Form of Government: Federal state
Area: 9 897 170 sq km
Population: 38 048 738 inhab. (estimate 2021)
Density: 3.84 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 83° - 42° N; long. 141° - 53° W
Capital: Ottawa (capital) 934 243 inhab. (2016); Ottawa-Gatineau 1 461 494 inhab. (2020), urban agglomeration
Currency: Canadian dollar (100 cents)
Human development index: 0.929 (rank: 16)
Head of State: The British Sovereign
Prime Minister: Justin Trudeau (LPC), since 4 November 2015
House of Commons: seats based on the elections of 21 October 2019: LPC (Liberal Party), 157; CPC (Conservative Party), 121; BQ (Bloc Québecois), 32; NDP (New Democratic Party, social democratic), 24; Greens, 3; independent, 1
Internet: (Statistics Canada)
Member of APEC, Commonwealth, Council of Europe observer, EBRD, NATO, OAS, OECD, OSCE, UN, USMCA, WTO


Useful information

International license plate code CDN
International dialling code 001
Travel vaccinations requirement none
Electricity (Voltage) 120
Driving side rigth
Internet code .ca

GMT Ottawa -5; Saint John's (Newfoundland and Labrador) -3.30; Halifax -4; Winnipeg -6; Regina -6; Edmonton -7; Vancouver -8
DST Ottawa -4; Saint John's (Newfoundland and Labrador) -2.30; Halifax -3; Winnipeg -5; Regina not applied; Edmonton -6; Vancouver -7
DST duration (start-end) mid March (Sunday 9)-early November

Annual average temperature (°C) Ottawa 6.3; Montréal 6.5; Coppermine -11; Fort Smith -3; Halifax 7.2; Vancouver 11
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Ottawa -10.5/20.5; Montréal -10/19; Coppermine -28/9; Fort Smith -25/16; Halifax -4/18.5; Vancouver 5/18
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Ottawa 8.5/2.5; Montréal 8/2; Coppermine 9/0; Fort Smith 11/1; Halifax 7/3; Vancouver 7/1
Annual average precipitation (mm) Ottawa 925; Montréal 1060; Coppermine 236; Fort Smith 333; Halifax 1530; Vancouver 1595
Days of rainfall (annual average) Ottawa 147; Montréal 139; Coppermine 84; Fort Smith 95; Halifax 132; Vancouver 155

Politics and current affairs

The popularity of the Liberal Party led by Prime Minister J. Trudeau, who was obliged to form a minority government after the elections on 21 October 2019, gained strength in 2021 also thanks to the vaccination campaign against the COVID-19 pandemic, which showed itself to be effective, despite the slow start.

Canada is bordered by the United States to the south, and Alaska (USA) to the west. To the north lies the ice-cap of the Arctic Ocean and, to the east, the Atlantic Ocean, while the Pacific Ocean lies off its west coast. Canada comprises four great natural regions: the Canadian Shield, the Canadian Rockies and the Pacific Coast, the lowlands of the River St. Lawrence, and the Canadian Appalachians. The Canadian Shield, which occupies about half the country, forms a broad basin around Hudson Bay and is dotted with lakes (Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca, Lake Winnipeg), with higher land in the Plains to the west stretching as far as the Rocky Mountains. To the east, the Shield continues in the form of the Labrador Peninsula. The north is fragmented into many small islands which form the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Mountain ranges form the northern part of the Rockies, the highest peak of which, Mount Robson, is 3954 m above sea-level. West of the Rockies stretches a vast plateau, crossed by many rivers and streams (River Yukon and its tributaries) and dotted with a multitude of lakes. Beyond, parallel to the coast, lies the chain of Coast Mountains (Mount Logan, 5959 m, in the Saint Elias Mountain range). The Appalachian Mountains are located in the south-east of the country (extending to the island of Newfoundland), while the valley of the River St. Lawrence, Canada’s most fertile area, which also has the highest population, separates the Canadian Shield from the Appalachians.
The largest rivers are the Yukon, the Fraser and the Columbia, which flow into the Pacific Ocean; the Mackenzie which flows into the Arctic Ocean; the Saskatchewan, which flows into Lake Winnipeg; the Churchill and the Nelson, whose waters flow into Hudson Bay, and the St. Lawrence, which flows out of Lake Ontario and into the Atlantic Ocean.
The climate is predominantly continental, with long, cold winters and short summers with light rainfall.


