Form of Government: Republic
Area: 78 870 sq km
Population: 10 649 800 inhab. (estimate 2018)
Density: 135.03 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 51° - 49° N; long. 12° - 19° E
Capital: Prague=Praha (capital) 1 308 632 inhab. (2018);
Currency: Czech koruna
Human development index: 0.888 (rank: 27)
President: Miloš Zeman (SPOZ), since 8 March 2013, re-elected 26-27 January 2018
Prime Minister: Andrej Babiš (ANO), since 13 December 2017
Chamber of Deputies: seats (August 2019 update): ANO 2011 (Action of Dissatisfied Citizens), 78; ODS (Civic Democratic Party, conservative), 23; Pirate Party (anti-corruption), 22; SPD (Freedom and Direct Democracy, right-wing), 19; KSČM (Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia), 15; ČSSD (Social Democratic Party), 15; KDU-ČSL (Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party), 10; others, 18
Internet: www.czso.cz (Czech Statistical Office)
Member of Council of Europe, EBRD, EU, NATO, OAS observer, OECD, OSCE, UN, WTO
International license plate code CZ
International dialling code 00420
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 230
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cz
DST duration (start-end) late March-late October
Annual average temperature (°C) Prague 8.2
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Prague -2.5/17.5
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Prague 8/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Prague 490
Days of rainfall (annual average) Prague 93
Politics and current affairs
Prime Minister Andrej Babiš (ANO) is at the centre of one of the country’s largest protests since the end of Communism: begun in April, 120 000 people protested in the streets of Prague on 4 June 2019. The demonstrations are against the conflict of interests surrounding Agrofert, the holding company owned by Babiš, who was already subject to investigations by the judiciary because according to a report by the European Commission, he would have wrongfully benefited from EU funds. In the European elections on 26 May 2019, ANO nonetheless upheld its top position with 21.2% of the votes, while the social democrats, in partnership with the government, reached only 3.9%, putting the coalition at risk.
The Czech Republic borders with Poland to the north-east, Slovakia to the south-east, Austria to the south and Germany to the west and north-west. The country comprises two main regions: Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia extends across the upper River Elbe basin up to the Sudetes, the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, the Bohemian Forest and the Ore Mountains. Moravia, including a small part of Silesia, has its south east border with the Little Carpathians, the White Carpathians and Mount Javorník.
The main river is the River Elbe, with its main tributaries Vltava and Ohře. The climate is continental.
Formerly a part of Czechoslovakia (the state that was created in 1918 after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire), the Czech Republic was formed on 1 January 1993 after a peaceful and consensual separation from Slovakia. Until 2018, the country has been run by successive conservatives (ODS) and social democratic (CSSD) governments. The Czech Republic joined the European Union on the 1 May 2004 and has been a member of NATO since 1999. In line with the new constitutional law, which came into force in 2012, the President of the Republic is elected for a five-year term by direct suffrage and for not more than two consecutive terms. The Parliament is made up of a Chamber of Deputies (200 members, elected for four-year terms), and the Senate (81 members, elected for six-year terms with a third elected every two years).
Defence and justice
|Prague=Praha||1 308 632||inhab.||2018|
|Population by age and gender (% - 2018)|
|Foreigners, total||566 931||units||2018|
Driven by investments and domestic consumption, the economy grew 2.9% in 2018, though it should slow down a bit in the years to come. The saturated job market is leading to an increase in salaries, which in turn are having an impact on the competitiveness of the economic system.
|Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)||100.13||index||2016|
|Balance of trade||18 400.1||M US$||2018|
|Active population||5 415 300||units||2018|
|Active population, Females||44.6||%||2018|
|Unemployment rate, Females||56.2||%||2018|
|Expenses||1 549 642||M LCU||2018|
|Revenues||1 561 666||M LCU||2018|
|Currency in circulation||616.27||BN LCU||2018|
|International reserves||142 511.7||M US$||2018|
Agriculture and forests.
More than half of the arable land is used for the growing of cereals. Important are hops, fruit-growing and sugar beet.
Livestock and fishing.
Widespread forage has favoured the development of livestock farming (particularly cattle). Fishing is practiced in the inland waters.
|barley||1 712.279||1000 t||2017|
|cereals, total||7 460.859||1000 t||2017|
|roots and tubers, total||688.97||1000 t||2017|
|beans, green||0.153||1000 t||2017|
|broad beans, dry||2.359||1000 t||2017|
|rapeseed||1 146.224||1000 t||2017|
|mustard seed||9.542||1000 t||2017|
|sugar beet||4 399.521||1000 t||2017|
|flax fibre and tow||0||1000 t||2014|
|hemp tow waste||0.619||1000 t||2017|
|carrots and turnips||0.827||1000 ha||2017|
|beans, green||0.029||1000 ha||2017|
|broad beans, dry||1.927||1000 ha||2017|
|mustard seed||11.825||1000 ha||2017|
|sugar beet||66.101||1000 ha||2017|
|flax fibre and tow||0||1000 ha||2014|
|hemp tow waste||0.218||1000 ha||2017|
|timber||19 387 000||m³||2017|
|cattle||1 421.242||1000 heads||2017|
|cattle and buffaloes||1 421.242||1000 heads||2017|
|pigs||1 490.775||1000 heads||2017|
|equines, total||34.548||1000 heads||2017|
|birds||21 339||1000 heads||2017|
|freshwater fishes||24 349||t||2017|
|total catch||25 242||t||2017|
The country’s coal deposits are particularly significant. The principal fields are Ostrava-Karviná as well as the fields in Northern Bohemia for lignite. Natural gas and relatively small amounts of oil are extracted around Hodonín and Ostrava-Hrabová. There are gold and uranium deposits (at Příbram and Dolní Rožínka).
