2017
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking97.13%2016
Access to electricity100%2017
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear3.7%2017
education0.5%2017
TOP