A federal state, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 and member of the British Commonwealth in 1926.
Its own Constitution was issued on 25 April 1982. There are ten provinces (each with its own legislative and executive bodies) and three territories. Since 1935 the country has been governed alternately by the Liberal Party (progressive) and the Reform Alliance Party (conservative).
To protect the indigenous minorities, on 1 April 1999, the autonomous territory of Nunavut was created (separated officially from the Northwest Territories), for the Inuit people to govern themselves. On 29 May 1993, a framework agreement was signed in response to the requests for independence made by the various indigenous communities of the Yukon. On 27 April 1999, a treaty was signed, assigning 2000 km2 of land to the Nisga’a people, over which they have considerable autonomy. A similar treaty was signed on 26 August 2003 with the Tlicho, to whom an area of 39 000 km2 was allocated.
The head of state is the British Sovereign, represented by a Governor General appointed on the recommendation of the Canadian Prime Minister. The government is accountable to Parliament, which is made up of two houses: the House of Commons (338 members, elected by direct suffrage, usually the house is dissolved after four years) and the Senate (105 members appointed by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and in office up to the age of 75 years).

Military service is voluntary.

The legal system is based on British Common Law, with the exception of the Province of Québec, where the organization is influenced by the French legal system.
The Supreme Court of Canada is based in Ottawa. Each province has its own Supreme Court as well as lower-level courts and its own police force. There is also a federal police force (the RCMP, Royal Canadian Mounted Police) which operates on a national level.

Air force30.2%2015
Crimes5 874per 100 000 pop.2019
Homicides1.8per 100 000 pop.2019

Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Toronto2 731 571inhab.2016
Montréal1 704 694inhab.2016
Urban agglomerations
Toronto6 555 205inhab.2020
Montréal4 364 189inhab.2020


Population by age and gender (% - 2020)

The population is centred in the southern part of the country, particularly in the Ontario and Québec areas close to the border with the US. The growth rate is positive, partly because of the contribution of immigrants (mainly from Asia).

Demographic statistics
Birth rate9.82020
Death rate8.22020
Ethnic groups


English (official)
French (official)
Population by selected age groups
0-14 years15.9%2020
15-29 years17.9%2020



Economic situation.
In 2021, the country came out of the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic; the rise in oil prices, which play an important role in the economy of the central western provinces, also supports the economic growth. The government, led by J. Trudeau, loosened its tight control over the budget to allow for an expansion in public spending, particularly investments in infrastructure, and to boost the economy. Stimulus measures were taken to provide credit and support families, whose debt is very high.

Economy - General data
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)113.12index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)110.63index2019
Economy - Employment
Active population19 896 600units2020
Active population, Females47.1%2020
Economy - Unemployment
Unemployment rate9.5%2020
Unemployment rate, Females46.6%2020
Economy - State budget
Expenses353 794M LCU2019
Revenues344 207M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
GDP by economic activity
Financial data
Currency in circulation106.925BN LCU2020
International reserves90 428.136M US$2020


Primary sector
Thanks to the high level of mechanization, farming is very productive and promotes substantial exports. Cereals are grown on a very large scale, especially wheat and oats (in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba), barley (Alberta and Saskatchewan), and maize (Ontario and Québec). Potatoes are grown only in New Brunswick, on Prince Edward Island and in Ontario. In the other Atlantic provinces the predominant crops are flax (Canada is the world’s largest producer of linseed), soya (Ontario), rapeseed (Saskatchewan, Alberta), blueberries, sugar beet and tobacco.