Industry remains a fundamental factor in the national economy. Petroleum refinery plants are in operation in Litvínov, Kralupy nad Vltavou, Pardubice and Kolín. The country has an oil pipeline running through it, connecting it to Russia (Druzhba), whose flow was temporarily interrupted in 2019 due to the presence of contaminants. Another oil pipeline pipes oil from Germany (MERO-IKL). The Gazela gas pipeline, connected to Nord Stream, transports natural gas from Russia. There are two active nuclear power plants (Temelín and Dukovany) for a total of 6 reactors, which produce about a third of the electricity and which the government would like to expand by 2040. The country is a large net exporter of energy, thanks in part to its significant coal reserves. Also located in the carboniferous zones is the steel industry with a number of blast furnaces which also work with imported minerals.
The metal industry produces lead and copper. The coal-rich area of Ostrava is also the heart of a healthy chemical industry which produces hydrochloric acid, nitrogenous fertilizers, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, plastic materials and resins, artificial textiles and synthetic fibres. Rubber and cement production plants are widespread. The main mechanical and automobile industries are in Prague, Plzeň (headquarters of Skoda), Vítkovice, Mladá Boleslav.
The auto parts sector is located in Choceň, Vrchlabí, Kunovice and Zlín. The automotive industry attracts significant investments and in 2018 produced 1.34 million cars.
The furniture and paper industries take advantage of the vast forestry resources. The glass industry is concentrated mainly in northern Bohemia. Bohemian porcelain is famous. The country also has an important musical instrument industry based in Kraslice (wind instruments), Luby (stringed instruments) and Krnov (for organs). Bohemian beer is world famous.
|coal||5 416||1000 t||2017|
|coal, total||43 757.7||1000 t||2018|
|- thermal||45 536.42||M kWh||2016|
|- nuclear||22 730||M kWh||2016|
|- thermal||12 284||1000 kW||2016|
|- nuclear||3 930||1000 kW||2016|
|total net generation||77 393.42||M kWh||2016|
|total installed capacity||21 629||1000 kW||2016|
|coke, metall.||2 209||1000 t||2016|
|cars||1 345 041||no.||2018|
|watches and clocks||17 271||no.||2016|
|air conditioners||210 247||no.||2017|
|petrol||1 911.4||1000 t||2014|
|artificial and synthetic tow||123.5||1000 t||2017|
|carpets||21 482||1000 m²||2017|
|cotton fabrics||42.9||M m²||2017|
|footwear||1 518 000||pairs||2016|
|beer of barley||1 809||1000 t||2014|
|fish, frozen||10.7||1000 t||2017|
|chemical pulp||453||1000 t||2017|
|chemi-mechanical pulp||453||1000 t||2017|
|cement||4 079||1000 t||2017|
|chemicals production||2 211.7||M US$||2013|
|food, beverages and tobacco production||3 857||M US$||2013|
(M US$ - 2017) machinery 33 762, electric and electronic equipment 30 716, cars 21 746, vehicles and parts thereof 16 736, iron and steel 10 449, plastics 6 390, furniture and accessories 5 358, technical and electro-medical appliances 3 599, toys and sports equipment 3 265, pharmaceuticals 2 499, apparel and accessories 2 250, timber 2 183
Finance and banking.
The Czech National Bank acts as the central bank. In April 2017, the Czech Republic pulled out of the fixed exchange rate with the euro. The government intends to introduce a new tax system for banks and international digital businesses. Prague is home to a stock exchange.
|manufactures||91.599||% of goods exports||2018|
|food products||3.912||% of goods exports||2018|
|Germany||65 218||M US$||2018|
|Slovakia||15 260||M US$||2018|
|Germany||52 812||M US$||2018|
|Poland||16 638||M US$||2018|
Tourism. On the rise, it employs a growing number of people and provides a notable source of income.
The main tourist destinations are Prague and other historically important cities such as Karlovy Vary, Olomouc, Český Krumlov and Telč. Most tourists come from Germany or other EU countries.
|Expenditures||5 518||M US$||2017|
|Number of arrivals||10 160 000||units||2017|
The rail and road network connect with international road and rail systems, linking Czech cities with Budapest, Vienna, Moscow, Berlin and Warsaw.
The system of navigable waterways connects the country with the North Sea (via the River Elbe and its tributaries) and with the Baltic (via the River Oder).
Media and telecommunication.
The main operators in the telecommunications sector are part of the Spanish group Telefónica. The public group Česká Televize operates alongside private companies.
|Civil aviation, km flown||87 824 000||km flown||2004|
|Civil aviation, passengers carried||5 450.7||1000 units||2017|
|Broadband subscribers||288.237||per 1000 pop.||2017|
|Computers||273.5||per 1000 pop.||2005|
Social and welfare
Schooling is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16 years. Secondary school lasts four years and includes general and professional education. There are also apprenticeship courses lasting two-to-four years.
Social security and health.
The social security and pension system have a mixed public and private management.
|Expected years of schooling||16.8||years||2016|
|Teachers, primary level||25 979||units||2013|
|Teachers, secondary level||69 387||units||2013|
|Social protection spending||31.2||% of total expenses||2016|
|Social protection spending||18.7||% of GDP||2018|
|Hospital beds||6.8||per 1000 pop.||2016|
|Physicians||3.7||per 1000 pop.||2013|
|HIV||-0.1||% of adults||2017|
|Museums, visitors||13 485 899||units||2017|
|Research and development spending||1.79||% of GDP||2017|
|Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking||97.13||%||2016|
|Access to electricity||100||%||2017|