Form of Government: Republic
Area: 475 650 sq km
Population: 26 545 864 inhab. (estimate 2020)
Density: 55.81 inhab./sq km
Coordinates: lat. 13° - 2° N; long. 9° - 16° E
Capital: Yaoundé (capital) 1 801 000 inhab. (2010); Yaoundé 3 655 656 inhab. (2018), urban agglomeration
Currency: CFA franc (100 centimes)
Human development index: 0.563 (rank: 153)
President: Paul Biya (RDPC), since 6 November 1982, last re-elected 7 October 2018
Prime Minister: Joseph Ngute (RDPC), since 4 January 2019
National Assembly: seats based on the elections of 9 February 2020: CPDM (Cameroon People's Democratic Movement), 139; others, 28; vacant, 13
Internet: //ins-cameroun.cm (Institut National de la Statistique)
Member of AU, CEMAC, Commonwealth, OIC, UN, WTO

Cameroon

Cameroun, Cameroon, République du Cameroun, Republic of Cameroon
Useful information

International license plate code CAM
International dialling code 00237
Travel vaccinations requirement yellow fever (required); malaria prophylaxis (recommended)
Electricity (Voltage) 220
Driving side rigth
Internet code .cm

GMT  +1
DST  not applied
Annual average temperature (°C) Yaoundé 23.3
Average temperature in January/July (°C) Yaoundé 24/22
Daily sunshine hours in June/December (average) Yaoundé 4/6
Annual average precipitation (mm) Yaoundé 1542
Days of rainfall (annual average) Yaoundé 130

Geography.
Cameroon is bordered by Nigeria to the north and west, Chad to the north-east, the Central African Republic to the east, and by Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea to the south. Cameroon faces out to the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) to the west and Lake Chad to the north. Mount Cameroon (4095 m) rises proud on the flat coastal strip, and the coastal strip then leads into the Adamawa plateau that slopes down from north to south. The country is crossed by the River Sanaga and the River Nyong to the south and the River Benue to the north.
The climate is equatorial, humid along the coast, and tropical inland with savannah areas to the north. The border with Nigeria was altered in 2002-03 by the International Court of Justice in The Hague, which assigned the Bakassi peninsula and roughly 1000 km2 of land to the north, in the Lake Chad area, to Cameroon.

Government


Formerly a German protectorate, what we know now as present-day Cameroon was divided in 1920 between France and the United Kingdom, originally under a League of Nations mandate and then as a United Nations Trusteeship.
The Republic of Cameroon came into being on 1 October 1961 with the reunification of the French part (which had already achieved independence on 1 January 1960) and the southern part of the British territory. The northern section of the British territory was unified with Nigeria. In 1972, modifications to the original federal organization gave the country a unified structure. Despite the opening up of the political system to multi-party elections (in 1990), the original party of the single party state (CPDM) has maintained a tight grip over the leadership of the country.
In the English-speaking west, there are active secessionist movements; rebel groups in the Bakassi peninsula have been responsible for carrying out armed attacks and kidnappings; in the north, incursions take place by Islamic militants from Nigeria. The president, who enjoys ample executive powers, is elected by direct suffrage for a seven-year term. The Parliament consists of the National Assembly (180 members elected by direct suffrage) and the Senate (70 members elected by the municipal councils and 30 elected by the president), each of which has a five-year term.

Defence
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Air force2.8%2015
Army88$%2015
Justice
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Homicides5.9per 100 000 pop.2015
Police personnel17.3per 100 000 pop.2013
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Administrative division

Administrative divisions
Cities
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Douala2 125 000inhab.2010
Yaoundé1 801 000inhab.2010
Urban agglomerations
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Yaoundé3 655 656inhab.2018
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Population

Population by age and gender (% - 2020)
75+
60-74
45-59
30-44
15-29
0-14
MALEAGEFEMALE

Bantu tribes are main inhabitants of the south of the country; Islamized Sudanese groups are spread throughout the centre and centre-north, while small groups of pygmies live in the equatorial forests.