Forest covers about one third of the land. The most common tree species is spruce, followed by pine, cedar, birch and maple. Canada’s large cover of forest, exploited in a sustainable manner, has created a flourishing timber industry (solid wood and wood pulp).
Livestock and fishing.
Intensive livestock farming, particularly of cattle and pigs, is practised mainly in the provinces of Alberta, Québec, Ontario, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Rearing and, on a smaller scale, hunting animals for their pelts, particularly minks and silver foxes, are practiced.
Cod, salmon and sole fishing is very important (along the fragmented Pacific coast), as well as lobster, prawns, crab, halibut, pollack, cod and shellfish (on the Atlantic coast), whitefish, pike, perch, trout and sturgeon (in the lakes). Fish farming is also widespread (mussels, oysters, salmon and perch).

Land use
arable land4.342%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
barley10 382.61000 t2019
cereals, total61 134.51000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
potatoes5 409.7391000 t2019
roots and tubers, total5 409.7391000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
asparagus10.2351000 t2019
cabbages170.6381000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
beans, dry316.81000 t2019
beans, green67.3691000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Grape
grapes115.4981000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
rapeseed18 648.81000 t2019
soybeans6 045.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
mustard seed134.61000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
hops0$1000 t2017
sugar beet903.81000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Flax
linseed486.11000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
apples377.9291000 t2019
apricots0.9821000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Others
mushrooms145.6311000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
barley2 727.51000 ha2019
maize1 451.21000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
potatoes138.3391000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
cabbages5.9161000 ha2019
carrots and turnips7.9431000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
beans, dry150.21000 ha2019
beans, green7.8421000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Grape
grape11.8861000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
rapeseed8 319.21000 ha2019
soybeans2 270.51000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
mustard seed154.71000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
hops0$1000 ha2017
sugar beet12.41000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Flax
linseed339.31000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
apples15.2341000 ha2019
apricots0.1121000 ha2019


timber145 167 8012019
Livestock - Cattle
cattle11 5001000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes11 5001000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
pigs14 399.3391000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
sheep827.81000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
goats30.0711000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
asses and mules4$1000 heads2019
equines, total402.7011000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
birds178 9511000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
honey80.3451000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
butter116.1441000 t2018
cheese593.0781000 t2018
crustaceans and molluscs407 603t2019
freshwater fishes20 519.722t2019