Demographic statistics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Birth rate34.8912019
Death rate9.0592019
Ethnic groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
other35.8%1983
Fang20$%1983


Religions
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Catholic38.3%2010
Protestant31.4%2010


Languages
DESCRIPTION
Bantu
English (official)
Population by selected age groups
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
0-14 years42.3%2020
15-29 years28$%2020


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Economy

Economy - General data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Agricultural prod. index (2004-06=100)175.16index2016
Agricultural prod. index (2014-16=100)107.16index2019
Economy - Employment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Active population11 679 000units2020
Active population, Females47$%2020
Economy - Unemployment
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Unemployment rate3.6%2020
Unemployment rate, Females53.9%2019
Economy - State budget
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenses4 235 000M LCU2019
Revenues3 716 000M LCU2019
Employment by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture43.4%2019
industry15$%2019
GDP by economic activity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
agriculture15.893%2019
industry28.144%2019
Financial data
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Currency in circulation1 250.7BN LCU2018
International reserves3 459.3M US$2018
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Agriculture


Primary sector.
The principal export crops are cocoa, cotton (from North and Far North regions), bananas, coffee (Nkongsamba area and in the centre-south), and palm oil (South-West, Littoral, Centre). Pineapples, tomatoes and peanuts are also produced. Subsistence agriculture (cassava, bananas, maize, taro, sorghum, yams, beans, rice, potatoes and sweet potatoes) is more widely practiced in inland regions. As a whole, the country has achieved self-sufficiency in terms of food. The forests supply several valuable kinds of wood (ebony, okoumé, mahogany and iroko). The main products of the transformation industry are palm oil and rubber (Dizangué plantation near Edea). The large numbers and variety of animals raised helps to satisfy the demand for food.

Land use
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
arable land16.395%2018
forests43.266%2018
Agriculture - products - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cereals, total3 945.6821000 t2019
maize2 309.5351000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava6 092.5491000 t2019
potatoes363.5561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages73.7431000 t2019
chillies and peppers66.8561000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry413.7231000 t2019
beans, green4.9251000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts5001000 t2019
sesame seed70$1000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruits2 165.4871000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts3.9451000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa2801000 t2019
coffee28.0581000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane1 285.7691000 t2019
tobacco6.8191000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton322.4641000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.1071000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apricots1.1461000 t2019
figs0.1011000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.1851000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Citrus fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
citrus fruits0.1971000 t2019
citrus fruits, nes0.081000 t2019
Agriculture - products - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados74.6681000 t2019
bananas1 207.3751000 t2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cereals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
maize1 420.0181000 ha2019
millet75.0631000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Roots and tubers
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cassava407.0171000 ha2019
potatoes21.4711000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Vegetables
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cabbages2.411000 ha2019
chillies and peppers30.3781000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Pulses
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beans, dry307.021000 ha2019
beans, green0.7741000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oilcrops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
groundnuts4451000 ha2019
sesame seed54$1000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Oil palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
oil palm fruit1551000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Coconut palm
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
coconuts1.5671000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Aromatics
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cocoa672.7451000 ha2019
coffee89.8981000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Industrial crops
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sugar cane135.8141000 ha2019
tobacco4.1821000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Cotton
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
seed cotton2501000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fiber plants
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
jute0.2961000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
apricots0.2141000 ha2019
figs0.0351000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Nuts
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
hazelnuts0.1641000 ha2019
Agriculture - areas harvested - Tropical fruits
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
avocados16.2981000 ha2019
bananas91.9751000 ha2019
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Forests-Livestock-Fishing

Forestry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural rubber50 521t2019
timber14 477 7982019
Livestock - Cattle
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cattle5 770.1791000 heads2019
cattle and buffaloes5 770.1791000 heads2019
Livestock - Pigs
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
pigs1 960.0261000 heads2019
Livestock - Sheep
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
sheep3 434.8811000 heads2019
Livestock - Goats
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
goats5 548.7491000 heads2019
Livestock - Equines
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
asses40.0561000 heads2019
asses and mules40.0561000 heads2019
Livestock - Poultry
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
birds55 1161000 heads2019
Livestock - Beekeeping
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
honey4.6331000 t2019
Livestock - Livestock products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
eggs18.7961000 t2019
hides and skins15.981000 t2019
Fishing
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
crustaceans and molluscs43 880.039t2019
freshwater fishes33 485t2019
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Minerals


Secondary and tertiary sector.