Secondary sector
Canada is extremely rich in mineral and energy resources. Oil extraction from oil shales (Alberta) put the country in first place worldwide for oil deposits in the early 21st century. The largest coal deposits are at Castor, Drumheller, Pembina, Sheerness, Crowsnest, Mountain Park, Coalspur, Alix, Camrose and Lethbridge (Alberta); Cape Breton Island and areas of Cumberland, Sydney and Pictou (Nova Scotia); Crowsnest and Vancouver (British Columbia); Minto, Chipman and Coal Creek (New Brunswick); Bienfait and Estevan (Saskatchewan).
There are important oil reserves at Swan Hills, Bonnie Glen, Mitsue, Zama, Rainbow Lake, Utikuma Lake, Redwater, Leduc-Woodbend, Pembina, Kaybob, Sylvan Lake, Medicine River, Deer Mountain and Goose River (all in Alberta), at Boundary Lake and Peejay (in British Columbia), at Midale, Dodsland and Weyburn (in Saskatchewan) and at Hartney in (Manitoba). There are many oil pipelines, the most important of which are those from Alberta’s oil fields to the US, Edmonton-Vancouver, Edmonton-Montréal. In areas with oil reserves, natural gas is also extracted. The largest field is at Medicine Hat, in Alberta, known as “Natural Gas City”. Other places where natural gas is produced include Martin Hills, Edson, Olds, Hussar, Cessford, Provost, Viking-Kinsella and Kessler; in Saint John (New Brunswick) there is a regasification plant. Canada is also a large producer of uranium and radium: the most important mines are in Saskatchewan (Cigar Lake, Key Lake, McArthur River, McClean Lake, Rabbit Lake). Lithium reserves are also significant (Québec).
Canada has deposits of almost all minerals. Nickel is mined in the district of Sudbury (Totten, Copper Cliff North, Kirkwood, Coleman, Little Stobie, Frood Stobie, Garson, Levack, Murray and Clarabelle), at Lynn Lake, Thompson, Creighton, Birchtree, Soab (in Manitoba) and near Voisey’s Bay. Iron is mined at Algoma and Steep Rock (in Ontario), Burnt Creek, Lake Carol, Wabush, Mount Wright, Schefferville and Québec Cartier (in Labrador), Michipicoten (a small island on Lake Superior), Quinsam Lake (Vancouver Island) and at Wabana (on Belle Isle, Newfoundland). There are considerable deposits of gold (at Kirkland Lake, Porcupine, Bourlamaque and Yellowknife), silver (at Cobalt and Atlin), platinum (at Sudbury), palladium (Lac des Iles) and diamonds, which are found in the territory of Nunavut (at Ekati, Diavik, Jerico and Snap Lake).
Other minerals mined are cobalt, lead (Nelson and Atlin, in British Columbia), zinc (at Amos, Mattagami and Rouyn in Québec, at Flin Flon in Manitoba, at Nelson, Riondel, Kimberley, Salmo, Remac and Windermere in British Columbia, at Timmins in Ontario, at Buchans in Newfoundland and at Bathurst in New Brunswick), copper (Sherridon and Flin Flon in Manitoba, Noranda in Québec, Geco, North Coldstream, Willroy and Kam-Kotia in Ontario, at River Jordan, Benson Lake, Britannia Beach, Merritt, Greenwood and Highland Valley in British Columbia, and on the Gaspé Peninsula). Large deposits of zinc, copper and silver are also found at Timmins, in Ontario. Other minerals include molybdenum (in British Columbia), tin, tungsten (Yukon), antimony (Lake George), bismuth (Pressiac Township and Trail), selenium, titanium (Allard Lake and St. Urbain), niobium and tantalum (Lake Bernic) and mica. Canada is one of the world’s leading producers of sulfur (a by-product from the processing of pyrites and natural gas) and potassium chloride (at Regina, Pine Point and Esterhazy). Rock salt is extracted in Alberta, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Québec and Saskatchewan.
Most of the energy produced comes from exploiting the country’s huge hydro-electric potential. The James Bay Project (Québec) and Churchill Falls (Québec) are two of the largest power plants. Mostly in Ontario, there are 19 active nuclear reactors, based on CANDU technology, which has been developed independently and sold abroad. Thermal power plants are located at Lennox (Ontario) and Wabamun (Alberta).
The most important segments of industry are those associated with the exploitation of natural resources, but hi-tech sectors are also expanding, including IT and electronics (Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto and Montréal), aerospace (Québec and Montréal), engineering with hi-tech materials, bio-technologies, healthcare products and telecommunications. In addition, Vancouver now claims to be the third-largest hub in North America for films and television (after Los Angeles and New York). The metal-working industry produces cast iron and iron alloys, with steelworks (at Hamilton), zinc foundries (at Trail, Valleyfield, Flin Flon and Timmins), copper foundries (at Noranda, Montréal-East, Copper Cliff, Coniston, Flin Flon, Falconbridge and Murdochville), tough copper plants (at Montréal and Copper Cliff), lead and casting lead plants (at Trail, Belledune Point, Calgary and Montréal), nickel plants (at Thompson, Port Colborne, Falconbridge, Fort Saskatchewan, Coniston, Copper Cliff and Sherritt Gordon), cadmium processing (at Flin Flon, Trail and Valleyfield), and cobalt processing (at Port Colborne, Thompson, Cobalt and Fort Saskatchewan). Canada is one of the world’s leading aluminium producers, with plants (at Arvida, Kitimat, Isle Maligne, Shawinigan and Beauharnois) which process imported bauxite. There are oil refineries at Lloydminster, Edmonton and Scotford (in Alberta); Burnaby, Price George (in British Columbia); St. John (in New Brunswick); Dartmouth (in Nova Scotia); Sarnia, Nanticoke, Oakville, Clarkson (in Ontario); Lévis, Montréal (Québec); Regina (in Saskatchewan); Come By Chance (Newfoundland).
Chemical companies tend to produce fertilizers (at Sarnia, Welland, Port Maitland, Fort Saskatchewan, Trail, Calgary, Redwater and Brandon), ammonia (at Trail), synthetic rubber, plastic materials and resins, helium (at Swift Current, in Saskatchewan) and chlorine. The industry associated with forest exploitation is very important. Production plants making cellulose, wood pulp and paper are concentrated in Québec, Ontario and British Columbia. Ottawa is one of the world’s largest trading centres for timber. Montréal, Toronto and Kitchener are important for the furniture industry. Canada is one of the world’s top producers of groundwood pulp and chemical pulp. Companies in the sector are moving towards developing activities with a high degree of added value (such as components for furniture, prefabricated houses).
The automotive industry is based in Ontario, with plants at Alliston, Brampton, Cambridge, Ingersoll, Oakville, Oshawa, Windsor and Woodstock. Montréal, Rivière-du-Loup, Winnipeg and Calgary are important railway construction centres. There are shipyards at Lauzon, Halifax, Sydney, Victoria, Vancouver and Montréal. The textile industry is based in Québec where the processing of cotton predominates, but also of silk and yarns in general (at factories in Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Drummondville, Trois-Rivières, Shawinigan Falls, Sherbrooke, Magog and Valleyfield). In Ontario there are many woollen mills, knitwear companies and carpet factories (in Toronto, Hamilton, Woodstock, London, Galt, Ingersoll, Briantford, Niagara Falls, Saint Catharines, Kingston and Peterborough). Artificial textile fibres are produced in Cornwall, Drummondville and Edmonton. Synthetic fibres are made in the valley of the St. Lawrence (at Drummondville, Ste.-Thérèse, Richmond and Cornwall) and in Ontario (at Millhaven, Galt, Brantford, Kingston, Cobourg and Welland).

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
coal50 677.91000 t2019
coal, total39 550.31000 t2020
Mineral resources - Metal ores
antimony0.0011000 t2020
bismuth0.0251000 t2019
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
asbestos50$1000 t2011
barite40$1000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
limestone1 7001000 t2020
silicates57$1000 t2020
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
diamonds17 0001000 ct2020
gold170 000kg2020


Electric energy - Generated
- hydro377 979.03M kWh2019
- thermal113 726.84M kWh2019
Electric energy - Installed capacity
- hydro81 3861000 kW2019
- thermal34 6311000 kW2018
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
total net generation632 302M kWh2019
total installed capacity147 8111000 kW2018


Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
alumina1 5001000 t2020
aluminium3 1001000 t2020
Industry - Machinery and transport equipment
cars327 681no.2020
commercial vehicles1 048 942no.2020
Industry - Petrochemicals
bitumen5 4201000 t2018
petrol37 942.41000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
ammonia4 887.11000 t2020
caustic soda514.81000 t2011
Industry - Clothing and footwear
footwear7 638 500pairs2004
Industry - Food and beverages
beer of barley2 1651000 t2018
fish, frozen98$1000 t2003
Industry - Tobacco
cigarettes18 511.6M units2020
cigars3.5M units2020
Industry - Paper and wood products
chemical pulp9 0211000 t2019
chemi-mechanical pulp16 1951000 t2019
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
cement13 5541000 t2018
Industry - Various
chemicals production16 008.76M US$2017
food, beverages and tobacco production27 770.831M US$2017