Crude oil is extracted in the Logone-Birni basin and from offshore reserves at Bibundi, Kombo, Boa, Bakassi, Kole, Bavo, Mokoko, Abana and Moudi, and a refinery operates in Limbe.
A 1070 km oil pipeline carries crude oil extracted in Chad to the Cameroonian port of Kribi, which is being expanded. Natural gas, extracted at Douala, Sanaga, Kribi and Moudi, feeds the Kribi power station and the liquefaction terminal off the city. Bauxite deposits are found around Bamileke and Martap, iron ore is found around Kribi, cassiterite around Garoua and Banyo, gold around Bétaré-Oya and Batouri, diamonds around Limokoali and Mobilong. Most of the electricity produced is hydro-electric with dams and power plants at Edea, Song Loulou, Lagdo and Lom Pangar (under construction).
The aluminium industry located in Edea is of importance as are chemicals (in Bonabéri), petrochemicals (in Limbe), the mechanical sector and textile plants (at Doula, Maroua and Garoua) as well tanneries at Ngaoundéré. A hub of technological innovation has been developed in the Buéa area. Other industrial activities have to do with the pressing of oleaginous seeds (at Kaélé), cotton shelling (at Maroua), rubber, cocoa and tobacco processing (at Yaoundé), sugar production (at Mbandjock and Nkoteng), paper mills at Edéa and cement works (at Douala, Figuil and Yaoundé). The country’s main trading partners are the EU member states. The CFA franc is pegged to the Euro at a fixed rate of exchange.

Mineral resources - Energy minerals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
natural gas2 382M m³2019
oil, crude3 3251000 t2020
Mineral resources - Non-metal ores
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clay8$1000 t2018
kyanite0.21000 t2019
Mineral resources - Rocks
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
granite1.81000 t2014
kaolin22$1000 t2016
Mineral resources - Precious metals and stones
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
diamonds1.81000 ct2018
gold1 000kg2018
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Energy

Electric energy - Generated
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- hydro5 340M kWh2019
- thermal3 331.36M kWh2018
Electric energy - Installed capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
- thermal1 2151000 kW2018
- hydro7921000 kW2019
Electric energy - Total production and capacity
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
total net generation8 363.13M kWh2018
total installed capacity1 9791000 kW2018
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Industry

Industry - Iron and Steel, Metallurgy
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
aluminium70$1000 t2019
Industry - Petrochemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
petrol9821000 t2014
Industry - Chemicals
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
soap32.71000 t2009
Industry - Textiles
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cotton fabrics0.02M m²2005
cotton fabrics - m8.9M m2003
Industry - Food and beverages
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
beer of barley6001000 t2018
coconut oil0.7081000 t2018
Industry - Tobacco
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cigarettes1 755M units2005
cigarettes - t0.21000 t2009
Industry - Glass and other non-metallic mineral products
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
cement2 9001000 t2018
Industry - Various
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
manufacturing production5 738.286M US$2020
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Trade

Composition of goods exports
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
fuels43.449% of goods exports2017
food products21.937% of goods exports2017
International trade by country - Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Spain928M US$2006
Italy870M US$2007
International trade by country - Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
France773M US$2007
Nigeria735M US$2006
Merchandise Export
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20203 656M US$ -
20194 411M US$ -
Merchandise Import
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
20205 364M US$ -
20195 646M US$ -
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Tourism

International Tourism
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expenditures984M US$2019
Number of arrivals997 000units2018
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Communications


The main rail line is the Trans Cameroon railway which links Douala with Ngaoundéré. The River Benue is an important waterway for trade with Nigeria.

Communication - Transport
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Civil aviation, km flown10 800 000km flown2004
Civil aviation, passengers carried198.91000 units2019
Communication - Media and telecommunication
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Broadband subscribers15.494per 1000 pop.2019
Computers11.2per 1000 pop.2005
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Social and welfare

Social statistics - Education
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Expected years of schooling12.104years2016
Graduates69 195units2017
Social statistics - Students and Teachers by level
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Students, primary level4 201 988units2018
Students, secondary level2 206 878units2016
Social statistics - Health
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Hospital beds1.3per 1000 pop.2010
Physicians0.09per 1000 pop.2011
Social statistics - Diseases
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
HIV3.1% of adults2019
HIV, total6$%2001
Museums
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Museums76$units2013
Other social indicators
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking21.9%2019
Access to electricity63.452%2019
Household consumption expenditure
DESCRIPTIONVALUEUNITSYEAR
clothing, footwear13.1%2004
food, non-alcoholic beverages44.1%2004
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