Tertiary sector
Foreign trade.
Canada is a world leader in terms of international trade; the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the European Union is active from 2017. It is the largest exporter of timber for the construction industry, wood pulp, paper, aluminium, uranium, oil, chemicals, machinery, vehicles and agricultural commodities. The main imports are vehicles and spare parts, industrial machinery, chemicals, food products, computers, oil and consumer durables. The USA, Canada’s main trading partner, absorbs approximately 75% of its total exports (especially hydrocarbons, uranium, electricity).

Main exports (M US$ - 2017) crude oil 54 055, cars 46 527, machinery 32 394, vehicles and parts thereof 15 930, timber 14 095, gold 13 224, electric and electronic appliances 12 973, plastics 12 595, petroleum products 12 300, iron and steel 11 608, natural gas 10 302, aluminium 9 823, aircraft and parts thereof 9 692, chemicals 9 334, oil seeds 7 865, paper and paperboard 7 227, metal ores 6 997

Finance and banking.
The Canadian banking system withstood the global financial crisis of 2008-09 better than other developed countries, thanks to the high level of capitalization and a cautious credit policy. The central bank is the Bank of Canada. The First National Bank has been entrusted with the task of funding investments in Amerindian and Inuit communities. The Toronto and Montréal stock exchange, which are part of the TMX Group.

Composition of goods exports
manufactures47.91% of goods exports2019
fuels24.044% of goods exports2019
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
United States286 020M US$2020
China18 827M US$2020
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
United States197 593M US$2020
China57 221M US$2020
Merchandise Export
2020390 668M US$ -
2019446 585M US$ -
Merchandise Import
2020413 706M US$ -
2019463 786M US$ -


Tourism. Tourism, especially in Canada’s great national parks, is supported by marketing activities and excellent facilities. Most of Canada’s tourists come from the USA.

International Tourism
Expenditures35 314M US$2019
Number of arrivals22 145 000units2019


The transport system, which has been developed particularly between east and west, is well integrated with the American transport network. The railway network is based on two large trans-continental systems (the Canadian National Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway), plus a company specialised in passenger transport (VIA Rail Canada) and other minor companies. The trans-continental motorway (the Trans-Canada Highway), connecting Saint John’s (in Newfoundland) to Vancouver, with extensions to Alaska and the north, deserves special mention. The air transport system is based on a network of about 1400 airports.

Communication - Transport
Civil aviation, km flown935 600 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried93 3521000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
Broadband subscribers408.262per 1000 pop.2019
Computers943.4per 1000 pop.2008

Social and welfare

Education and research.

Individual provinces are responsible for providing education. School is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15 or 18 (according to the province). Primary education lasts between six and eight years, followed by between four and six years of secondary studies. In Québec, students who speak French have the right to be taught in their own language. There are similar guarantees for other ethnic minorities (Amerindians and the Inuit).

Social security and health.
The Federal Government administers the retirement pension system and provides support for families and the unemployed. Healthcare is free for everyone and is the responsibility of the provinces and the territories.

Social statistics - Education
Expected years of schooling16.225years2018
Gradautes, percentage59.375%2019
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
Students, primary level2 407 006units2018
Students, secondary level2 654 199units2018
Social statistics - Social protection
Social protection spending30.1% of total expenses2007
Social protection spending17.985% of GDP2018
Social statistics - Health
Hospital beds2.52per 1000 pop.2019
Physicians2.74per 1000 pop.2019
Social statistics - Diseases
HIV0.3% of adults2011
HIV, total0.2%2001
Museums1 476units2002-03
Museums, visitors27 840 000units2002-03
Research and development spending1.543% of GDP2019
Other social indicators
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking100%2019
Access to electricity100%2019
Household consumption expenditure
clothing, footwear4.8%2019